rss_2.0Ars Aeterna FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Ars Aeterna Aeterna Feed!: Whisper cycle in John Crowley’s rendition of Samuel Beckett’s Go<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Samuel Beckett’s Come and Go (1965) is about three women whose conversations are both audible and inaudible due to each one’s whispering whenever two of them are alone and the other is out of sight. This paper focuses on the film version of</italic> Come and Go – <italic>directed by John Crowley in 2000</italic> – <italic>as part of the Beckett on</italic> Film <italic>project, which transferred Beckett’s 19 stage-plays to the screen. Drawing upon Mladen Dolar’s theorization of the object voice, this paper aims to analyse how Crowley renders Beckett accessible for contemporary audiences in cinematic terms, with a specific focus on the whisper scenes</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue diaspora: Negotiating food, culture and women in select Indian diasporic novels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>This article revisits two well-known novels in Indian diasporic writing</italic>, Anita and Me <italic>(1996) by Meera Syal and</italic> The Namesake <italic>(2003) by Jhumpa Lahiri, to examine the cultural agents behind the formation and sustenance of the Indian diaspora. The article first establishes the multivalence of food to understand Indian literature and culture and then contextualizes the novel into the tradition of Indian diasporic food writing. By focusing on the culinary discourses in the novel, the article argues that Indian women employ their culinary strategies and ingenuities to produce a cultural version of Indianness, central to the construction of the Indian diaspora. The article draws the theoretical framework from Anita Mannur’s postcolonial concept of “kitchen Indians” to unravel the structural working of gender roles that operate at the foundation of the Indian diaspora</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue foreign atmosphere of Africa as part of magical expression in the fiction of Marek Vadas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>The prosaist Marek Vadas is a contemporary Slovak writer who has won several literary prizes. A unique part of his bibliography is represented by short stories inspired by African culture and environment. The main objective of this paper is to analyse via interpretation these stories and to prove the role of the African environment in the process of creating the magical as a quality of expression. Stories from the following collections are looked at:</italic> Liečitef’, Čierne na čiernom, <italic>and</italic> Zlá štvrt’. <italic>The methodological approach of the interpretation is based on the theory of František Miko and his system of expression categories. The portrayed image of Africa interpreted in this contribution proceeds from Vadas’s personal experience. We conclude that the unique African element in his work adds to the magical quality of expression, which is based on the coaction of several elements: different cultural experience, thematic scheme, blend of multiple qualities of expression and of compositional techniques. The final magical quality of expression represents the specificity of Vadas’s writing style</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue imagination as a source of the culture of neural networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study represents a partial output of research on the culture of artificial neural networks, as the authors call the cultural complex, in which a number of different actants participate (technologies, their users, results of the generation process, their recipients, media, etc.) and which is constituted by language games that have a performative function. The aim of this study is to conduct a media-archaeological insight into the imaginative layer of these language games and to point out that one of the sources of neural network culture is precisely the deeply historically anchored technological imagination. The genealogy of this imagination is traced in the study from its ancient origins to the 1950s, when the idea of the artificial mind was transformed into a scientific theorem and founded the research field of artificial intelligence. In this way, the paper draws attention to the fact that when we think and talk about artificial intelligence, we are talking about a set of imaginations that should not be confused with reality, but rather treated as technological fictions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hillbilly Stereotype in Horror Comics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>From William Byrd’s 18th-century “lubbers” of the North Carolina backcountry through the deviant gun-toting hicks with missing teeth from John Boorman’s survival thriller</italic> Deliverance <italic>(1972) to Darlene Snell from Netflix’s recent crime drama series</italic> Ozark <italic>(2016), the stereotype of the “hillbilly” has been one of the most pervasive images in American popular culture. This image has been usually associated with mountaineers inhabiting either the Appalachians or the Ozarks, and it has portrayed them as dirty, lazy, ignorant, often mean, violent and dangerous. Since the beginning of the 20th century, it has been popularized by film, music, and, starting with the Depression Era, also by comic strips such as Al Capp’s</italic> Li’l Abner, <italic>which shaped all subsequent depictions of these mountain folk. This article considers the depiction of hillbillies in comics with a focus on horror comics published by EC in the early 1950s.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue “own” vs the “foreign” in the German translation of Pavol Rankov’s novel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>The paper deals with cultural phenomena</italic> – <italic>realia and precedent phenomena</italic> – <italic>in the novel by contemporary Slovak author Pavol Rankov:</italic> Svätý mäsiar zo Šamorína a iné príbehy z čias Malej dunajskej vojny <italic>[The Holy Butcher of Šamorín and Other Stories from the Time of the Lesser Danube War, 2016] and in its German translation</italic> Der Kleine Donaukrieg <italic>(2022). The novel depicts a fictional war between Slovakia and Hungary, with its specific feature being the clash of several cultures and linguo-cultural spaces (Slovak, Hungarian, Roma, Czech) on the linguistic and extra-linguistic levels. The paper presents an interpretative probe into the analysed novel as well as a theoretical definition of the types of cultural phenomena in translation communication, focusing on the ambiguity of the rendering and definition of the “own” and “foreign” in a literary text. In the comparative analysis of the original work and its German translation, we focus on the interpretative, receptive and translational specificities of realia and precedent phenomena reflecting the Roma and Slovak linguo-cultural space</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue cognition and interpretation of the fantastic in Virginia Hamilton’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fantasy requires a probabilistic theory of reasoning to explore how it enables the observer to create mental images from uncertainty. This study proposes a quantum cognitive approach to fantasy used for disclosing mental models of the character in uncertainty. For the uncertain individual, there exists a multiplicity of mentally incompatible but equally valid and complete representations (mental pictures) of the world. Contextualizing fantasy within the quantum cognitive principles, the novel <italic>Sweet Whispers, Brother Rush</italic> (1982) by Virginia Hamilton has been taken into consideration. In this novel the hesitation between psychological and supernatural explanations interrupts the predictive power about the real and affects mental models or cognitive states of the young character of the novel as the observer. The process of representing fantasy through complementarity, one of the quantum cognitive principles, shows that fantasy is a mixed state with a familiar probabilistic combination of states which reflect incomplete knowledge. The quantum principle of superposition has been used to explain the way an introspective mental experiment is initiated by the observer but not completed. The decision made by the observer is not a deterministic process that converges to a single mental representation. Rather it can evolve forever. To sum up, this article marks how quantum cognition can describe the uncertainty principle both on an emotional-behavioural and structural level when the observer entangles themselves within the irreducible indeterminacy of reality within fantasy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Signals and Janosik. Braided Lives of Heroic Outlaws in Cinema. On the Notions of Origin and Identity. (1998) and (1921)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses the idea of origin, and the cinematic representation as a means of expression for specific cultural identity. Deriving its theoretical background from the understanding of cultural memory by Assman (1995, via Warburg, 1924 - 1929), and the concept of cultural identity as hybrid (Hall, 1998) the paper argues that the films Jánošík (1921), and Smoke Signals (1998) are examples of sovereign cinematic representations of respective cultural identities (Slovak, and Native American), and both construct cultural identity as hybrid, standing in between, or embracing multiple discourses. Through the depiction of their characters, and opening scenes the article examines the complexity of the film representations as they compromise or subvert existing stereotypes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Wilde’s ideal woman: Constructing Victorian upper-class female identity in Wilde’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the definition of the Victorian upper-class woman in the context of Oscar Wilde’s Lady Windermere’s Fan, in light of the prevailing gender roles and conventions of the late Victorian era. Drawing upon Judith Butler’s theories of sex and gender, this study investigates Victorian female subjectivity in terms of the power dynamics between men and women. Drawing upon Butlerian analyses of sex and gender, this paper has explored two divergent representations of upper-class female subjectivity in the Victorian period. The representation of intelligible-gendered identities in the Duchess of Berwick is a key point of consideration when examining Victorian upper-class female subjects. In contrast, Mrs. Erlynne serves as an example of an unintelligible-gendered character, allowing for an exploration of the ramifications of challenging the prevailing power structure. In this article, it is demonstrated that Wilde’s female ideal is neither definitively intelligible-gendered nor unintelligible-gendered; rather, she is a figure who resists power and reacts to any perceived threats to her social standing. This article posits that Wilde’s ideal woman is a semi-intelligible-gendered identity. Furthermore, it is suggested that, despite his advocacy of Women’s rights, Wilde still endorses certain gender roles and binary oppositions between the sexes, one of which is the role of motherhood. Wilde illustrates a scenario in which breaking away from these social conventions would lead to a tragic end which no woman is able to escape.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue blood motif in culture-forming narratives: Morphology and semantics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper seeks to explore the motif of blood, as it appears in various forms in all civilizational and cultural areas. Based on the genre- and culturally diverse texts from the material sample, the authors will present the basic and plot-motif stable forms of the blood motif in ancient culture-forming narratives and outline their archetypal significance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ghosts of the Disappeared: On Re-Reading and “Post”-Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Given how rapidly the still-ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has receded from the public consciousness since 2021, the time is ripe to revisit how Samuel Beckett’s <italic>Waiting for Godot</italic> and Carlos Fuentes’s Aura inform our present historical moment, particularly since both texts are concerned with the large-scale disappearance, erasure and repression of the mass-dead by statist economic interests in the wake of national traumas – post-Vichy France and post-Famine Ireland in the case of Beckett, and the French Intervention and the Spanish Conquest in the case of Mexico. Yet these two seminal works are not only concerned with how statist interests erase their dead, but how these same dead continue to haunt, influence and impact these same nations despite – or even because of – their erasure. As we are once again recognizing in our own “post”-pandemic moment, just because the dead have been erased, that by no means signifies they are silent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue violence in William Shakespeare’s : From the theatrics of the mind, the image and the stage to the creation of the meta-self<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Violence in William Shakespeare’s <italic>Hamlet</italic> follows stage-managed theatrics at the level of the language and images used, the construction of a theatre that comments on theatre, and of staged minds. The theatrics of images, sound, stage and mind are necessary steps for Hamlet to create a meta-self. Metatheatre and the grotesque are deeply connected to violence; their association makes what the research calls the meta-self. The article combines different theoretical concepts not commonly used simultaneously. The alliance between the carnivalesque and the metatheatrical reveals the theatrics of the stage while dealing with violence. The theatrics of violence are present at the level of performance, language and images. The dynamics of violence constructed upon theatrics and staging prove that the mind of Hamlet is staged. Baudrillard’s concepts of “hyperreality”, “traversing the self” and “holographic attempts” allow us to conclude that Hamlet reaches a “meta-self”. The Meta-self is a traversing self that challenges society and mocks over-confidence; it operates as a mirror, a crossing-thinking self in constant rehearsal and reassessment of the certitudes of humans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue“Philip Marlowe in drag?” – The construct of the hard-boiled detective in feminist appropriation and translation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Hard-nosed female investigators Sara Lund and Saga Norén from the extraordinarily successful Scandinavian TV crime series The Killing and The Bridge are the latest examples of female hard-boiled detectives - dysfunctional loners who solve crimes where no one else succeeds. This article looks at the character construct of the hard-boiled male detective, maps these tropes against social expectations of gender norms and then considers how Sara Paretsky constructs an explicitly feminist “tough guy” private eye in V.I. Warshawski. It then analyses how Paretsky’s negotiation and partial subversion of the tropes of the hard-boiled genre are handled in translation, drawing on the German translation of Indemnity Only.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue in advertising and advertising in culture: Communication, translation, representation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The authors of the paper focus on the intercultural dimension in the translation of advertising texts, attempting to compare and illustrate the influence of cultural elements upon advertising text-creation in American, German and Slovak cultural spaces. Reflecting the social, psychological and cultural aspects of translation transfer, they survey the tension between the domestic and the foreign and consequent choices in translation strategy. They present tendencies observed across a span of almost two decades in the translation of advertising texts into Slovak and provide possible explanations for their development.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue distortion, translation distortion and poetic distortion as semiotic shifts<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Both interlingual translation shifts and poetic production can be seen from a semiotic perspective in terms of mental filtering. The shared ground of the three processes - cognition, translation, versification - is to be found in the semiotic perspective: signs (prototext, reality, perception) are interpreted and worked through (mind, interpretants, cognition) and give as an output an object (metatext, poem, worldview). By trying to classify the shifts resulting from such processes - distortions - with a semiotically shared grid of categories, the hypothesis is that the categories themselves - already existing within the separate fields - can be reciprocally fine-tuned. The very notion of “shift” - derived from translation criticism, and in particular from the prototext-metatext comparison - becomes in this hypothesis a connection transforming the shifts possible in the other mentioned fields into mutual benchmarks.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Access to Cultural Spaces (FACS): Mapping and evaluating museum access services using mobile eye-tracking technology<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The present paper aims to present significant results stemming from the FACS (Full Access to Cultural Spaces) project, launched in 2014 by the University of Macerata and concluded in 2016. In particular, this paper reports on stages one and two of the FACS project which aimed first to explore the state of the art of universal access services across a large variety of museums in Italy and nine other EU countries. Based on the first stage, an analysis of some of the most significant data obtained from a questionnaire sent out to over 1,200 European museums will be presented, with a special focus on multilingual devices and access services for the sensory impaired. The first stage was followed by an eye-tracking study on an Italian museum, Turin’s Museo Nazionale del Cinema (National Cinema Museum), aimed at evaluating visitors’ experience, attitudes and patterns of fruition through a test with a portable eye tracker (Tobii Pro Glasses 2, 50 Hz). Based on this second stage, the fruition of information panels by museum visitors at the Museo Nazionale del Cinema will be explored, specifically focusing on reading patterns and behaviours.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue as artistic communication in the aesthetics of migration: From nonfiction to the visual arts<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In an increasingly globalized and digitalized world, where the advancement of technologies and media constructions oversimplify and manipulate public beliefs and shared knowledge, the artistic sector seems to provide new networks of solidarity, collaboration and interaction that challenge a world dominated by conflicts and cultural shocks. Against this backdrop, acts of translation within the arts bear witness to humanity and become the ultimate ground for subjective expression and fundamental reflections upon individualist attitudes against migration issues. By putting emphasis on the role of translation in its political transfer of migration into the arts, this investigation draws attention to a recent corpus of works of art that testifies to the modalities by means of which the creative cultural industries are contributing to giving voice to migration not just as transruption and memory, but as an inclusive form of movement and communication. In Notes on the Exodus by Richard Flanagan, with illustrations by Ben Quilty (2016), and in the arts installations Call Me By My Name and All I Left Behind. All I Will Discover (London, 2017), translation intervenes as an instrument of cross-cultural collaboration and solidarity, resistance and dissent, and also demonstrates to what extent stories of migration can interact within art forms and be performed as acts of translation involving processes of (re)narration and (re)framing of identities.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue mental translation and self-translation in African literature<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Interest in African literature and translation is relatively new; it mainly emerged in the 1990s with the postcolonial turn in translation studies, under the influence of the cultural turn, the polysystems theory and the “Manipulation School”. Many African writers describe themselves as intercultural translators; they hover over the following questions: Is it a form of selfdenigration not to use one’s mother tongue as a medium of literary creation? How can their literary creations account for their postcolonial experience in the languages of former colonizers? Can these languages render the specificities of their distinct cultural worldviews? The linguistic choice made by African writers is hence highly political because it involves a compromise that rests on power relations. Their writing often involves a sort of translation from Source Language (SL) to Target Language (TL) whether through ethnotextual mental translation or self-translation.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue distance as a form of liminality in selected short stories of American literature<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Aesthetic distance is a phenomenon that has attracted a considerable amount of attention, especially since the first works of postmodernism came to light. Aesthetic distance is based on creating such works which - using certain artistic tools and techniques - break the illusion and thus inhibit readers from immersing themselves in the literary world portrayed in the work they read. As a result, aesthetic distance creates a liminal space, or an invisible but consciously perceivable border between reality, i.e. the world we live in and fiction, i.e. the world we want to relocate to and enjoy during the reading process. The paper is based on an article by Bjorn Thomassen, in which he presents several types of liminality and states that the typology is not final. My aim is to prove that liminality can occur in literature as well, particularly in works built on aesthetic distance. In this matter, I focus on the reception theory of Wolfgang Iser, who studies literary texts from three perspectives: the text, the reader and the communication between the two. The theory is applied to selected short stories of American literature, which contain illusion-breaking features and thus may be viewed as liminal spaces.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s Rome – A city of evil, political and religious corruption and violence<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Hawthorne’s Rome is the home of dark and evil catacombs. It is a city haunted by evil spirits from the past that actively shape the romance’s plot. Rome’s dark gardens, endless staircases, hidden corners and vast catacombs, as well as the malodorous Jewish ghetto, affect Donatello’s and Miriam’s judgment, almost forcing them to get rid of the Model, Miriam’s persecutor. Hawthorne’s narrator’s shockingly violent, harsh and seemingly anti-Semitic description of the ghetto in Rome is just one among many similarly ruthless, and at times offensive, accounts of the city wherein Hawthorne situates his last completed romance, The Marble Faun. Hawthorne’s two-year stay in Rome in 1858-59 sets the scene for his conception of The Marble Faun. In addition to providing Hawthorne with the extensive contact with art and artists that undoubtedly affected the choice of his protagonists (Kenyon, a sculptor; Hilda and Miriam, painters), Italy exposed Hawthorne to Jewish traditions and history, as well as to the life of Jews in the Roman ghetto. Most probably it also aroused his interest in some of the political affairs in which Italian Jews were involved in the 1840s and 50s. This historical background, especially the well-publicized abduction and conversion of a Jewish child, Edgardo Mortara, in 1858 provides important political and cultural background for Hawthorne’s portrayal of Miriam in The Marble Faun.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue