rss_2.0Medical Journal of Cell Biology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medical Journal of Cell Biology Journal of Cell Biology Feed of the coronary arteries in Eurasian wild boar ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coronary circulation determines the proper functioning of the heart muscle and blood circulation in the body. Cardiovascular diseases in humans are creating an ever-increasing demand for more research into their pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.</p> <p>Animal models of organs are an indispensable part of research for the development of human medicine. Due to the high genetic similarity, the most commonly used donor is the domestic pig. The Eurasian wild boar is the ancestor of the domestic pig and an invasive species not covered by European protection programmes. Given its analogous structure and genotype to the pig, it could potentially also become an organ donor.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to analyse the normal coronary anatomy of the Eurasian wild boar and compare it to humans, domestic pigs and other animal species.</p> <p>The study was conducted on 60 wild boar hearts. Twenty-eight slides were prepared using acrylic, while liquid latex was injected into 32 hearts. The blood vessels were then manually prepared using surgical instruments for examination.</p> <p>Both the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery of the boar diverge from the ascending aorta from opposite aortic sinuses. The left coronary artery begins its course in the left aortic sinus, starting between the left appendage and the pulmonary trunk. It then heads inferiorly. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right atrium and right ventricle.</p> <p>The study points to the wild boar coronary system’s individual morphological features and notes the common arterial patterns in mammals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue vitro evaluation of biocompatibility of two intracanal medicaments on stem cells from apical papilla – a comparative study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study explore some of the factors showing the biocompatibility and cellular metabolism of stem cells from apical papilla after their treatment with hapten solutions of two intracanal medicaments - Hydrocal and Acroseal. The MTT test and Annexin V test are used and the levels of HMOX-1 and IDO monitored after 48 hours of incubation in hapten solutions. In addition to proliferation and apoptosis, the possible sensitizing potential of these dental materials is assessed. The results show that after 48 hours, the groups treated with dental haptens found significantly fewer living cells than in the control group, which is especially indicative in the case of Acroseal. The proliferative activity of stem cells is increased, but without significant differences. HMOX-1 was statistically elevated in the Acroseal-treated group, indicative of its sensitizing capacity. IDO is statistically elevated in the group of cells treated with Hydrocal, which unequivocally speaks of the serious oxidative stress up to 48 hours and the need for protective action of this enzyme.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the flexor retinaculum and its individual variation in carpal tunnel syndrome predisposition - a systematic review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The flexor retinaculum is a structure located in the wrist, which spreads between the bones forming the carpal tunnel. Its task is to maintain the relative stabilization and protection of incorporated structures. It is also an attachment for the thenar muscles, causing biomechanical interactions in the wrist. Pathologies occurring in the carpal tunnel structures often cause pressure increase, leading to compression of the median nerve, causing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This work aims to review literature knowledge and compile research outcomes in the PubMED and Google scholar databases.</p> <p>The results indicate the variability in size and aspects of flexor retinaculum due to gender, and the relationship between gender and the incidence of CTS. The data also show the flexor retinaculum’s molecular variability and environmental factors’ potential impact on these changes. This article demonstrates how anatomical conditions and physical features influence CTS development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a Marker of Gestational Complications – A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Adipose tissue secretes dozens of biologically active molecules known as adipokines or adipocytokines. Apelin receptor early endogenous ligand (ELABELA, also known as ELA or APELA) is a circulating signaling protein expressed in placental tissue that binds to apelin receptors. The first animal experimental findings suggested that the ELABELA deficiency might be responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia--like symptoms, i.e., hypertension and proteinuria in mice. Exogenous ELABELA supplementation reverted preeclampsia symptoms and normalized fetal birth weight in mice. Several in vitro studies confirmed that ELABELA supplementation could improve trophoblast cell functions such as invasiveness and proliferation capacity. Thus, the ELABELA axis could serve as the target of innovative therapies for gestational complications. Nonetheless, most human studies do not support the thesis that disturbances in ELABELA secretion in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Therefore, it is unlikely that ELABELA could serve as a novel early marker of preeclampsia in humans. Alterations in the ELABELA secretion have also been discovered among patients with other gestational complications such as GDM and fetal growth restriction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Eye Syndrome – Case Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to report clinical features, differential diagnosis and successful surgical outcome of a patient with myopic strabismus fixus, also known as Heavy Eye syndrome (HES). We present a case of a 47-year-old man who presented to the Ophthalmology Department with diplopia and poor vision. In the past, he had been diagnosed with Graves’ disease, high myopia, and secondary open-angle glaucoma. He had undergone orbital decompression and cataract surgery of both eyes. On examination, the patient had esotropia and hypotropia with limited abduction and elevation. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with HES. Yokoyama’s surgery combined with a medial rectus muscle recession in the right eye, were performed. The procedure reduced esotropia, hypotropia and improved ductions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 Genes in the Immune Response of Porcine Buccal Mucosa Cells<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The genes considered in this study, namely, <italic>LYN, CCL2, ITGB3</italic> and <italic>IL6</italic> can be related to immune response in porcine buccal mucosa cells primary cultured <italic>in vitro</italic>. These genes are also responsible for, inter alia, cell migration, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, intracellular signal transduction, extracellular matrix binding and wound healing. A total of 20 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts bred on commercial farms were used to obtain buccal mucosa cell cultures, which were harvested on the 7<sup>th</sup>, 15<sup>th</sup> and 30<sup>th</sup> day after initiation of the culture. Expression levels of <italic>LYN, CCL2, ITGB3</italic> and <italic>IL6</italic> were evaluated employing Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. All studied genes showed expression. The expression of <italic>CCL2</italic> on day 15 was the highest of all factors measured. The greatest difference between the measurements occurred in gene <italic>IL6,</italic> between 7<sup>th</sup> and 15<sup>th</sup> day, while the least difference between the measurements occurred in gene <italic>LYN</italic>, between 7<sup>th</sup> and 15<sup>th</sup> day. Moreover, on the 7<sup>th</sup> day, <italic>LYN</italic> presented the lowest expression among all studied genes. Although <italic>in vitro</italic> conditions are much more controlled than <italic>in vivo</italic> conditions, all the factors that may positively or negatively affect cultured cells still cannot be fully predicted. Nevertheless, <italic>LYN, CCL2, ITGB3</italic> and <italic>IL6</italic> are a valuable starting point for studying further immunological processes in oral mucosal epithelial cells. Given their high regenerative potential, research into them is a highly valuable source of information for future wound healing therapies, where immunological processes should be carefully considered.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influence of L-Methionine, DL-Methionine, and a Methionine Hydroxy Analog on Proliferation and Differentiation Potential of Avian Myoblasts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Methionine is an essential amino critical to many cell functions including the synthesis of proteins. Supplementation of methionine in vivo is typically through L-methionine, DL-methionine, or a methionine hydroxy analog (MHA). The goal of this study was to compare the function of L-methionine, DL-methionine, and an MHA as a source of methionine to myoblasts in vitro. Avian myoblasts isolated from turkey embryos were plated in media containing varying concentrations of DL-methionine (DLM; 1.125 mg/mL or 0.56 mg/mL) or methionine hydroxy analog (MHA; 1.28 mg/mL or 0.64 mg/mL) as well as a methionine deficient negative control group and an L-methionine supplemented positive control group. The results of the proliferation assay exhibited cell division in the absence of methionine which was not significantly different than the positive control group. Results from the myoblast fusion assay revealed significantly greater myotube diameter between methionine supplemented groups compared to the methionine deficient negative control. The findings of this study show an ability for avian myoblasts to proliferate in the absence of methionine, the significance of which is discussed. Additionally, findings from the fusion assay suggest that DL-methionine and MHA are potential cost-effective substitutes for methionine supplementation during terminal differentiation of avian myoblasts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Manifestations of Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to present up-to-date information on ocular symptoms of pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome. The reviewers obtained the results based on a search of an electronic database. The pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome appears a few weeks after COVID-19 in children. The exact etiology remains unclear. It is diagnosed based on clinical and laboratory criteria. The most prevalent manifestation of the syndrome is non-purulent conjunctivitis (observed in around 50% of cases). The other ocular findings in the pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome can be; eyelid swelling, bilateral uveitis or vitreous hyperreflective dots in the posterior vitreous. The treatment of the ophthalmic symptoms is systemic and topical, targeting the enhanced inflammatory response of the organism and the presence of the given ocular findings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Treatment of Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome - Case Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The iridocorneal endothelial syndrome manifests in three clinical types: Chandler syndrome, progressive iris atrophy, and Cogan-Reese syndrome. It is caused by the presence of abnormal corneal endothelium on the iris stroma and anterior chamber angle leading to usually unilateral, progressive iris atrophy, glaucoma, and/or corneal edema. The etiology is yet unclear. It affects mostly young adults, mostly females. Management of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome is complex: conservative and surgical, depending on the stage of the disease and intensity of present symptoms. A 30-year-old female with a medical history of the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome was reported to the Ophthalmology Department for consultation. Slit-lamp examination revealed iris atrophy and superior-nasal corectopia in the left eye. On gonioscopy, the angle was wide open in the right eye, but there were iridocorneal adhesions and incomplete angle-closure in the left eye. The patient was provided with maximum local therapy consisting of three anti-glaucoma medications. On later check-ups, the patient presented corneal edema and increased intraocular pressure. She was qualified to ExPress mini shunt trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Two years later, a patient came to the clinic because of increased values of intraocular pressure (up to 59 mmHg), slit-lamp examination showed that the ExPress implant was congested with fragments of the corneal endothelial cells. Thanks to YAG iridotomy the implant was recanalized.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue application of exosomes in medicine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Exosomes are a distinct type of extracellular vesicles that play a major role in intracellular transport and communication. Depending on the cell of origin, exosomes can contain diverse constituents of a cell, including DNA, RNA, lipids, metabolites, cytosolic and cell-surface proteins, playing important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Due to these facts, they are subject of extensive research aiming at translating the knowledge into clinical approaches that are at the interface between nanomedicine and biopharmaceuticals.</p> <p>Their potential clinical use mostly revolves around the fields of diagnostics and drug delivery, especially important in treatment of cancer. The conventional and emerging methods of exosome isolation are either based on their physical properties (such as density and/or size) or their functions. However, the isolation approaches are still characterised by significant downsides, lacking standardisation, and ensuring purity. The review gives a critical overview on exosomes characteristics, isolation approaches and the potential that exosomes hold in developing new clinical approaches of modern medicine, highlighting the need for further research to fully grasp their potential and translate the knowledge into future therapeutic solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for in vitro culture of granulosa cells and ovarian follicles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The in vitro culture of ovarian follicles or cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) is used to study the factors that regulate follicular development and may have potential use in artificial reproductive technology (ART). Before ovulation, the follicle is formed by oocyte and cell populations known as granulosa cells (GCs). These cells build the internal and external mass of the follicular wall. Oocyte growth and proliferation of the surrounding cells depend on the gap junctions between the oocyte and the GCs. Maintenance of the optimal in vitro culture system allowing for preservation of follicle architecture and granulosa-oocyte interaction may be critical for success in vitro maturation of follicles. Recently many studies have focused on a culture of GCs, which have important functions related to steroidogenesis. Granulosa cells maintained in in vitro conditions exhibit stem cell properties making it important to consider in vitro culture (IVC) methods of the GC population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue renewal and stemness potency of follicular cells depended of telomerase activity and TERT expression – short review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Several hypotheses have been proposed, relating to the potential genesis of follicular cells in the ovarian niche. Reports using mice as an experimental model have suggested that the ovaries may contain stem cells that are likely involved in the formation of new follicles in adult reproductive life. Over recent years, various types of ovarian cells have been identified and described to confirm or disprove the existence of ovarian adult stem cells. Most research is focused on granulosa cells (GCs), which are essential for follicular development and maturation of female germ cells (oocytes). GCs exhibit the features of stem cells, such as expression of stem cell markers: OCT-4, Sox-2, Nanog as well as certain markers of mesenchymal stem cells, including CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD117, and CD166. Another discovery in favor of the potential stemness of GCs is their ability to transdifferentiate towards other cell lines and high telomerase (TERT) activity in dividing compartments of the follicle during its maturation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of bovine in vitro matured oocytes following ultra-rapid vitrification<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to examine viability of cattle oocytes after cryopreservation. Oocytes after <italic>in vitro</italic> maturation (IVM) were vitrified in minimum volume on the nickel electron microscopy grids by ultra-rapid cooling technique. After warming and subsequent in vitro fertilization the presumptive zygotes were cultured to reach the stage of the blastocyst (Bl). Several devitrified oocytes were processed for electron microscopy assay. Although, embryo cleavage and Bl percentages in the vitrified group were slightly lower than in the control group (P &lt; 0.05), the Bl total cell number (TCN), apoptosis and dead cell percentages did not differ between both groups. However, significant difference was found between day 7 (D7) and day 8 (D8) Bl in the TCN in control (108.0 vs. 90.5) and vitrified group (103.75 vs 98.14). Electron microscopy of frozen oocytes revealed slight reversible injuries in mitochondria and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), nevertheless, the development of devitrified oocytes to the Bl stage was comparable to those in fresh oocytes. In conclusion, higher proportion of slower developing Bl (D8) compared to D7 Bl may be related to the mentioned minor damages of some organelles in vitrified oocytes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue nanoparticles in targeted human cancer therapy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the leading causes of death across the world is cancer. Despite massive attempts to develop efficient chemotherapy medications, there is still a significant toxicity and selectivity problem. We are looking for novel therapies and preventative strategies due to the toxicity of contemporary chemotherapy and cancer cell resistance to anticancer drugs. The structure and molecular characteristics of Na2SiO3 nanoparticles were investigated using density-functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G** level. The study looked at engineering qualities and several molecular recipes like HOMO, LUMO, and Egap in order to figure out how to arrange molecules as a powerful antioxidant, and hence the majority of the compounds are anticancer. We discovered that Na2SiO3 gel particles are responsible for antioxidant activity, implying that it can be employed as an antioxidant and anticancer for cancer prevention and treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the zona pellucida patterns during oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development in mammals: mini-review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The mammalian zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix that surrounds immature and mature oocytes and early embryos until the stage of a blastocyst and its implantation. This mini-review summarizes basic information on the ZP and its morphologic and functional changes during <italic>in vitro</italic> oocyte maturation and fertilization and <italic>in vivo</italic> pre-implantation embryo development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue conduits may show a different inflammatory response - comparative study at transcript level<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), together with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), are both still the most efficient procedures for myocardial revascularization to treat advanced coronary artery disease (CAD). Donor blood vessels used in CABG are usually the internal thoracic artery (ITA) and saphenous vein (SV). The importance of inflammation and inflammatory pathways in graft patency is well established. Nevertheless, not all molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory process appear to be clear. Employing the expressive microarray approach to analyze the transcriptome of both venous and arterial grafts, five GO BP terms has been selected: “cellular response to interferon-gamma”, “inflammatory response”, “interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway”, “response to interferon-gamma” and “positive regulation of inflammatory response”. This study aimed to evaluate potential molecular factors that could be characteristic markers for both SV and ITA conduits.</p><p><bold>Running title</bold>: Aortocoronary conduits may show a different inflammatory response</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue approaches in drug development – a concise review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>In vitro</italic> models represent an alternative technique to <italic>in vivo</italic> or <italic>ex vivo</italic> studies in the drug development process. Cell-based assays are used to measure the level of proliferation and toxicity, as well as activation of signalling pathways and changes in morphology in cultivated cells. The studies conducted <italic>in vitro</italic> are aimed to estimate the newly synthesised drugs’ ability to permeate biological barriers and exert their therapeutic or cytotoxic effects. However, more than half of all studied drugs fail in the second or third phase of clinical trials due to a lack of confirmed efficacy. About a third of drugs fail because of safety issues, such as unacceptable levels of toxicity. To reduce attrition level in drug development, it is crucial to consider the implementation of translational phenotypic assays as well as to decipher various molecular mechanisms of action for new molecular entities. In this review, we summarise the existing cell-based methods most frequently used in the studies on drugs, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks.</p><p><bold>Running title</bold>: Cell-based approaches in drug development</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue molecular markers involved in immune system homeostasis and hemopoietic organ development are differentially regulated during oocytes in vitro maturation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The growth and maturation of the oocyte is a dynamic process which requires a variable supply of hormones, growth factors and energy. These needs are met partially by the surrounding somatic cells and the cumulus-oocyte complex, which communicate bi-directionally via gap junctions. Identifying and analyzing protein expression in the oocyte can provide insight in its development and growth. Further, like bone marrow stem cells, if relevant marker genes are found in oocytes, there is a potential for the oocyte to be manipulated into becoming hemopoietic stem cells. In this study, porcine oocytes were isolated and subjected to microarray analysis to compare the oocyte gene expression in vivo and in vitro maturation (IVM). Genes identified belonged to both ‘hemopoietic or lymphoid organ development’(GO:0048534) and ‘immune system development’ (GO:0002520), and the markers can be used to identify several activities such as cell migration, neurogenesis and proliferation. The following are the identified genes and all were downregulated after IVM to varying degrees: ID2, VEGFA, TGFBR3, INHBA, CDK6, BCL11A, MYO1E, ITGB1, EGR1, NOTCH2, SPTA1, KIT and TPD52. Our results should provide new markers to further investigate oocyte development and growth regulation.</p><p><bold>Running title</bold>: Markers of hemopoietic organ development</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue markers of human cumulus oophorus cells cultured in vitro – transcriptomic profile<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The presence of CCs around the oocyte after ovulation is one of the key elements contributing to oocyte developmental competence. In the presented study, we used CCs from 12 patients aged 18-40 diagnosed with infertility. After harvesting cells on day 1, 7, 15 and 30 of culture, total RNA was isolated and transcriptomic analysis was performed. The DAVID software indicated the following GO BP terms: “cell junction organization”, “cell migration”, “cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation”, “cell morphogenesis” and “cell motility”. Of the genes belonging to all ontological groups, the most downregulated were: SLC7A8, DFNB31, COL1A1, CDC42SE1, TGFBR3, HMGB1, with the most upregulated genes being: ANXA3, KIAA1199, HTR2B, VCAM1, DKK1.</p><p>While many studies focus on attempts to obtain fully competent oocytes, scientists still have difficulty attaining adequate results in vitro. Lack of adequate knowledge often results in low in vitro fertilization efficiency. Therefore, our research focuses on CCs cells, thanks to which the oocyte most likely acquires developmental competence. The main purpose of the study was to identify the potential molecular markers responsible for cell junction organization, migration, differentiation, morphogenesis and motility.</p><p><bold>Running title</bold>: New markers of human cumulus oophorus cells cultured <italic>in vitro</italic></p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue search of markers useful for evaluation of graft patency - molecular analysis of ‘muscle system process’ for internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein conduits<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is the surgical method most commonly used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD). The vessels that are used in CABG are usually the internal thoracic artery (ITA) and the saphenous vein (SV). Transplant patency is one of the most important factors affecting transplant success. In this study, we used an expressive microarray method, approved by RT-qPCR, for transcriptome analysis of arterial and venous grafts. In the search for potential molecular factors, we analyzed gene ontologies of different expression based on the muscular system. Among interesting groups, we distinguished muscle cell proliferation, muscle contraction, muscle system process, regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and smooth muscle cell proliferation. The highest increase in gene expression was observed in: ACTN2, RBPMS2, NR4A3, KCNA5, while the smallest decrease in expression was shown by the P2RX1, KCNH2, DES and MYOT genes. Particularly noteworthy are the ACTN2 and NR4A3 genes, which can have a significant impact on vascular patency. ACTN2 is a gene that can affect the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, while NR4A3 occurs in 4 of the 5 ontological groups discussed and can affect the inflammatory process in the blood vessel. To summarize, the presented study provided valuable insight into the molecular aspects characterizing the vessels used in CABG, and in particular identified genes that may be the target for further studies on duct patency.</p><p><bold>Running title</bold>: CABG grafts’ molecular analysis of ‘muscle system process’</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue