rss_2.0Acta Biologica Marisiensis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Biologica Marisiensis Biologica Marisiensis Feed Composition of Volatile Organic Compounds of an Extremely Rare and Endemic Algerian Apiaceae Species, Batt.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Bunium crassifolium</italic> Batt. (<italic>B. crassifolium</italic>) (Apiaceae) is an extremely rare endemic species from the North East of Algeria. In this study, we extracted the volatile organic compounds (VOC) of <italic>B. crassifolium</italic> Batt. aerial parts using an Agilent G1888 network headspace sampler coupled with an Agilent 7890 GC system. The results revealed the presence of twenty-two (22) compounds, twenty (20) of which were identified as representing 97.48% of the total composition, the major components are: 44.67% of β-Cubebene, 8.82% of β-Caryophyllene, 7.04% of γ-Elemene, 4.70% of δ-Cadinene, 4.11% of γ-Cadinene, 3.77% of Ascaridole and 3.33% of β-Elemene, along with other constituents at a relatively low amount.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Screening and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Baill. Against Cancer Cells Lines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite the significant gains made in cancer therapy, cancer remains a major cause of global deaths due to rapid drug resistance. Therefore, urgent concerted efforts towards the discovery and development of newer and effective anticancer agents cannot be overemphasized. This study investigated <italic>in vitro</italic> cytotoxicity potential of methanol extracts of the root, stem, and leaves of <italic>Mezoneuron benthamianum</italic>. Leaf, stem and root samples were collected, authenticated, dried, separately pulverized and extracted in methanol. The methanol extracts were analysed for the presence of phytochemicals and cytotoxic potential evaluated by tetrazolium 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay on selected human cancer cells lines, HeLa (cervical cancer) and HEp-2 (epidermal carcinoma of the larynx), using mammalian Vero cells as a negative control. Data generated was subjected to descriptive statistics. The flavonoids in the plant was between 40 - 67.2% and was significantly higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) compared to alkaloids and saponins. At concentrations of ≥ 50 µg/mL, the extracts exhibited 100% cytotoxicity on the cancer cells. The methanol root and leaf extracts with CC<sub>50</sub> of 15.64 and 11.38 µg/mL were more cytotoxic on HeLa and HEp-2, respectively. In comparison to the stem and root extracts, the methanol leaf extract was selectively more toxic to cancer cell lines than Vero cells (CC<sub>50</sub> = 28.89 µg/mL). Preliminary investigation reveals that <italic>Mezoneuron benthamianum</italic> contain bioactive compounds that possess promising anticancer potential that could be exploited.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Down Tumor Drug Resistance: The Link Between Cell Membrane Changes and Treatment Efficacy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There have been significant advances in our understanding of how changes in the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane can affect drug resistance in cancer. Research has shown that cancer cells often have changes in the fluidity and permeability of their cell membrane that contribute to their resistance to drugs used to treat cancer. These changes may be due to changes in the composition and organization of the lipid bilayer that makes up the membrane, as well as changes in the expression or localization of proteins and other molecules embedded in the membrane. The lipid composition in the tumor cell membrane changes with drug resistance, which can affect the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane. Reversal of drug resistance can be achieved by altering cell membrane fluidity and permeability. In recent years, there have been numerous studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying these changes and identifying strategies to overcome drug resistance in cancer. This research has led to the development of new drugs and drug delivery systems that are designed to target specific changes in the cell membrane of cancer cells and improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Overall, the advances in our understanding of the role of cell membrane fluidity and permeability in drug resistance in cancer have led to the development of new approaches to treat cancer and improve patient outcomes and further research is needed to continue to improve the understanding of these mechanisms and to identify new strategies to overcome drug resistance in cancer. This article highlights the research status and detection methods of cell membrane fluidity and permeability affecting tumor drug resistance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Imbalance in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a disease that is characterized by an increased Gonadotropin-Releasing-Hormone (GnRH) pulsatile frequency, causing an altered LH/FSH ratio. More precisely an increased Luteinizing Hormone (LH) secretion compared to a decreased Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) secretion leads to the development of hyperandrogenism and to a low-level concentration of estrogens and therefore decreased negative estrogenic feedback in the control axis. The purpose of this review is to connect the physiological Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian (HPO) axis with said pathology and the ensuring discussion about the possible mechanisms of pathogenesis and guidelines for relieving associated symptoms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effect of Zinc on Germination in Species of the Genus (Family Boraginaceae)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effect of zinc on seed germination in two species of the <italic>Echium</italic> genus (<italic>Echium russicum</italic> J.F. Gmelin and <italic>Echium vulgare</italic> L.) was investigated. Zinc was used as sulphate in three different concentrations: 100 mg∕ l; 200 mg ∕ l și 300 mg ∕ l; the treatment was applied to the seeds before germination, the exposure time being short (4 hours and 8 hours). Seed germination was monitored daily for a period of 14 days. The effect of treatment on seed germination in the test species was assessed by calculating four germination indicators: final germination percentage (FGP), germination index (GI), mean germination time (MGT) and coefficient of rate germination (CRG). The results show the following: the seeds of <italic>Echium russicum</italic> germinate faster than those of <italic>Echium vulgare</italic>; statistically insignificant changes in the indicators associated with germination, except for GI in <italic>Echium vulgare</italic> for the 8 hours exposure time; reduction of germination percentage (in both species) and increase in germination time (more evident in <italic>Echium vulgare</italic>) with increasing exposure time. The test species showed tolerance throughout the germination process to the zinc concentrations used.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Anthocyanins - Possible Applications in Skincare Products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Vaccinium myrtillus</italic> fruits are a significant source of anthocyanins and have been linked to a number of health advantages. Recent data, however, point towards the possible benefits of topical use for anthocyanins. The purpose of this study was to assess the antioxidant potential of two extracts obtained through maceration. Total anthocyanin content and HPLC-DAD qualitative analysis were completed prior to include the extract in a cream-type topical formulation. The extract with the highest anthocyanin content was incorporated in a basic O/W cream formulation and the antioxidant effect of the cream was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The extract’s stability seven months later was also assessed. Our findings suggest that, the cream formulation offers antioxidant activity, but the activity declines by 27% when it is stored. Additionally, after seven months of storage, the formulation’s color changed, probably as a result of the anthocyanins’ instability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Plants from the Flora of Romania Beneficial in Osteoarthritis and Rheumatic Arthritis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, we focus on two arthritic diseases that affect a large part of the population, which cause inflammatory disorders of the joints and oxidative stress, which can cause certain degrees of disability. Arthritis is a chronic disease frequently encountered in the world’s population. Osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, are two extensive forms of arthritis associated with pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints and a low standard of life. Many drugs are used in their treatment, associated with some severe side effects and expensive prices. Today there are many studies carried out with extracts from medicinal plants, used in alternative therapy, and effective in these diseases. They are available for clinical use due to the active phytoconstituents that modulate inflammation and are antioxidants. In carrying out this study, electronic databases were screened: Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar, trying to describe these medicinal plants, and elucidate their biological mechanisms of action. The most numerous references were found on the following plants: <italic>Arctium lappa</italic>, <italic>Glycyrrhiza glabra, Nigella sativa, Urtica dioica,</italic> etc. vary parts of plants are used such as different types of seeds, roots, leaves, fruit, bark, flowers, or even the whole plant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Anatomical Profile of (L.) Species Grown in the Republic of Moldova<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current research deals with the morpho-anatomical characteristics of <italic>Cassia occidentalis</italic> (L.) (Coffee senna plant), grown in the steppe climate conditions of the Republic of Moldova. This study was performed according to investigated organ in vegetative periods of 2019-2021 years. Morphological and anatomical indices of organs with diagnostic role in identifying species and those with adaptive potential to the action of unfavorable growth factors, have been elucidated. These indices were evaluated in the light of data already reported by other researchers. This morpho-anatomical research has revealed new aspects to support some anatomical features already outlined, but less confirmed in the studies of the last decades and will serve as landmarks for a real clarity of the integral microstructural picture of the <italic>C. occidentalis</italic> species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Anthracene and Phenanthrene by (BUK_BTEG1) Isolated from Petrochemical Contaminated Soil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified 16 substances as priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are harmful to humans, including anthracene and phenanthrene. These substances are pervasive pollutants introduced into the environment through anthropogenic and natural processes, causing ecological concerns and necessitating the quest for new strains capable of biodegrading these toxins. A novel strain of the genus <italic>Pseudomonas</italic> was isolated and molecularly identified based on partial 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis as <italic>Pseudomonas stutzeri</italic> strain BUK_BTEG1 from petrochemical contaminated soil. One factor at a time (OFAT) in Bushnell-Haas (BH) media was used to optimize the strain’s biodegradation conditions. The isolate could grow up to 600 mgL<sup>−1</sup> and 400 mgL<sup>−1</sup> of anthracene and phenanthrene as the sole carbon source at an optimum pH of 7.0 and 7.5 respectively, inoculum concentration of 4% (v/v), and temperature of 35°C during 72 hours of incubation. The strain could degrade phenanthrene and anthracene to a maximum of 99 and 72 percent, respectively, under ideal conditions. The breakdown products’ GC-MS analysis revealed the existence of the pathway’s main metabolites, catechol, salicylic acid, and derivatives of phthalic acid. The strain exhibits promising potential for use in the bio-cleansing of environments contaminated by PAHs.metabolites.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Physiological Processes in St. John’s Wort ( L.) Seedlings by Treatments with Triacontanol and Benzyladenine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Treatment of St. John’s wort plantlets with 1 µM triacontanol and 2 µM benzyladenine stimulates growth and metabolic processes, being an environmental-friendly approach for optimizing the cultivation of these valuable medicinal plants under controlled conditions. When the two growth regulators (a bioactive cuticular wax constituent and a cytokinin) are applied simultaneously, they act synergistically, enhancing each other’s effect on the biomass accumulation and on certain parameters of the photosynthetic light use efficiency, such as the effective quantum yield of photosystem II and the overall vitality index of the photosynthetic apparatus which performs the conversion of light energy into usable forms for carbon dioxide assimilation. The results concerning the interactions between the two externally applied growth regulators during the early development of St. John’s wort plants may lead to a more efficient cultivation of this herbal medicinal product, including the possibility to modulate the production of pharmacologically active metabolites.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Characterization of Spp. for Plant Growth Promoting Properties<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A group of free-living bacteria known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inhabit the rhizosphere and aid root development. These rhizobacteria bacteria are vital to the growth of plants and can serve as bio-fertilizer and can enhance food security through green agricultural practices. They exhibit special features which make them potential candidates as bio-fertilizer. Isolation and characterization of rhizobacteria is the first step toward their utilization as bio-fertilizers. Ten rhizobacteria from two different rice farms were isolated and characterized for plant growth promoting properties. The isolated rhizobacteria were identified morphologically, microscopically, biochemically, and molecularly. Plant’s growth promoting properties of these rhizobacteria was also analyzed which includes; Indole 3-acetic acid production (IAA), phosphate solubilisation, hydrogen cyanide production (HCN), ammonia production (NH<sub>3</sub>), and zinc solubilisation. Out of the ten isolates, three were found to have the best plant growth enhancing properties and were therefore the best candidates as bio-fertilizers. 16SrRNA study and phylogenetic analysis was performed in order to unravel the specie of these three isolates and they were identified as <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic>, <italic>Bacillus niacini</italic>, and <italic>Bacillus cereus</italic> with accession numbers OM184294, OM1842295 and OM184296 respectively. These isolates have the potential to be used as bio-fertilizer, which would significantly contribute to food security.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Quick, Simple, Sensitive and Selective LC-MS/MS Method Used for the Screening of Ethephon, Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from Water and Food Samples<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pesticide use has increased steadily over the years in both industrial farming and local agriculture. One of the most widely used pesticides at a global level, glyphosate, has been controversial for many years and many studies have focused on the effects of this compound on human health. Ethephon is also a controversial ripening agent used to ripen crops more quickly. A basic but crucial step in the study of the effects of their use on human health is the development of adequate analytical methodologies for the quantification of the compounds in relevant samples. For this study a quick, simple and selective method which uses LC-MS/MS was developed for the determination of ethephon, glyphosate and AMPA. The method uses selective fragment monitoring for each analyte and the internal standard, without prior analytical separation. Mobile phase used consisted of aqueous ammonium formate and methanol in isocratic elution and the sample cleanup was made using solid phase extraction (SPE). The method was validated with regards to selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision in accordance with applicable guidelines. After validation the LC-MS/MS method was successfully used to determine ethephon, glyphosate and AMPA residues in ground and surface water, as well as vegetable samples.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Evaluation and Pharmacological Activities of Blume Leaf Extract<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The demand for medicinal plants and their derived substances is increasing day by day due to their relevance in the context of drug discovery and development. The goal of this investigation is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical potentials of the grossly underexplored <italic>Antidesma montanum</italic> Blume (Family: Phyllanthaceae). The methanolic extract of the leave of this plant was fractionated and then followed by initial screening of phytochemical. The investigation of the pharmacological potential, which includes antioxidant, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anxiolytic evaluations, was accomplished using an <italic>in vitro</italic> free radical scavenging assay with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), castor oil-induced diarrheal test, egg albumin test, acetic acid-induced writhing model, brewer’s yeast induced fever test, swing test, open field, and light-dark test, respectively. The investigation o phytochemicals proposes that the methanol extract of <italic>A. montanum</italic> possesses flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, amino acids, fixed oils, and sterols. Pharmacological evaluation suggests that <italic>A. montanum</italic> possesses significant antioxidant, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The methanol and chloroform fractions exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activities with an IC<sub>50</sub>: 103 ± 0.05 and 108.7 ± 0.05 µg/ml, respectively. The methanol and chloroform fractions also showed anti-inflammatory capacities in the egg albumin (IC<sub>50</sub> values: 89.10 ± 0.07 and 92.85 ± 0.07 µg/ml, respectively) model. The plant also showed anti-pyretic and anxiolytic activities in a dose-dependent manner. One of the possible sources of phytotherapeutic lead compounds is <italic>A. montanum</italic>. To extract and analyze the key bioactive components of this essential therapeutic plant, more research is required.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Symbols in Japanese Garden<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Creating a Japanese garden raises a number of methodological questions. The form of these gardens are well known, but their religious symbols are not well researched in English literature. The aim of the research is to introduce and interpret the religious symbols and references present in Japanese gardens, to categorize their appearance by taking into account their unique characteristics, their role in the garden, contributing to a deeper understanding and the understanding of the form-shaping approach. The gardens presented by this study are closely related to the practice of the religious community that creates or maintains them. The garden elements do not only serve an aesthetic purpose, but with their spatial presence they constantly refer to religious teachings or attitudes for those who are able to read them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Norepinephrine in the Regulation of Growth, Adhesion and Invasion of in Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mammalian hormones are shown to affect not only regulation of mammalian homeostasis but also play roles in cross-talk between microorganisms and their hosts. In our study, the roles of norepinephrine (NE) at two different concentrations on growth alterations, adhesion - invasion of <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> were investigated.</p> <p>The effects of NE on the growth, adhesion - invasion of <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> ATTC 27853 were examined in human lung carcinoma (A549) cell culture. We analysed two concentrations (<bold>HNE:</bold> 0.04μg/mL and <bold>LNE</bold>: 0.0017 μg/mL) of NE considering NE’s psychological levels in a healthy individual to imitate <italic>in vivo</italic> conditions of the host. Bacterial counts of growth and adhesion-invasion were examined by the colony counting method. Growth of bacterium was significantly reduced in the presence of NE at 90’ incubation (p: 0.0004 for high concentration and p: 0.0003 for low concentration); on the other hand, at 180’ minutes incubation, only low concentration reduced the growth (p˂0.0001). While adhesion was increased in the presence of low NE concentration (p: 0.013), there was no alteration in invasion of <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> in the presence of NE (p˃0.05). Our results suggested that NE has different effects on the growth and adhesion of <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> and these effects depend on concentration and incubation period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Constituents of the Essential Oil from ssp. from Algerian Pre-Sahara<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of <italic>Salvia verbenaca</italic> (L.) Briq. ssp. <italic>clandestina</italic> (L.) Pugsl. (<italic>Lamiaceae</italic>) growing wild in Bou Saâda, pre-Saharan region of Algeria, was analyzed by GC-MS. Sixty-four compounds were detected, representing 95.6% of the whole oil, among them forty five compounds are identified in this sample for the first time. The essential oil of <italic>S. verbenaca</italic> ssp. <italic>clandestena</italic> showed the predominance of sesquiterpenes (56.4%) followed by monoterpene derivatives (35.5%). The main constituents were β-pinene (10.2%), spathulenol (8.7%), caryophylene oxide (6.1%), α-pinene (5.2%), germacrene D (5%) and α-gurjunene (4.9%). Chemical composition of the essential oil from our sample may be categorized as sesquiterpene and monoterpene chemotype among the four chemotypes identified for <italic>Salvia</italic> species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Plant Growth Retardants on Development of Poinsettia ”Christmas Feeling” Cultivar<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The poinsettias were cultivated years ago as medicinal and ornamental plants, too; but in the recent time are in the light of world flower assortment surprising with new shapes and colors in the cold season. The ornamental values of these plants are given by bracts which can have the same size as foliage leaves or even larger. The tendency of floral industry consists in obtaining high quality ornamental plants with superior marketable price. In these regards, the role of plant growth retardants in regulating the growth of poinsettia is important to obtain healthy, compact bushes and extended decoration period. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the effects of plant growth retardants on poinsettia. Five treatments with different retardants were applied as drench or spray. In the experiment four replicates and a total of 144 poinsettias were used. Treatments with paclobutrazol (60 mg/l sprayed), daminozide (2500 mg/l sprayed) and chlormequat chloride (1000 mg/l sprayed), showed the best results in case of marketability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cormophytes from the Romanian Flora Known as Medicinal Plants in Other Countries?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Romania's medicinal flora is an important source of raw material for pharmacological research and drug production. By consulting the pharmacological literature on authenticated scientific sources such as Google Scholar, 15 species of medicinal plants existing in the Romanian flora, but not used in the traditional Romanian medicine, were identified. In accordance with the World Health Organization's call on all countries to use traditional medicine in primary care, we set out to help complete the list of medicinal plants in Romania using information from traditional medicine in other countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Can Influence Antibiotic Susceptibilities Even in Mono- and Co-Culture Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> and <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> are known as important nosocomial infectious agents also their co-infections are commonly seen in some patient groups. It is well known that host factors such as hormones have roles in modulation of growth, pathogenesis and susceptibilities to antimicrobials. In our study, the influences of norepinephrine (NE) and melatonin (MEL) on antibiotic susceptibilities were examined in mono and co-culture conditions. Methicilin resistant <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> ATCC 27853 were investigated to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin in the absence/presence of NE (0.0017 and 0.04μg/mL) and MEL (6 and 60 pg/mL) by microdilution method in mono and co-culture. It was found that hormones decreased (among 2-64 fold) MIC and MBC values of both antibiotics for MRSA. However, it was shown that hormones had no effect on MIC values of both antibiotics for <italic>P. aeruginosa.</italic> MIC and MBC values of both antibiotics for co-culture were found to be reduced compared to monoculture of MRSA; were found to be increased compared to monoculture of <italic>P. aeruginosa.</italic> Whereas, hormones decreased MIC values of both antibiotics in co-culture conditions. Our results suggest that both hormones decreased MIC values and it seems that hormones could influence antibiotic susceptibilities in a strain-dependent manner.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Performance of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) In Various Vegetation Regions of the Ethiopian Highlands<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on the environment of Ethiopia, a country highly sensitive to droughts severely affecting vegetation. Vegetation monitoring of Ethiopian Highlands requires visualization of environmental parameters to assess droughts negatively influencing agricultural sustainable management of crops. Therefore, this study presented mapping of several climate and environmental variables including Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The data were visualized and interpreted alongside the topographic data to evaluate the environmental conditions for vegetation. The datasets included WorldClim and GEBCO and Digital Chart of the World (DCW). Research has threefold objectives: i) environmental mapping; ii) technical cartographic scripting; iii) data processing. Following variables were visualized on seven new maps: 1) topography; 2) soil moisture; 3) T °C minimum; 4) T °C maximum; 5) Wind speed; 6) Precipitation; 7) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). New high-resolution thematic environmental maps are presented and the utility of GMT for mapping multi-source datasets is described. With varying degrees of soil moisture (mean value of 15.0), min T°C (−1.8°C to 24°C), max T°C (14.4°C to 40.2°C) and wind speed (0.1 to 6.1 m/s), the maps demonstrate the variability of the PDSI fields over the country area (from −11.7 to 2.3) induced by the complex sum of these variables and intensified by the topographic effects notable over the Ethiopian Highlands which can be used for vegetation analysis. The paper presents seven new maps and contributes to the environmental studies of Ethiopia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue