rss_2.0Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Civil Engineering, Environment Feed of Design Principles in the Residential Buildings for Disabled Persons: A Case Study of Social Housing in Northern Cyprus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>All human beings in the world; no matter their race, culture, origin and religion have a right to live and access different environments with ease and comfort ability. This includes disabled persons with any type from all types of disability. Hence, we need to ensure that all the buildings that we need to access in our daily lives are designed to accommodate all. One of the most significant buildings that people spend most of their time in and their comfort being most important are residential buildings. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that residential homes incorporate inclusive design principles to accommodate all individuals, particularly those with special needs. This research paper examines residential spaces’ design principles for disabled individuals in Northern Cyprus, focusing on Mağusa and Nicosia's social housing, to assess their suitability. The methodology combines qualitative and quantitative analyses. Qualitatively, it includes a literature review on design principles for disabled access and an overview of residential spaces. Quantitatively, it employs a structured questionnaire with three sections: demographics, accessibility, and housing features, using a 1–5 scale (1 being Very Poor, and 5 being Very Good). Approximately 160 questionnaires were distributed, with 147 used in the study. The findings reveal challenges with sidewalk accessibility and toilet design, indicating dissatisfaction with residential designs. Social housing in Famagusta and Nicosia also falls short of universal design standards for the disabled. Despite these issues, residents are relatively satisfied with the living room and kitchen spaces. Overall, the research concludes that Northern Cyprus residential designs inadequately address the special needs of disabled individuals, particularly regarding circulation spaces and overall quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a Key to Efficient Storm Water Management System: An In-Situ Assessment of Residential Estates in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Adaptation to climate change often aims to increase the ability of cities to retain water. In recent years, there has been a shift in the approach to managing storm water from traditional methods to nature-based methods, which view storm water as a valuable resource. This study conducted a systematic analysis of eleven contemporary housing estates that are commonly considered sustainable. The study aimed to identify the elements of rainwater management and determine whether these elements form a system. The research found that, in most cases, not all elements of a rainwater management system (RMS) were present. The housing estates in Gdańsk and Gdynia demonstrated some features of an RMS but were still incomplete due to missing elements such as channels and gaps in curbs that guide rainwater. The results suggest that the implementation of some elements of an RMS does not necessarily create a fully functional system. A fully effective RMS requires the integration of all necessary elements to allow water to flow between them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Greenery into a Building Based on its Impact on Human Wellbeing – Review of Theories and Methods in Architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presence of greenery around and within buildings is an integral aspect of architectural space. Although scientific knowledge regarding the impact of greenery on human well-being is expanding, there remains a scarcity of guidelines for implementing this knowledge in architectural design. This review article aims to lay the foundation for further research dedicated to supporting architectural design in the seamless integration of greenery as a co-creative element within human living space. Existing review literature is diverse and dispersed across various scientific disciplines, addressing distinct objectives, approaches, and research methodologies. Consequently, this review initially concentrates on an in-depth exploration of the broad topic of perception in architecture, highlighting significant theories and methods. Subsequently, the analysis extends to the current state of research specifically centred on well-being and the perception of greenery in the built environment. The evaluation emphasizes criteria conducive to obtaining objective, quantitative results. Finally, considering their stages of development, the available research methods are categorized and those most pertinent to the field of architecture are identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Stored Municipal Waste for Different Sealing Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents analyses of the municipal waste stability, stored in a landfill with the specific parameters of the waste massif, such as height, width and slope inclination. The massif of waste is lined by a simple drainage/sealing layer, consisting of a sand layer, non-woven geotextile, HDPE double-textured geomembrane and two different sealing mineral layers. The structure stability analysis was performed using a numerical program, relating to the methods: Fellenius/Petterson, Bishop, Spencer, Janbu and Morgenstern-Price. The considerations were carried out according to approach 3 (DA3) for the ultimate limit state GEO of Eurocode 7. The values of the utilization factor and the factor of safety were compared. Municipal waste is generally stable if the slope of the waste is ≤25°. With a slope inclination of 30°, the structures of waste massifs are stable up to a height of 10 m. Using the Fellenius/Petterson method can lead to an underestimation of the factor of safety and an overstatement of the degree of utilization; other methods give comparable results. Changing the material of the mineral sealing layer leads to a change in the course of the circular slip line.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reliability Assessment Including Variability of Reinforcement Cover Based on Measurements on Selected Buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the results of reinforcement cover thickness measurements carried out in several buildings erected in 2022 in Rzeszów. The results of the measurements are presented in two variants depending on the reinforcement cover thickness assumed by the designer: the first variant contains all the results and the second contains results only from places where the designed cover thickness was 25 mm. For both variants, a histogram of the percentage deviation from the design value was determined and mean values, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and maximum values of negative and positive deviation were calculated. The obtained reinforcement cover thickness distributions were used to determine the reliability of a floor slab with a simply supported beam static scheme. Analyses were carried out for 4 slabs differing in span, thickness and selected reinforcement. Using the FORM analytical method, values for the reliability index and probability of failure were determined. The reliability index values obtained were compared with the values required by EC 1990 and ISO 2394. The results obtained did not meet the standard requirements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Architectural Space of Central Ukrainian Cities. The Example of Kropyvnytskyi (Yelisavetgrad)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article examines the architectural spatial development of cities in Central Ukraine under the influence of landscape conditions and changes in socio-cultural factors using the city of Kropyvnytsky (Elysavetgrad) as an example. The peculiarities of the historical development of the architectural and planning structure of the city, located on the border of Central Ukraine and the northern Black Sea region, are poorly studied due to its location in the agricultural steppe region of Ukraine.</p> <p>The aim of the paper is to reveal the regularities and basic principles of the relationship between the architectural and spatial development of the city with natural and landscape conditions and changes in socio-cultural factors. The work is based on a complex application of general scientific and special research methods.</p> <p>The transformations of the urban environment of the centre of Kropyvnytskyi (Elysavetgrad) at the end of the 20<sup>th</sup> century led to the distortion of the scale of the buildings and the loss of their significant elements. Comprehensive studies of the evolution of the urban structure and historic buildings in the city centre will help architects and urban planners to preserve the architectural and urban heritage in the modern urban space.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tilt of Objects Subjected to Rectification and Located in Mining Areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mining exploitation of hard coal is conducted in the Silesian region in Poland. As a result, the post-mining void is formed which leads to non-uniform lowering of the ground level. Consequently, thousands of buildings are vertically deflected. This type of deflection causes troublesome use of buildings, underestimates their value, and in extreme situations leads to exceeded limit states. Therefore, such buildings are rectified by non-uniform elevations by means of jacks. On the basis of the analysed rectification processes, the method of determining the deflection of a building and the height of elevating its corners were presented depending on the type of building. This paper is a review of methods of determining the deflection of buildings having different sizes: single-storey buildings, single-storey buildings with a usable attic, two-storey buildings, and 11-storey buildings. Moreover, specific situations were analysed, in which the elevation height was determined by a range of additional works performed during rectification. This review was used to develop guidelines for determining deflection values and specifying the height of non-uniform elevation of corners.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Architectural Response to Radiation on Mars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The climatic conditions on Mars are significantly different from those on Earth, which is the main factor affecting the potential architectural solutions on this planet. Above all, high levels of cosmic radiation of solar and extragalactic origin require specific architectural solutions, such as a safe location and sufficient protection, which are determined by a complex set of factors. These factors include the accessibility of building materials on site, the range and predictability of changes in climatic conditions, and human needs. In this article, the significant influence of radiation on architecture, which should be addressed when planning temporary or permanent resilient settlements on Mars, is examined in the case of manned missions to the planet. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature review is conducted, focused on the latest radiation-related discoveries. As the main outcome, two main schematic architectural solutions are proposed as a step toward more advanced projects. In addition, the gaps that need to be filled in the current approach to the design process, related to the insufficiently strong focus on multidisciplinary site analysis with radiation as its main factor (as is necessary for erecting an inhabitable base) are addressed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Simple Additive Weighting Method in the Assessment Process of Air Pollution on the Campus of the Silesian University of Technology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the measurement results of the concentration of dust PM<sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> as well as SO<sub>2</sub>, NO, NO<sub>2</sub> and NO<sub>x</sub> based on a mobile laboratory located on the campus of the Silesian University of Technology (Poland, Gliwice, Konarskiego 20B, 50.292934N, 18.682164E), in the so-called “winter period” in 2020 (from 01/01/2020 to 31/03/2020 and from 01/10/2020 to 31/12/2020). The obtained results were used to carry out a synthetic (aggregated) assessment of the threat to the anthropogenic environment, the so-called “objects”, i.e. days on which the measurements were made, interpreted as points in the multidimensional space with coordinates corresponding to the measurement results of the concentration of dust pollutants: PM<sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> and gaseous pollutants: SO<sub>2</sub>, NO, NO<sub>2</sub> and NO<sub>x</sub>. The determined synthetic values additionally allowed for ordering (creating rankings) of the examined “objects” in terms of air quality. For the calculations, the Simple Additive Weighting method (SAW) was used, which belongs to the group of single-criteria synthesis methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Application of Gradient Concrete Models to Assess Concrete Cover Degradation Under Reinforcement Corrosion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a comparative analysis of the application of two nonlocal gradient-formulated models to evaluate the concrete cover degradation time. Calculations were made taking into account the increase in the volume of the steel ring around the perimeter of the reinforcement bar. The results of the calculations were compared with the results of experimental studies published in the literature and with the elastic-plastic model based on the Menetrey-Willam surface, in which the objectivity of the obtained results depends on the fracture energy. In addition, the paper compares solutions using different contact models and cohesion models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Investigation on the Properties of Street and Sidewalk Cleaning Waste<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the municipal waste streams is street cleaning waste, classified under code 20 03 03. They are not considered hazardous waste. Due to the lack of other management technology, they are sent to landfills. This waste, among other things, by its high chloride content especially after winter, can contribute to changes in the salinity of surface and groundwater and soil salinization, which consequently contributes to changes in the local environment and entire ecosystems. As it is deposited entirely in landfills, it also contributes to the salinity of leachate generated here. The Regulation of the Minister of Economy of July 16, 2015, on allowing waste to be deposited in landfills, the total organic carbon in waste deposited in non-hazardous and inert waste landfills must not exceed 5% of dry weight. The purpose of this article is to present a study of the quality of the waste on parameters like water content, organic and mineral fraction in the dry weight of the waste, and fractional separation. The water content of the waste ranged from 12–27%, while the mineral fraction in the dry weight was 91–94%. The smallest fraction below 0.05 mm accounted for 0d 1.8 to 4.5%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Parameters of a Vibration Damper Installed on a Historic Bridge<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents theoretical analyses of renovating a historical bridge in order to decrease stresses. The installation of additional equipment, including a vibration absorber, is relatively easy to perform if such a need is indicated by the current bridge diagnostics or the monitoring of the structure’s vibrations. Moreover, absorbers could be mounted in such a way as not to alter the appearance of the historic structure. The authors focused on the problem of optimising the cooperation between a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) and a structure under dynamic load moving with constant velocity. A simple degree of freedom (SDOF) system – as a model of the absorber and a multi-degree of freedom (MDOF) system – as the primary structure, were adopted in the calculations. Every force is regarded as a random variable, as well as interarrivals of moving forces. Two different situations and solutions were presented. The first case is when the stream of moving forces with a constant velocity is modelled as the filtered Poisson process. The second one when one of the forces is located in the point of the beam in which the response of the beam has the maximum value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Air Quality in Upper Silesia Region Pre-During, and Post-COVID-19 Periods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Governments worldwide have established lockdowns to limit the spread of COVID-19 during the pandemic. The restrictions on travel and reduction of economic activity have led to a temporary improvement in air quality in several countries, especially in urban areas. This study investigates the changes in concentration levels of air pollutants (PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub>, NO<sub>2</sub>, and bacterial aerosol) in the Upper Silesia Region of Southern Poland, during three periods: pre (March 2018 and 2019), during (March 2020, and 2021) and post-COVID-19 lockdown period (March 2022 and 2023). Our findings indicate that COVID-19 restrictions had a moderate impact on PM<sub>10</sub> levels in comparison to pre- and post-COVID-19 periods. PM<sub>2.5</sub> during lockdown was significantly lower than in the pre-COVID period and not significantly higher after COVID. PM<sub>10</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> average concentrations decreased during COVID-19 restrictions by 27.8% and 12.7%, respectively. Compared with the results from the pre-COVID-19 phase, the reductions in NO<sub>2</sub> and SO<sub>2</sub> during the lockdown were 9.5% and 34.0%. Among other pollutants, bacterial aerosol (BA) concentrations also decreased during the lockdown by 23.0%, compared to the results from the pre-COVID-19 period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Interpretation of Natural and Virtual Elements in the Residential Environment. Nature in Dwelling Spaces and its Simulacra<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The transformed living space as a symptom of culture remains in regulated relation or opposition to nature. Habitation concerns living beings, humans, as well as animals and plants whose well-being requires appropriate conditions that translate into quality of life. Coexistence with nature is essential from the level of satisfying basic physiological needs to higher ones. Contemporary imitations of natural elements are enhanced by information technologies and their incarnated manifestation – the virtual space, which enables substitute solutions – the simulacra. Dwellings have become multidimensional platforms for everyday activities, combining elements of simultaneous natural and virtual worlds.</p> <p>Research includes ecocritical interpretations of the natural world in architecture, exemplified by the design of a dormitory for the campus of the University of California in Santa Barbara. The aim is to indicate the direction of further development of smart residential architecture marked by modern technologies in an ecological context considering the interdependence of human and nature. The conclusions indicate that balanced natural and virtual elements are compatible but not equivalent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to Carbon Neutrality. Prospects of Phasing Out Coal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Carbon neutrality is necessary to address the global problem of climate change. The International Energy Agency has recognized coal as the largest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. This article analyzes carbon dioxide emissions from coal and carbon dioxide emissions from energy for the major emitters of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. As more than half of the world's Carbon dioxide emissions from coal come from China, the authors have analyzed the extreme situation that could arise in the carbon reduction market if China were to postpone its commitments to reduce coal consumption. The article calculates the time frame required for other coal-consuming countries to phase out coal to compensate for China's annual coal consumption. It demonstrates that without China transitioning from coal consumption to zero-carbon energy sources, other countries will not be able to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. This proves that for the first time in history, the achievement of the goal set by the global community depends on the actions of a single country. The article outlines the goals set by China in its Nationally Determined Contribution and other government documents to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and achieve carbon neutrality. It also presents China's efforts to implement renewable energy sources, nuclear reactors, and energy storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Evaluation Concept for Thin-Walled Steel Cylinders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Defects/imperfections can occur during manufacturing, assembly, welding, and other processes, which can reduce the critical buckling load. However, the axial buckling load is beyond the scope of this work, and there are many studies on the stiffening effect of longitudinal dents. This concept combined the idea of the dent-to-stiffener evaluation concept for thin-walled steel cylinders. This study aims to transform the dents into artificial dents for a stiffening effect on the buckling phenomena. For this purpose, 37 thin-walled steel cylinder models, including the perfect model, were designed for varying dent shapes, dent widths, dent depths, dent lengths, and dent angles. The study also contributed to the effect of dent parameters on the critical buckling load of thin-walled steel cylinders. In particular, increasing the initial buckling will motivate the industry to convert dents into stiffeners with small artificial touches to enhance the longevity of the structure. The results showed that the introduction of certain artificial dents can significantly increase the critical buckling load of cylinders, thus improving their resistance against buckling, which has significant implications for various industries that use thin-walled steel cylinders in their structures. The proposed simulations for transforming dents into artificial stiffeners can be a valuable tool for enhancing the longevity and safety of thin-walled steel cylinders and other structures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Profile Map as a Powerful Educational Tool for Architects and Civil Engineers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses the importance of the Professional Profile Map (PPM) in the context of architecture and civil engineering education. It acknowledges the dynamic nature of these fields due to technological advancements and evolving industry practices, emphasizing the need for professionals who possess practical skills in addition to academic knowledge. The PPM is introduced as a valuable tool that acts as a bridge between academia and industry by defining the essential knowledge, skills, and competencies (KSC) required for success in these professions. Furthermore, the paper discusses the role of the PPM in Erasmus+ projects, highlighting its ability to facilitate customization and adaptability in education. It encourages interdisciplinary collaboration, practical experience, and employability enhancement, aligning with the goals of Erasmus+ projects. A case study from the TAB4BUILDING project illustrates how the PPM was used to identify KSC related to the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) in construction. The PPM's role in harmonizing educational programs across different countries and promoting international collaboration is emphasized.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Approaches to Comprehensive Electrochemical Processing of Sulfate-Chloride High-Mineralized Wastewater Treatment Residues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The results of electrochemical processing of spent acidic, neutral, and alkaline sulfate-chloride-containing regenerative solutions in two- and three-chamber electrolyzers are presented. It has been determined that the highest current efficiency for the products of electrodialysis can be achieved in the presence of hardness ions when processing acidic sulfate-containing solutions using three-chamber electrolyzers. It has been established that during electrodialysis of alkaline solutions after regeneration of anionites containing chloride ions, accumulation of alkali occurs in the cathodic region, and in the anodic region, chloride ions accumulate due to diffusion through the anion exchange membrane during the first stage, followed by preferential oxidation of chloride ions with liberation of free chlorine during the second stage. It has been shown that electrodialysis can effectively solve the problem of comprehensive processing of neutral, alkaline, and acidic regenerative sulfate-chloride-containing solutions, with the production of alkali and acid at concentrations suitable for reuse in regeneration processes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue do High-Rise Buildings Affect the Mental Image of Users? Case Study: Seljuk Tower in Konya<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to their physical and identity features, high-rise buildings play a key role in influencing the citizens’ mental image. This study aims to investigate the bilateral link between the environment and people based on user evaluations of the formal and physical features of high-rise buildings. By emphasizing the impacts of formal, functional, and semantic aspects of high-rise buildings on users’ preferences, the study identifies perceptual components and physical features that shape mental image. To this end, using the library research method, the perceptual components of high-rise buildings are introduced as the conceptual model of the study. Then, the relevant components are evaluated using a survey of 217 users of the Seljuk Tower in Konya. The results show that the ‘sense of pleasure when facing the tower’ has the most significant correlation with the users’ perception. The “degree of innovation of the form” and the “materials used in the building” are the other priorities that influence the users” perception. The results also show that affective and cognitive perceptual dimensions influence users’ mental image significantly more than evaluative and interpretative dimensions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Mechanical Properties of Soils Based on CPTU Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aimed to interpret the results of cone penetration tests with pore pressure measurement (CPTU). Tests were performed on a section of the designed road about 200 m long. The subsoil under consideration was characterized by organic soils deposited to a depth of approximately 8 m. Due to the problematic soil and water conditions, improvement with geosynthetic encased columns (GEC) was performed. According to the Recommendations for Design and Analysis of Earth Structures using Geosynthetic Reinforcements – EBGEO, the constrained modulus <italic>E<sub>oed</sub></italic> and effective friction angle <italic>φ’</italic> of soil below the GEC column base should be higher than 5 MPa (<italic>E<sub>oed</sub></italic> &gt; 5 MPa) and 30° (<italic>φ’</italic> &gt; 30°), respectively. In this study, the <italic>E<sub>oed</sub></italic> and <italic>φ’</italic> parameters were determined based on CPTU tests conducted in 12 locations. Analysis of the CPTU data showed that the constrained modulus and effective friction angle of the soil deposited below the GEC column base did not meet EBGEO requirements in most locations. It was also concluded that the minimum value of the constrained modulus required by EBGEO is too low compared with the requested value of the effective friction angle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue