rss_2.0Asian Biomedicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Asian Biomedicine Biomedicine Feed final adult height achieved by low-dose recombinant human growth hormone therapy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Thailand has been administering the recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment for &gt;20 years. Due to limited resources being available, efforts have been directed toward utilizing rhGH at the lowest feasible dose. However, there is currently a lack of evidence in terms of the efficacy and outcomes.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>To evaluate the auxological outcomes of growth hormone (GH) treatment and the GH secretion ability after reaching final adult height (FAH) and discontinuing rhGH.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Data of 40 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics, auxological data, and results of biochemical and endocrine investigations before and during rhGH treatment were evaluated. In addition, GH retesting was performed in 24 patients using the insulin tolerance test.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Twenty patients (50%) had complete growth hormone deficiency (GHD), defined as peak stimulated GH level &lt;5 ng/mL, and the remaining patients had partial GHD. Most patients were male (n = 25, 62.5%). The mean age at which rhGH was initiated was 8.9 years. Patients with partial GHD received a higher dose of rhGH than those with complete GHD (30.9 µg/kg/d vs. 26.2 µg/kg/d, <italic>P</italic> = 0.02). Patients with complete and partial GHD reached FAH at height standard deviation scores (SDSs) of −0.65 and −1.47, respectively. The factors associated with obtaining a good clinical response in terms of height gain included peak-stimulated GH level, age of puberty, and age of discontinuing rhGH. After completing the rhGH treatment, 13 of the 24 patients showed normal GH secretion. Patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) were likely to have persistent GHD through adulthood (n = 8, 88.9%).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This study has demonstrated that the use of low-dose rhGH could result in healthy populations achieving optimal FAHs. Patients with MPHD might not require retesting as they were likely to have persistent GHD. The results obtained in this research highlight the benefits of the treatment. This treatment can be applied in resource-limited countries.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue clinical assessment of patients with common upper limb tremor and algorithmic approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The diagnostic approach for patients with tremor is challenging due to the complex and overlapping phenotypes among tremor syndromes. The first step in the evaluation of tremor is to identify the tremulous movement and exclude the tremor mimics. The second step is to classify the tremor syndrome based on the characteristics of tremor from historical clues and focused examination (Axis 1). Comprehensive tremor examinations involve the assessment of tremor in different conditions (rest, action or mixed, position or task-specific), distribution of tremor (upper limb, lower limb, head, jaw), positive signs for functional tremor (FT) if suspected (distractibility, entrainment, co-contraction), and associated neurological signs including parkinsonism, dystonic posture, cerebellar/brainstem signs, neuropathy, and cognitive impairment. A pivotal feature in this step is to determine any distinct feature of a specific isolated or combined tremor syndrome. In this review, we propose an algorithm to assess upper limb tremors. Ancillary testing should be performed if clinical evaluation is unclear. The choice of investigation depends on the types of tremors considered to narrow down the spectrum of etiology (Axis 2). Laboratory blood tests are considered for acute onset and acute worsening of tremors, while structural neuroimaging is indicated in unilateral tremors with acute onset, nonclassical presentations, and a combination of neurological symptoms. Neurophysiological study is an important tool that aids in distinguishing between tremor and myoclonus, etiology of tremor and document specific signs of FT. Treatment is mainly symptomatic based depending on the etiology of the tremor and the patient’s disabilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue level of neuroserpin is an indication for the resistance to gambogic acid-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in triple-negative breast cancer cells<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype, characterized by loss of HER2, estrogen, and progesterone receptors, displays aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis compared to other BC subtypes. Since the TNBC cells are devoid of receptors, endocrine therapy is an ineffective option for TNBC patients, necessitating canonical chemotherapy strategies to treat TNBC. It is crucial to use alternative and natural agents to support chemotherapy in TNBC.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>To clarify the molecular mechanism of the tumorigenic effects of gambogic acid (GA) on TNBC cells with different epithelial character since GA has a wide spectrum of anticancer activity for most cancer types.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>We determined the cytotoxic dose of GA incubation of TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231 and BT-20 cells) for 24 h. We performed the MTT test and toluidine blue (TB) staining protocol for TNBC cells. We analyzed E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Bax, and neuroserpin mRNAs in both cells by qPCR. We evaluated apoptosis using DAPI staining and assessed the ROS using the 2ʹ,7ʹ-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) method.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>We determined the IC<sub>50</sub> concentrations of GA in MDA-MB-231 and BT-20 cells to be 315.8 nM and 441.8 nM, respectively. TB staining showed that BT-20 cells survive at excessive cytotoxic doses of GA, while most of the MDA-MB-231 cells were killed. Also, we found that BT-20 cells are more resistant to GA-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress than the MDA-MB-231 cells. qPCR results showed that GA upregulated neuroserpin, an oxidative stress-relieving factor in the BT-20 cells, but not in the MDA-MB-231 cells.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The elevated level of neuroserpin could be a predictive marker to determine the development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue resonance imaging findings of a case with Wolffian tumor and related literature review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Wolffian tumors in females are rare gynecological neoplasms, with fewer than 100 cases reported. Existing literature primarily focuses on the pathology, and reports involving imaging are limited.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>This study presents a case of Wolffian tumor, emphasizing its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics to enhance preoperative diagnostic accuracy.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Case report</title> <p>A 56-year-old woman presented with a year-long history of irregular vaginal bleeding. MRI revealed a solid mass in the right adnexal region. On T2-weighted images, the mass exhibited slightly elevated signal intensity with a distinctive low-signal intensity rim. Diffusion-weighted imaging displayed markedly increased signal intensity, and the contrast enhancement was moderate. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adnexectomy and received a Wolffian tumor diagnosis. No recurrence was observed during a 6-month follow-up.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Wolffian tumors exhibit distinctive MRI presentations. Notably, the prominent low-signal intensity rim on MRI may aid in accurate preoperative tumor diagnosis.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue diagnosis and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma by pGCsiRNA-vascular endothelial growth factor in vivo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The early diagnosis and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma may benefit from specific tumor markers to be used in clinical practice.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>To investigate whether the pGCsiRNA-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can affect the onset and progression of cholangiocarcinoma and its possible mechanism using the targeted therapy of nude mouse model of cholangiocarcinoma with attenuated <italic>Salmonella</italic> carrying the plasmid pGCsiRNA-VEGF.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The nude mouse model of cholangiocarcinoma was established by tail vein injection of QBC939 cells and given attenuated <italic>Salmonella</italic> carrying the plasmid pGCsiRNA-VEGF. One month later, the tumor volume of nude mice was observed, and the tumor growth curve was plotted. The harvested tumors were weighed and detected for tissue structural changes and cell death status by hematoxylin–eosin staining. The protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and MMP9 were detected by Western blotting and PCR, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The tumor volume and weight of the pGCsiRNA-VEGF group were significantly smaller than those of the mock and the si-scramble groups (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). The expressions of VEGF, MMP2, and MMP9 at the transcriptional and translational levels were inhibited by pGCsiRNA-VEGF. PGCsiRNA-VEGF promoted tissue apoptosis and destroyed the tissue structure.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>In vivo silencing of VEGF can affect cell survival and inhibit cell migration, invasion, and development, probably by enhancing apoptosis and inhibiting the expressions of MMP2 and MMP9.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and application of a reverse dot blot assay for 13 mutations of hearing-loss genes in primary hospitals in China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Hearing loss is a common sensorineural dysfunction with a high incidence in China. Although genetic factors are important causes of hearing loss, hearing-related gene detection has not been widely adopted in China.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>Establishing a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously detect hotspot hearing loss gene mutations.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A reverse dot blot assay combined with a flow-through hybridization technique was developed for the simultaneous detection of 13 hotspot mutations of 4 hearing loss–related genes including <italic>GJB2, GJB3, SLC26A4,</italic> and the mitochondrial gene <italic>MT-RNR1</italic>. This method involved PCR amplification systems and a hybridization platform.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The technique can detect 13 hotspot mutations of 4 hearing loss–related genes. And a total of 213 blood samples were used to evaluate the availability of this method.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Discussion</title><p>Our reverse dot blot assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method to identify hotspot mutations of 4 hearing loss–related genes in a Chinese population.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue diets in patients with chronic kidney disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dietary protein restriction has been considered to be a nutritional-related strategy to reduce risk for end-stage kidney disease among patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is insufficient evidence to recommend a particular type of protein to slow down the CKD progression. Recently, various plant-based diets could demonstrate some additional benefits such as a blood pressure-lowering effect, a reduction of metabolic acidosis as well as hyperphosphatemia, and gut-derived uremic toxins. Furthermore, the former concerns about the risk of undernutrition and hyperkalemia observed with plant-based diets may be inconsistent in real clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the current evidence of the proposed pleiotropic effects of plant-based diets and their associations with clinical outcomes among pre-dialysis CKD patients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer: a case series and mini-review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Ectopic pregnancy (EP), reflecting a fertilized ovum implanted outside the normal uterine cavity, represents a frequent cause of morbidity and possibly mortality in women of reproductive age.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>To summarize the diagnosis and treatment of EP after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET).</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with EP after embryo transfer from 2017 to 2019, in a tertiary hospital were reviewed.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Of the 24 cases analyzed, 21 (87.5%) had fallopian tube involvement, while 2 (8.3%) and 1 (4.2%) had cornual and cervical pregnancies, respectively. Clinical manifestations included vaginal bleeding (58.3%) and lower abdominal pain (16.7%); 9 (42.9%) cases had no symptoms. One cornual pregnancy was misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis and later correctly diagnosed by laparoscopic exploration. There were 2 cases of multiple-site EP and 2 of heterotopic pregnancy, including one with an intrauterine pregnancy with double chorionic and four amniotic sacs and right tubal ampullary pregnancy. Five of the 21 cases with fallopian tube involvement received conservative treatment, while the remaining 16 underwent surgeries, including laparoscopic ipsilateral salpingostomy and ipsilateral salpingectomy.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Discussion</title><p>Ectopic pregnancy after embryo transfer, mainly involving the fallopian tube, is very complex and is with diverse manifestations. Even with the pregnancy sac observed in the uterus, the pelvic cavity should be scanned thoroughly after embryo transfer.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue detection and management of hearing loss to improve the quality of life metastasis in hypopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Occurrence of cutaneous metastasis in hypopharyngeal carcinoma is an extremely rare event reported in the literature, with an incidence of only 0.8%–1.3%. Early diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis would have a positive impact on treatment response and disease prognosis with diagnosis mainly dependent on physical examination and radiological imaging (ultrasonography, computed tomography scan or PET-CT). Palliative care is, however, the mainstay of treatment for cutaneous metastasis.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Case presentation</title><p>We report a middle-aged female patient, with known case of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, who initially showed partial response to chemoradiotherapy but developed cutaneous nodules in the region of the right axilla and bilateral lateral chest wall posterior to the posterior axillary fold. Excision biopsy of one of these nodules showed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was again referred to the Oncology Department of INMOL Hospital and her chemotherapy was planned for cutaneous metastasis.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Being uncommon, the occurrence of cutaneous lesions in a patient with hypopharyngeal carcinoma should prompt detailed evaluation to rule out metastasis. Early detection will help in improving disease prognosis and median survival.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of lateral wall-thickness measurement in trochanteric fractures and parameters associated with lateral wall integrity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>The AO Foundation/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) introduced a new trochanteric fracture classification in January 2018, concerning the lateral wall integrity. It suggested the intramedullary nail fixation in patients with an incompetent lateral wall fracture.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>To determine the reliability of lateral wall-thickness measurement and the fracture parameters associated with lateral wall integrity.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>This retrospective study evaluated patients with an intertrochanteric fracture who had had surgery in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between January 2014 and January 2019. The lateral wall was measured by anteroposterior plain radiography by four raters, two times each. The demographic data and fracture parameters were assessed and compared with respect to lateral wall integrity.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Result</title><p>In a total of 236 femurs and 232 patients having the 2018 AO/OTA-specified 31A1 and 31A2 intertrochanteric fractures, the lateral wall-thickness measurement showed excellent inter-rater reliability at 0.944 (0.927–0.957) and good-to-excellent intra-rater reliability ranging from 0.835 to 0.972. The parameters associated with lateral wall incompetence as per the multivariate logistic regression analysis were fracture angle (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95), distal greater trochanter involvement (OR = 9.47), and fragments at the intertrochanter area (OR = 4.49) and at the lesser trochanter (OR = 2.6).</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Some of the parameters related to trochanteric fractures are associated with lateral wall incompetence. Lateral wall-thickness measurement is a reproducible method, which has been suggested for use by the AO/OTA 2018 classification. It is easy to use and can help select the appropriate treatment for intertrochanteric fracture patients.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue flow assay: a promising rapid point-of-care testing tool for infections and non-communicable diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The point-of-care testing (POCT) approach has established itself as having remarkable importance in diagnosing various infectious and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The POCT approach has succeeded in meeting the current demand for having diagnostic strategies that can provide fast, sensitive, and highly accurate test results without involving complicated procedures. This has been accomplished by introducing rapid bioanalytical tools or biosensors such as lateral flow assays (LFAs). The production cost of these tools is very low, allowing developing countries with limited resources to utilize them or produce them on their own. Thus, their use has grown in various fields in recent years. More importantly, LFAs have created the possibility for a new era of incorporating nanotechnology in disease diagnosis and have already attained significant commercial success worldwide, making POCT an essential approach not just for now but also for the future. In this review, we have provided an overview of POCT and its evolution into the most promising rapid diagnostic approach. We also elaborate on LFAs with a special focus on nucleic acid LFAs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue dose of the normal saline pre-infusion and other risk factors for amphotericin B deoxycholate-associated acute kidney injury<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBd) is the preferred amphotericin B formulation in countries with limited resources despite its nephrotoxicity. Normal saline pre-infusion is a recommended measure to reduce the risk of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving AmBd.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>To examine the effect of different normal saline solution (NSS) pre-infusion doses, and other potential risk factors, on the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with invasive fungal infection receiving AmBd.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Adult patients with invasive fungal infections who received intravenous AmBd were included in this retrospective study. Doses of the normal saline pre-infusion were adjusted to the body weight (NSS/BW) and the daily dose of amphotericin B (NSS/AmBd). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to estimate 14 d AKI-free survival rates, and the log-rank test was used to compare AKI-free survivals between groups.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The present study included 60 patients; 31 patients developed AKI during the AmBd therapy. The overall 14 d AKI-free survival was 48.3%. NSS/AmBd, but not NSS/BW, was associated with AKI-free survival in patients receiving AmBd: the higher the NSS/AmBd, the higher the AKI-free survival. Gender, baseline blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and baseline plasma bicarbonate (Bicarb) also affected AKI-free survival. Female gender, higher BUN, and lower Bicarb were associated with higher AKI-free survival.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The present study suggests that low NSS/AmBd, male gender, low BUN, and high Bicarb are risk factors for AmBd-associated AKI. Excluding gender, these risk factors are potentially modifiable and would guide tailoring appropriate preventive measures for AmBd-associated AKI.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue value of platelet/lymphocyte ratio in young patient with acute ischemic stroke early predictive value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio to hemorrhagic transformation of young acute ischemic stroke<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The increasing incidence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the related factors. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT), a severe complication of AIS, is influenced by platelet-induced inflammation and lymphocyte levels.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>To measure the predictive value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the occurrence of HT in young AIS patients.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Data of young AIS patients (n = 157) admitted to the hospital for the first time were retrospectively collected. The patients were divided into HT (63 patients) and non-HT groups (94 patients) on the basis of whether HT had occurred after admission. The National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score was used to determine the severity of clinical symptoms. The relationship between PLR and HT and NIHSS scores was analyzed to evaluate the predictive value of PLR in the occurrence of HT using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Multivariate analysis showed that PLR and NIHSS are independent risk factors of HT. The PLR value of the observation group was positively associated with the NIHSS score (<italic>r</italic> = 0.8075, <italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.0001). According to the PLR prediction about the occurrence of HT, an AUC of 0.713 (95% CI, 0.652–0.781), a cut-off value of 109.073, and a sensitivity and specificity of 0.806 and 0.674, respectively, were obtained.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>PLR value can predict the possibility of HT in young AIS patients to a certain extent. To take effective measures to prevent HT in advance has crucial clinical significance according to PLR value.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue response to enterotoxigenic of Filipino colorectal cancer patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Several species of the gut microbiota have been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. The anaerobic bacterium enterotoxigenic <italic>Bacteroides fragilis</italic> (ETBF), has been identified to produce fragilysin, a toxin known to cleave E-cadherin, thereby leading to carcinogenesis.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>To determine the antibody response of CRC patients against ETBF to ascertain whether significant difference exists or whether antibody response is related to tumor grade and tumor stage.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Informed consent was obtained from histologically confirmed CRC casesand their age- and sex-matched clinically healthy controls. Plasma samples from the participants were subjected to in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine their antibody levels.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Using ETBF total protein as coating antigen, 38/39 (97%) CRC cases and 36/39 (92%) controls showed anti-ETBF IgG above cut-off, while all (100%) CRC cases and 36/39 (92%) controls had anti-ETBF IgA levels above cut-off. With culture broth as coating antigen, all (100%) CRC cases and 37/39 (95%) controls had anti-ETBF IgG levels above cut-off. For anti-ETBF IgA, all (100%) cases and controls had levels above cut-off. Statistical analysis reveals no significant difference (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) on the number of CRC cases and controls with IgG and IgA antibody levels above cut-off value. Also, there's no significant difference (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) in the mean anti-ETBF antibody levels of cases who were at different tumor grade (well differentiated and moderately and poorly differentiated) and tumor stage (early and advanced).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>These results suggest that Filipino CRC cases and their clinically healthy matched controls exhibit antibody responses against ETBF.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of dengue genome in a remotely infected patient<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Dengue virus infection is an intriguing illness. It is traditionally thought of as a self-limited and nonpersistent disease.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>We report a case with persistent dengue virus genome detectable in hematopoietic cells of a person with remote infection.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A patient with multiple myeloma in remission was prepared for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. Plasma and G-CSF-stimulated, mobilized PBSCs were collected. Dengue-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed in both pre- and post-stimulated blood specimens. Anti-dengue antibodies by ELISA and by neutralization assay were measured before and after the stem cell mobilization.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The viral genome was detected only in the PBSC of the post-G-CSF-stimulated specimens. Anti-dengue antibodies were negative and positive, by ELISA and neutralization assays, respectively, both before and after stem cell mobilization.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Our findings reveal a persistent infection. Whether and how this strain may interact with subsequent serotype(s) remains to be elucidated.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue preeclampsia complicated by HELLP syndrome alters the structure of Hofbauer and syncytiotrophoblast cells: ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome is generally considered to be a variant or complication of preeclampsia. It is a life-threatening obstetric complication.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>To evaluate the immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural of syncytiotrophoblastand Hoffbauer cells in placental villi of patients with HELLP syndrome.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Two groups of patients with a total of 50 full-term human placentas (n = 25 in each group) were assigned as the control (normotensive) and HELLP syndrome. Placental tissue samples were fixed in 10% neutral formalin and paraffin-embedding protocol was performed. We prepared 5 μm sections for histological and immunohistochemical staining. Sections were immunostained with Hoffbauer cell marker CD68. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM), placental tissue samples were fixed in 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde and then, in 1% osmium tetroxide for routine ultrastructural examinations.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>When the HELLP group fetal placental sections were examined, intracytoplasmic edema in syncytiotrophoblast, degenerative vacuoles, and degenerative findings on cell surface membranes were observed. Moreover, villous edema was remarkable. The number of CD68-positive Hoffbauer cells per villus control group sections was 0.23 ± 0.02 and the number of CD68-positive cells per villus in HELLP group placenta sections was 0.83 ± 0.12. The increase in the number of Hoffbauer cells per villus in the HELLP group was significant (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.001). Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in the number of Hoffbauer cells and syncytiotrophoblasts in the HELLP group, and degenerative changes were also observed in the ultrastructure of these cells.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Pathology of the HELLP syndrome is in relation to CD68-positive placental macrophages.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue external counterpulsation, focusing on its effect on kidney function, and utilization in patients with kidney diseases: a systematic review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is provided by a noninvasive device positively affecting cardiovascular function via mechanisms called diastolic augmentation and systolic unloading. The renal aspects of EECP therapy have not been extensively investigated.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>To assess the effect of EECP on renal function and to determine the application in patients with kidney disease.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched for all studies involving EECP treatments. The title and abstract of all searched literatures were screened, and those focusing on renal outcome or conducting in kidney disease patients were selected.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Eight studies were included in the qualitative analysis. EECP increases stroke volume, mean arterial pressure, renal artery blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, urine volume, and urinary sodium chloride excretion, but reduces the plasma concentration of renin and endothelin-1 in healthy subjects. A single session of EECP after radioactive contrast exposure could provide increased contrast clearance, and this reduces contrast-induced kidney injury in patients, irrespective of previous kidney function. Thirty-five-hour sessions of EECP treatment were illustrated to increase long-term estimated GFR in patients with chronic angina and heart failure. In cirrhotic patients, EECP fails to improve GFR and renal vascular resistance. EECP device could maintain blood pressure, decrease angina symptoms, and increase cardiac perfusion in hemodialysis patients.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>EECP treatment potentially increases renal perfusion and prevents kidney injury in several conditions. EECP possibly provides beneficial effects on hemodynamics and cardiac function in hemodialysis patients.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue