rss_2.0Acta Biologica Marisiensis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Biologica Marisiensis Biologica Marisiensis 's Cover Constituents of the Essential Oil from ssp. from Algerian Pre-Sahara<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of <italic>Salvia verbenaca</italic> (L.) Briq. ssp. <italic>clandestina</italic> (L.) Pugsl. (<italic>Lamiaceae</italic>) growing wild in Bou Saâda, pre-Saharan region of Algeria, was analyzed by GC-MS. Sixty-four compounds were detected, representing 95.6% of the whole oil, among them forty five compounds are identified in this sample for the first time. The essential oil of <italic>S. verbenaca</italic> ssp. <italic>clandestena</italic> showed the predominance of sesquiterpenes (56.4%) followed by monoterpene derivatives (35.5%). The main constituents were β-pinene (10.2%), spathulenol (8.7%), caryophylene oxide (6.1%), α-pinene (5.2%), germacrene D (5%) and α-gurjunene (4.9%). Chemical composition of the essential oil from our sample may be categorized as sesquiterpene and monoterpene chemotype among the four chemotypes identified for <italic>Salvia</italic> species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Phytochemical Evaluation and Pharmacological Activities of Blume Leaf Extract<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The demand for medicinal plants and their derived substances is increasing day by day due to their relevance in the context of drug discovery and development. The goal of this investigation is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical potentials of the grossly underexplored <italic>Antidesma montanum</italic> Blume (Family: Phyllanthaceae). The methanolic extract of the leave of this plant was fractionated and then followed by initial screening of phytochemical. The investigation of the pharmacological potential, which includes antioxidant, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anxiolytic evaluations, was accomplished using an <italic>in vitro</italic> free radical scavenging assay with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), castor oil-induced diarrheal test, egg albumin test, acetic acid-induced writhing model, brewer’s yeast induced fever test, swing test, open field, and light-dark test, respectively. The investigation o phytochemicals proposes that the methanol extract of <italic>A. montanum</italic> possesses flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, amino acids, fixed oils, and sterols. Pharmacological evaluation suggests that <italic>A. montanum</italic> possesses significant antioxidant, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The methanol and chloroform fractions exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activities with an IC<sub>50</sub>: 103 ± 0.05 and 108.7 ± 0.05 µg/ml, respectively. The methanol and chloroform fractions also showed anti-inflammatory capacities in the egg albumin (IC<sub>50</sub> values: 89.10 ± 0.07 and 92.85 ± 0.07 µg/ml, respectively) model. The plant also showed anti-pyretic and anxiolytic activities in a dose-dependent manner. One of the possible sources of phytotherapeutic lead compounds is <italic>A. montanum</italic>. To extract and analyze the key bioactive components of this essential therapeutic plant, more research is required.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Norepinephrine in the Regulation of Growth, Adhesion and Invasion of in Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mammalian hormones are shown to affect not only regulation of mammalian homeostasis but also play roles in cross-talk between microorganisms and their hosts. In our study, the roles of norepinephrine (NE) at two different concentrations on growth alterations, adhesion - invasion of <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> were investigated.</p> <p>The effects of NE on the growth, adhesion - invasion of <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> ATTC 27853 were examined in human lung carcinoma (A549) cell culture. We analysed two concentrations (<bold>HNE:</bold> 0.04μg/mL and <bold>LNE</bold>: 0.0017 μg/mL) of NE considering NE’s psychological levels in a healthy individual to imitate <italic>in vivo</italic> conditions of the host. Bacterial counts of growth and adhesion-invasion were examined by the colony counting method. Growth of bacterium was significantly reduced in the presence of NE at 90’ incubation (p: 0.0004 for high concentration and p: 0.0003 for low concentration); on the other hand, at 180’ minutes incubation, only low concentration reduced the growth (p˂0.0001). While adhesion was increased in the presence of low NE concentration (p: 0.013), there was no alteration in invasion of <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> in the presence of NE (p˃0.05). Our results suggested that NE has different effects on the growth and adhesion of <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> and these effects depend on concentration and incubation period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Reading Symbols in Japanese Garden<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Creating a Japanese garden raises a number of methodological questions. The form of these gardens are well known, but their religious symbols are not well researched in English literature. The aim of the research is to introduce and interpret the religious symbols and references present in Japanese gardens, to categorize their appearance by taking into account their unique characteristics, their role in the garden, contributing to a deeper understanding and the understanding of the form-shaping approach. The gardens presented by this study are closely related to the practice of the religious community that creates or maintains them. The garden elements do not only serve an aesthetic purpose, but with their spatial presence they constantly refer to religious teachings or attitudes for those who are able to read them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00A Quick, Simple, Sensitive and Selective LC-MS/MS Method Used for the Screening of Ethephon, Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from Water and Food Samples<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pesticide use has increased steadily over the years in both industrial farming and local agriculture. One of the most widely used pesticides at a global level, glyphosate, has been controversial for many years and many studies have focused on the effects of this compound on human health. Ethephon is also a controversial ripening agent used to ripen crops more quickly. A basic but crucial step in the study of the effects of their use on human health is the development of adequate analytical methodologies for the quantification of the compounds in relevant samples. For this study a quick, simple and selective method which uses LC-MS/MS was developed for the determination of ethephon, glyphosate and AMPA. The method uses selective fragment monitoring for each analyte and the internal standard, without prior analytical separation. Mobile phase used consisted of aqueous ammonium formate and methanol in isocratic elution and the sample cleanup was made using solid phase extraction (SPE). The method was validated with regards to selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision in accordance with applicable guidelines. After validation the LC-MS/MS method was successfully used to determine ethephon, glyphosate and AMPA residues in ground and surface water, as well as vegetable samples.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00The Herbarium Files of Gyula Erazmus Nyárády which Got Abroad<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The herbarium of Gyula Erazmus Nyárády has been assessed to contain around 90.000 sheets. During the past thirty years, the legacy of the famed botanist still found in public institutions and private collection across Romania and Hungary has been studied and processed by Kálmán Váczy, Sándor Bartha and especially Katalin Bartók. However, nothing is known about the sheets that had ended up outside Hungary or Romania. This study proposes to fill this gap to some extent: firstly, it draws attention to sheets from Nyárády’s herbarium found in the inventory of the world’s biggest botanical gardens, museums and universities of natural science; secondly, it goes into details about the circumstances of collecting the prepared taxa, and the conclusions that can be drawn from this; it presents the reasons why some sheets got abroad; and it adds more data to reconstruct Nyárády’s social network. It also indicates that the heritage, now known to consist of around 90.000 sheets, can be completed with the sheets found abroad.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Mutualistic and Endophytic Microorganisms of : Description, Role and Use<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Artemisia annua</italic> is an important medical plant that produces artemisinin used for its antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal effects in modern medicine. The high demand and low artemisinin content in plants (0.01-2 %) has led to studies about alternative methods to increase yield. Biofertilizers (beneficial microbes and/or biological products that colonize roots, improve plant nutrition and growth) have been reported affecting secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of herbs. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the current status of the research on mutualistic and endophytic microorganism of <italic>A. annua</italic> that have the potential to increase the quality and quantity of the crude drugs, derived from the herb. Scientific papers in this field focus on the effects on inoculation with different microorganisms (arbuscular micorrhizal fungi, endophytic bacteria and fungi) and the isolation of endophytes from <italic>A. annua</italic>. Bioinoculants can affect biomass, artemisinin and essential oil concentration, disease resistance, nutrient status, phosphatase activity, foliar glandular trichome density, leaf chlorophyll content, guaiacol peroxidase enzyme concentration, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and plant growth parameters (total weight, leaf yield, height, seed yield). The endophytes isolated from the plant are potential artemisinin content and plant stress resistance enhancers.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Isoflavonoids − Dual Action on Estrogen Receptors<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Isoflavonoids are phytoestrogenic compounds found mainly in plants from the Fabaceae family and also in soy-based foods. Isoflavonoids exhibit (anti)estrogenic effects, acting on estrogen receptors due to the structural similarities with estrogenic hormones (17β-estradiol). The aim of our minireview is to highlight the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of isoflavonoids, in order to sustain the beneficial effects in different pathologies (osteoporosis associated with menopause, breast cancer, prostate cancer, protective cognitive functions) but, at the same time, to aware about the possible adverse effects on long-term administration.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Hemp Shives as Natural Amendments in Crops of Rapeseed () and Flax ()<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using hemp shives as natural amendments in a phytoremediation sequence. Thus, plant growth tests were conducted for rapeseed (<italic>Brassica napus</italic>) and flax (<italic>Linum usitatissimum</italic>) in vegetation pots with sandy soil. These were seeded in a cadmium artificial contaminated environment with or without hemp shives. The efficiency of hemp shives as natural amendments was evaluated after 40 days of initiating experimental model, by evaluation of plant growth and development of plants through biometric and gravimetric measurements. Also, the concentration of assimilatory pigments was determined. In order to establish bioaccumulation capacity, degree of recovery and translocation factor, it was determined the concentration of cadmium metal ions absorbed in various parts of rapeseed and flax plants. It has been found that the development of the root system is more pronounced in the presence of hemp shives both in contamination with cadmium ions and in the absence. By determining cadmium concentrations accumulate in various parts of the plant have been shown that supplementing growth media with hemp shives, improves the bioaccumulation process of cadmium ions. According to the results, the hemp shives can be used as amendments in phytoremediation process, enhancing bioaccumulation process.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Ferulic Acid – A Versatile Molecule<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The review summarizes the main roles of ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid), a phenolic compound widespread in the vegetable world, being present in cereals (rice, wheat, oats), coffee, tomatoes, nuts or corn, but also in a range of plants used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It plays a vital role in ensuring cell wall rigidity and also in the formation of other important organic compounds for plants. Ferulic acid has a wide variety of biological activities such as: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiallergic, anticancer, antithrombotic, antiviral activities, vasodilator, hepatoprotective and metal chelation actions, enzymatic activity modulation, and wound healing activity. The most important action is the antioxidant one, being studies that demonstrate that ferulic acid acts synergistically with other antioxidants. Also, the antioxidant effect of ferulic acid is enhanced by skin exposure to ultraviolet light, making it a good ingredient for sunscreen cosmetics. It is one of the most powerful natural antioxidant that has the potential to neutralize free radicals, to slow down the aging process of the skin, to accelerate skin regeneration, to heal the skin wounds and also to preserve the health and beauty of the skin.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Medicinal Importance of Wild Plants from the Surroundings of Ulieş Village, Mureş County<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The village of Ulieş belongs to Râciu Commune. It is located in the south-eastern part of the Transylvanian Plain (N46°41’30” E24°23’56”) in a hilly region crossed by wide valleys. It is situated at 24 km distance from Tîrgu Mureș, in the contact area of Mădăraş Hills and Comlod Hills, on the middle stream of the Comlod River (or Lechința) and its tributaries. The paper aims were the study of the flora from the surroundings of Ulieş Village, the investigation of possible medicinal use of the encountered plants species, and the preservation of plant diversity from the area. Fieldworks were conducted in 2014-2017. A total of 415 vascular plant taxa belonging to 76 families were identified. From these, 185 species are medicinal plants with certain content of active principles. Plants containing tannins (13.51%) were in higher percentage followed by those with essential oils (12.97%), saponins (10.81%), alkaloids (8.10%), flavonoids (7.56%), coumarins (7.02%), mucilages (5.94%), iridoids (5.40%), phenolic glycosides (3.78%), anthraquinone derivatives and cardiotonic glycosides (3.24), organic acids, vitamins and provitamins (3.78%), bitter principles (2.70), bitter-aromatic principles (2.16%), etc.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Plant Growth Retardants on Development of Poinsettia ”Christmas Feeling” Cultivar<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The poinsettias were cultivated years ago as medicinal and ornamental plants, too; but in the recent time are in the light of world flower assortment surprising with new shapes and colors in the cold season. The ornamental values of these plants are given by bracts which can have the same size as foliage leaves or even larger. The tendency of floral industry consists in obtaining high quality ornamental plants with superior marketable price. In these regards, the role of plant growth retardants in regulating the growth of poinsettia is important to obtain healthy, compact bushes and extended decoration period. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the effects of plant growth retardants on poinsettia. Five treatments with different retardants were applied as drench or spray. In the experiment four replicates and a total of 144 poinsettias were used. Treatments with paclobutrazol (60 mg/l sprayed), daminozide (2500 mg/l sprayed) and chlormequat chloride (1000 mg/l sprayed), showed the best results in case of marketability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Hormones Can Influence Antibiotic Susceptibilities Even in Mono- and Co-Culture Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> and <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> are known as important nosocomial infectious agents also their co-infections are commonly seen in some patient groups. It is well known that host factors such as hormones have roles in modulation of growth, pathogenesis and susceptibilities to antimicrobials. In our study, the influences of norepinephrine (NE) and melatonin (MEL) on antibiotic susceptibilities were examined in mono and co-culture conditions. Methicilin resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> ATCC 27853 were investigated to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin in the absence/presence of NE (0.0017 and 0.04μg/mL) and MEL (6 and 60 pg/mL) by microdilution method in mono and co-culture. It was found that hormones decreased (among 2-64 fold) MIC and MBC values of both antibiotics for MRSA. However, it was shown that hormones had no effect on MIC values of both antibiotics for <italic>P. aeruginosa.</italic> MIC and MBC values of both antibiotics for co-culture were found to be reduced compared to monoculture of MRSA; were found to be increased compared to monoculture of <italic>P. aeruginosa.</italic> Whereas, hormones decreased MIC values of both antibiotics in co-culture conditions. Our results suggest that both hormones decreased MIC values and it seems that hormones could influence antibiotic susceptibilities in a strain-dependent manner.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Spontaneous Cormophytes from the Romanian Flora Known as Medicinal Plants in Other Countries?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Romania's medicinal flora is an important source of raw material for pharmacological research and drug production. By consulting the pharmacological literature on authenticated scientific sources such as Google Scholar, 15 species of medicinal plants existing in the Romanian flora, but not used in the traditional Romanian medicine, were identified. In accordance with the World Health Organization's call on all countries to use traditional medicine in primary care, we set out to help complete the list of medicinal plants in Romania using information from traditional medicine in other countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the Performance of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) In Various Vegetation Regions of the Ethiopian Highlands<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on the environment of Ethiopia, a country highly sensitive to droughts severely affecting vegetation. Vegetation monitoring of Ethiopian Highlands requires visualization of environmental parameters to assess droughts negatively influencing agricultural sustainable management of crops. Therefore, this study presented mapping of several climate and environmental variables including Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The data were visualized and interpreted alongside the topographic data to evaluate the environmental conditions for vegetation. The datasets included WorldClim and GEBCO and Digital Chart of the World (DCW). Research has threefold objectives: i) environmental mapping; ii) technical cartographic scripting; iii) data processing. Following variables were visualized on seven new maps: 1) topography; 2) soil moisture; 3) T °C minimum; 4) T °C maximum; 5) Wind speed; 6) Precipitation; 7) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). New high-resolution thematic environmental maps are presented and the utility of GMT for mapping multi-source datasets is described. With varying degrees of soil moisture (mean value of 15.0), min T°C (−1.8°C to 24°C), max T°C (14.4°C to 40.2°C) and wind speed (0.1 to 6.1 m/s), the maps demonstrate the variability of the PDSI fields over the country area (from −11.7 to 2.3) induced by the complex sum of these variables and intensified by the topographic effects notable over the Ethiopian Highlands which can be used for vegetation analysis. The paper presents seven new maps and contributes to the environmental studies of Ethiopia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00An Overview of Urban Park Development in Zhengzhou, China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As essential elements of green spaces and social spaces in cities, urban parks significantly improve the quality of life and promote urban sustainability. Research on the development process of urban parks can be meaningful for coping with the current issues and future opportunities facing cities. This study takes Zhengzhou as the case aiming to outline the development process and characteristics of urban parks within the city. We adopted the empirical analysis to review the evolution processes and trends of Zhengzhou’s urban parks from the perspective of implementation approaches, spatial layout, and functions and uses. Results reveal four subsequent phases: the emergence phase (1949–1977), the growth phase (1978–1996), the acceleration phase (1997–2012), and the promotion phase (after 2012), according to the periods of urban development and the opportunities for green space development. The discussion includes development issues and strategies regarding land use approaches, user group needs, and public participation. The findings may help formulate adaptive and effective policies and planning tools for urban parks and provide a basis for further research on urban parks and Zhengzhou’s road to the ideal “Park City”.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecosystem Services of Hospital Gardens - Based on Microclimate Analyses of Green and Blue Garden Elements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increasing urbanization process of the last decades has resulted in negative impacts and changes in the quality of the urban environment, as reflected in mortality and morbidity data (Páldy, 2018). The quality of the environment, the urban climate, the increased frequency and duration of extreme weather events, ultimately threaten human well-being. To design and build liveable cities, the quality of the urban environment must be improved, and improving micro- or local climate is an important factor in this. Increasing the proportion and quality of biologically active surfaces, i.e. the ecosystem services provided by green spaces, is one of the most effective tools for urban conditioning and enhancing human well-being. Determining the proportions of the green area, the design of vegetation, the choice of pavements and microarchitectures all determine the microclimate of an open-space. This has been confirmed by a large body of research and implemented work, but it is also important for designers to make a preliminary prediction of the impact of any intervention on the climatic conditions of the design site. These predictions will help cost-effective designing to determine which intervention will result in climate change.</p> <p>This research uses two specific examples to examine the effectiveness of each landscape designing tool and to show which designing tool produces what and how much climatic impact. For these studies, we used a climate modeling program (ENVI-MET), which runs simulations to infer the climate modifying effects of landscape planning tools.</p> <p>In the course of the research, we have shown that the local climate of hospital gardens could be significantly influenced by favorable, environmental-friend paving, a higher green cover ratio, and a well-developed and sufficiently dense tree canopy, and various water features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Different Substrate on the Morphological Characteristics of Hungarian Cultivars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this trial was to find the optimal substrate (sand, peat and 1:1 mixture of them) for germination and growing of <italic>Tagetes patula</italic> ‘Robuszta Kénsárga’, ‘Vénusz’ and ‘Tigris’, with the use of 40 seeds according to substrates and cultivars in nine groups. Germination and survival ratio, plant height, root length, flower number and –diameter were examined. Almost all seeds germinated successfully, and the highest surviving was around 80% in case of peat + sand, and the lowest (50%) when plants grown in pure sand. The latter substrate resulted the longest roots (especially in the groups of ‘Tigris’) and all cultivars (particularly ‘Vénusz’) reached the lowest height with the use of this soil. On the other hand, peat effected the shortest roots, tallest specimens, most flowers of every cultivars. In case of flower number, there were significant differences between ‘Tigris’ (with averagely 58-70 flowers) and the other two types (23-39 flowers), irrespectively of the substrates. ‘Vénusz’ developed the smallest flower heads (maximum 3.5 cm) in all cases; the other cultivars produced at least 4 cm inflorescences. The lowest plant values experienced with the use of sand and the best results on peat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Inclusion Complex of Gedunin-2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin Prepared by Kneading and Freeze-Drying Methods: Synthesis and Structural Characterization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The potential application of gedunin, a pharmacologically active limonoid, is limited in medicine because it has poor aqueous solubility. This study was aimed at preparation and characterization of an inclusion complex of gedunin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBD) to increase the solubility in aqueous solvents and thus enhance the possibility of pharmaceutical formulation and oral administration of gedunin. Inclusion complex of gedunin isolated from <italic>Entandrophragma angolense</italic> heartwood with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBD) was prepared using freeze-drying and kneading methods. The gedunin-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex (GCD) was characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), <sup>1</sup>H nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H-NMR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Elemental analysis indicated that gedunin and HBD formed 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex. Results of FT-IR indicated that gedunin was stabilized in HBD cavity by intra-molecular hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. <sup>1</sup>H-NMR revealed that the entire gedunin molecule was not trapped into the core of the HBD. Nevertheless, the fraction trapped may be sufficient to enhance the apparent solubility of gedunin. XRD results showed the formation of new solid crystalline phase. The results obtained by different characterization techniques clearly indicated that both kneading and freeze-drying methods led to inclusion complex formation which may enhance oral administration of gedunin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Perspectives on Antiviral Drugs Development in the Treatment of COVID-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of this review is to highlight the urgent development of new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Antiviral medication against SARS-CoV-2 comprises only remdesivir as an approved drug. Scientists are making considerable efforts to identify other effective antivirals. Investments into the <italic>de novo</italic> design of new drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are few. Molnupiravir proved to be effective against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is very close to approval. Pfizer’s two new compounds (PF-07321332, oral administration and PF-07304814, systemic administration) are in the early stages of development. Two types of methods are preferred to discover new antivirals in a short period. Repositioning of approved drugs for antiviral effect conducted to some clinical results for favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, danoprevir/ritonavir, umifenovir, hydroxychloroquine, camostat and nafamostat. Virtual screening of known molecules’ libraries indicated several compounds that were tested or are being tested in clinical trials. In conclusion, only a few innovative antiviral molecules are in various stages of development. However, the repositioning of many known compounds is being studied, including using virtual screening. The pharmaceutical industry is adapting and reinventing itself so that humanity can face a new pandemic in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1