rss_2.0Medical Journal of Cell Biology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medical Journal of Cell Biology Journal of Cell Biology Feed carcinoma – a complicated matter<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hepatocellular carcinoma and socioeconomic status of a population have a complicated relationship. While the determinants that are associated with increasing the risks of getting the disease are attributing the incidence and prevalence in certain regions, the availability of essential healthcare plays the main role in favourable prognosis and lower mortality rates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue anatomical terminology: effective learning strategies in medical education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>All healthcare professionals have to master the extensive anatomical terminology, which is an indispensable tool in communication. The <italic>Terminologia Anatomica</italic>, formerly known as <italic>Nomina Anatomica</italic>, is a particularly useful tool for effective communication among anatomists and specialists beyond the field, both within a medical context and the broader scientific discourse. The inaugural edition of the Terminologia Anatomica, which was issued in 1998 by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, gained widespread international recognition. Nevertheless, many authors believe that precise definitions and valid names for the parts and segments of the anatomical structures that are clinically and didactically useful should be incorporated in future editions of anatomical nomenclature. Thus, refining and extending the Terminologia Anatomica remains a challenging task for future generations of anatomists. Simultaneously, the intricate nature of anatomical nomenclature poses a major challenge, as learning, remembering, and understanding the complex terminology is a difficult task, especially for first-year medical students and newcomers to the field, emphasizing the need to simplify the anatomical language. The purpose of this article is to explore specific strategies designed to elevate the educational experience of medical students as they endeavor to master human gross anatomy and its terminology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and multi-organ effects of MOTS-c and other mitochondrial-derived peptides in the endocrine system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The discovery of mitochondria-derived peptides has facilitated a comprehensive understanding of their protective effects on various organs. One of such peptides, Mitochondrial ORF of the 12S rRNA type-C (MOTS-c), was initially characterized in 2015 as a bioactive molecule that regulates gene expression and cellular metabolism via 5’-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK).</p> <p>MOTS-c has exhibited notable protective effects across diverse organs, including protection against diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, alleviating the impacts of ageing, and regulating the immune response. Despite these well-established functions, the precise role of MOTS-c in the endocrine system remains elusive. However, recent research emphasizes the increasing significance of MOTS-c and other mitochondrial-derived peptides in regulating endocrine system function and addressing metabolism-related diseases. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the current information on the action of MOTS-c and other mitochondrial--derived peptides in various endocrine system organs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue we make anatomical specimen last forever? Technical note on photogrammetry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Photogrammetry is technique which allows generation of three-dimensional models using photographic images. It is relatively new technique and very rarely used, as for now, in anatomy, but in our opinion, it has a great potential for being great alternative for conventional anatomy teaching methods.</p> <p>In the anatomy department of Wroclaw Medical University, we decided to check usefulness of this method as it comes to generation of anatomical models. In process we came up with a very simple, yet effective way of taking photos and generating models sufficient for didactics. We based our technique on very accessible and user-friendly mobile phone apps, basic medical-grade lamp setup, mobile phone cameras, and free computer software. All that makes our technique easy, fast, and cheap – which makes this method a better, potentially widely available alternative for conventional learning materials.</p> <p>We are sure photogrammetry will become more and more popular because of its superiority to digital anatomical resources such as three-dimensional atlases. Additionally, we can see a rise in popularity of technologies such as VR (virtual reality) and AR (augmented reality), which can be useful in further implementation and development of photogrammetric 3D anatomical models as studies have shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the frontal recess: Specimens, endoscopy, and CT perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The frontal sinus, situated between the external and internal plates of the frontal bone, posterior to the brow ridges, is the most superior and complex structure within the paranasal sinuses. The frontal sinus outflow tract encompasses two parts: the frontal ostium superiorly and the frontal recess inferiorly, collectively forming the frontal sinus drainage pathway. The frontal recess represents the most anterosuperior portion of the ethmoid. Pneumatization of this area can extend from the agger nasi cell anteriorly to the ethmoidal bulla posteriorly. This recess is bounded by the orbital plate of the ethmoid laterally and the middle nasal concha (‘middle turbinate’) medially. The detailed understanding of frontal sinus anatomy is indispensable for medical professionals, including surgeons, otolaryngologists, rhinologists, and radio-logists. The frontal recess is clinically important, especially in the diagnosis and management of various medical conditions, particularly sinusitis. Surgeons often need to navigate this intricate area. Radiological imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, is frequently employed to evaluate the frontal sinus and its drainage pathway, enabling clinicians to identify abnormalities such as tumors, polyps, or foreign bodies. In this study, we investigated the anatomical intricacies of the frontal recess using specimens, CT scans, and endoscopic imagery sourced from didactic and clinical settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue dysfunctions leading to the pathogenic cascade of atopic dermatitis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder caused by the dysfunction of a multitude of genetic components. This paper reviewed three main genetic factors leading to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis including: the epidermal barrier, the body’s immune system, and the filaggrin protein.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue tendon muscle injuries – anatomy, mechanisms and rehabilitation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This review examines the role of physical therapists in the treatment of hamstring injuries (HSI) using detailed anatomy and knowledge of the most common mechanisms leading to injury. The authors of the analyzed works pay attention to the appropriate prevention of hamstring injuries, especially in professional sports. Diagnostics should include determining the mechanism of injury, because rehabilitation will fully depend on it.</p> <p>In the rehabilitation process, attention should be paid to the time in which actions are taken, because each stage of rehabilitation brings different difficulties.</p> <p>A physiotherapist has many tools that clearly influence how quickly the patient will recover. The treatment process for a patient with HSI requires further research and improvement of guidelines, as it is one of the most common injuries of the posterior thigh muscle group with a high risk of recurrence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the microscopic terrain of the small intestinal epithelium: a comprehensive overview of general architecture and the present understanding of intestinal stem cells<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the microscopic landscape of the small intestinal epithelium, focusing on its general structure and the current state of knowledge regarding intestinal stem cells. The small intestine’s epithelial layer is intricately organized, comprising various cell types with specialized functions, including goblet cells, enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, Paneth cells, microfold cells (M cells), and tuft cells. These cells collectively contribute to essential physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, and immune response regulation. The review delves into the role of intestinal stem cells, residing in the crypts, and their significance in maintaining tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Understanding the microscopic intricacies of the small intestinal epithelium is crucial for unraveling its physiological functions and exploring potential therapeutic avenues.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue superior alveolar artery – an anatomical and clinical case report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During a routine dissection of infratemporal fossa on educational purposes abnormality of posterior superior alveolar artery was found. This abnormality stays in relation to atypical anatomy of the facial artery in this cadaver. Such an unusual course of branches may have a profound meaning during surgery in the infratemporal and facial area and might have educational value. A case report was conducted using routine dissection techniques, and the material was accessed through a local informed donation program.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue anatomy of the sphenoid bone and its terminology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The sphenoid bone, an unpaired, irregular, and pneumatic (air-filled) component of the neurocranium, is a clinically important landmark, particularly in surgery and radiology. This bone is often regarded as one of the most complex bones of the skull. This literature review aims to compile peer-reviewed articles concerning the anatomy of the sphenoid bone while briefly exploring its clinical relevance. The sphenoid bone consists of a centrally positioned body containing the sphenoidal sinus, as well as three pairs of processes projecting from the body, namely the greater wings, lesser wings, and pterygoid processes. The sphenoid is closely associated with five cranial nerves (CNs II, III, IV, V<sub>1</sub>, V<sub>2</sub>, and VI) and is adjacent to the pituitary gland. The cavernous sinus, housing the internal carotid artery, lies laterally to the body of the sphenoid. Various neurological conditions, such as injury, inflammation, vascular malformations, aneurysms, and tumors, can either directly impact the sphenoid or occur in close proximity to it. A comprehensive understanding of the anatomy of the sphenoid is indispensable for diagnosing and planning the treatment of these conditions. Therefore, a detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the head, including the sphenoid, is essential in clinical practice. It ensures accurate diagnoses, safe surgical procedures, and effective management of diverse conditions affecting the skull, sinuses, brain, and adjacent structures. Inaccuracies or errors in the diagnosis or treatment of such conditions can lead to adverse patient outcomes, including various complications and delayed management of serious neurological conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue piriformis muscle syndrome – anatomy, diagnosis and the role of physiotherapy. A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This review examines the role of the physiotherapist in diagnosing piriformis muscle syndrome (PS), taking into account the exact anatomy of the muscle and the arsenal of tests the physiotherapist can use. In the works we researched, talking about PS ignores the role of the physiotherapist as the first specialist the patient should turn to. Many works emphasize the physician’s physical examination and often surgical intervention. The participation of a physiotherapist in the process of diagnosing ailments such as PS requires further research, but already with a high degree of reliability, a physiotherapeutic examination can speed up the process of diagnosis and treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue pattern of branches and ganglions of cervical sympathetic trunk- single case study with clinical implications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During routine dissection for didactic purposes, we found unusual branching pattern of cervical sympathetic trunk. In our case cervical sympathetic trunk had not only superior, middle, and inferior ganglia, but also presented two more ganglia in its main course. One of accessory ganglia was identified to be vertebral ganglion and presented with vertebral loop. All three cardiac cervical nerves emerged from another, extravertebral ganglion, which was supplied from sympathetic trunk. We are convinced that variability of cervical sympathetic trunk is clinically significant in surgery of head, neck, and cervical spine as well as in anatomy education. Therefore, we present our case showing a possible variation of this structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue atypical obturator nerve: an anatomical and clinical case report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An undescribed junction between the obturator nerve and the saphenous nerve was identified during an autopsy. A case report was conducted using routine dissection techniques, and the material was accessed through a local informed donation program. The case report presented here has an important clinical implications for surgeons operating in the area. An understanding of the anatomy of the obturator nerve and knowledge of its variations is essential for surgical procedures, pain management, radiological diagnosis, and education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and metabolic changes in neurological manifestations of Post-COVID conditions with special consideration of spectroscopy MR analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Post-COVID conditions (PCC) are conditions that continue or develop after acute COVID-19 infection. This review provides a comprehensive overview of current knowledge on the molecular and metabolic basis of neurological manifestations of PCC, with particular emphasis on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) analysis. MRS is a technique used to measure the concentrations of different metabolites in tissues within the human body (including central nervous system) and may contribute to a more precise understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition and the development of new therapeutic methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and arterial vascularization of the kidney in the European fallow deer (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The red deer (<italic>Cervus elaphus</italic>) and the European fallow deer (<italic>Dama dama)</italic> belong to the deer family and are found in Eurasia, North America and South America. In Poland, just after the European roe deer, they are the most common cervids.</p> <p>The present study aimed to describe the morphological structure and vascularization of kidneys in red and fallow deer. For this purpose, 96 kidneys were obtained from 48 individuals, which were measured and weighed. Preparations were made using two methods. The first allowed the renal arteries to be injected with stained latex and the soft tissues fixed in a formalin solution. The second is to obtain a corrosive preparation by injecting a self-curing polymer and leaving it in an enzymatic bath. The kidneys of the red deer are larger and heavier than those of the European fallow deer. The relation of the cortex to the medulla is similar between the two species, with a marked difference between wild and farmed specimens, indicating a correlation between kidney morphology and environmental factors. The renal artery is a strongly marked vessel that bifurcates into the cranial renal artery and the caudal renal artery, with subsequent triple segmentation of each, resulting in efficient vascularisation of a vital organ for survival. The information gathered may prove crucial to the future veterinary care of farmed cervids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of connective tissue features and selected forearm structures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Connective tissue is an extremely divaricated structure and, unlike other tissues, made up of proteins combined in various configurations. This construction is characterized by high variability and the ability to adapt through the appropriate selection of synthesized matrix components. That feature helps properly stabilize the body’s joints. The content of receptors enables information transfer about stimuli acting on itself and on neighboring structures.</p> <p>This work aims are to collect information about selected forearm structures, its features, functions and receptors content. One of the objectives is to improve the knowledge organization, indicate possible areas to expand and to inspire exploration diversity of connective tissue.</p> <p>Structures described in the article include the transverse carpal ligament, the superficial and deep fascia of the forearm, the interosseous membrane, the flexor retinaculum system and the palmar aponeurosis. These structures are well-known even to inexperienced science students. However, acquired knowledge is still incomplete and possible to explore.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Microbiota and its impact on the inflammation-dysplasia-cancer sequence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The understanding and explanation of inflammation-dysplasia-cancer sequence is challenging. The gut microbiota is an important factor for the intestine wall. The changes in bacteria quality and/or quantity (dysbiosis) may begin the colon inflammation. This paper reviewed the gut microbiome risk factors which may lead to colon cancer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue – a particular threat to women. A review of risk factors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Poland, cholelithiasis affects approximately 20% of the population and require approximately 45.000 cholecystectomies per year. Women, especially mature women, are more at risk of developing this condition. Hormonal and reproductive factors are the reason for higher incidence in women. In this publication, we review significant factors affecting this situation. The anatomical structure of the gallbladder may have a significant impact on the course of the cholecystectomy, and the occurrence of any intra- or post-operative complications. The pathomechanism of cholelithiasis is described, as well as the basic risk factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the fascia – cells and extracellular matrix<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fascia continues to be a significant topic in numerous studies due to its unique functions that contribute to maintaining various bodily functions. The current article focuses on the crucial aspects of fascia and provides an essential collection of basics to understand the phenomenon of fascia. It describes the anatomical structure, with emphasis on the division into layers. Furthermore, the article explains how fascia affects muscle movement and transduction signals. In addition to the significant role of fascia, the article discusses its components, both cellular and non-cellular. Regarding cellular factors, various types of cells are distinguished and their role in mechanotransduction is explained. Non-cellular components maintain the structure of the fascia and provide scaffolding for the cells of the fascia. The problem of fascia classification is comprehensively considered, including the anatomical, histological, and cellular aspects of fascia. Finally, the article examines aspects of fascia disorders, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, as well as the correlation of structural abnormalities with lymphatic oedema. Not only does it address these abnormalities, but it also discusses the nature of myofascial pain origin and the currently widespread topic of acupuncture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and cellular mechanism of the wound healing process in the oral mucosa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wound healing involves four stages: haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodelling. Each wound should be considered separately because of the tissue’s different environment. The key to successful wound healing is cell signalling and synchronisation between cells and chemical transmitters, which gradient attracts immune cells and prevents pathogens from causing infection.</p> <p>Both skin and oral mucosa stages of the wound healing process are the same. Nonetheless, some differences affect the outcome of the healing. The most critical factors that impact the process are the time required for wound closure or immune response, the presence of saliva, the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. Compared to the skin, wounds in the oral mucosa heal much faster and without scarring. Saliva plays a crucial role in healing the oral mucosa – because of higher levels of tissue factor, it reduces the clotting time. Furthermore, it is rich in many growth factors stimulating wound healing. Mesenchymal stem cells are yet another valid matter regarding wound healing in oral mucosa. Outstanding properties of these cells exhibit potential to be applied for therapeutical purposes. Additionally, immune cells’ participation and response to tissue damage are more substantial and faster in the oral mucosa than in the skin.</p> <p>Wound healing is a complex process influenced by many factors, including hyperglycaemia in diabetes, smoking, alcohol, and levels of sex hormones. Some of them, such as smoking, impair all stages of healing, while others only have some elements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue