rss_2.0Acta Medica Martiniana FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Medica Martiniana Medica Martiniana 's Cover Spot Count Optimization of Automated Fluorescent Slide Scanning System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Purpose</bold>: Ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) known also as DNA repair foci represent the most sensitive endpoint for assessing DNA double strand breaks (DSB). IRIF are usually visualized and enumerated with the aid of fluorescence microscopy using antibodies to γH2AX and 53BP1. Although several approaches and software packages were developed for the quantification of IRIF, not one of them was commonly accepted and inter-laboratory variability in the outputs was reported. In this study, the sensitization of Metafer software to counting also small appearing IRIF was validated.</p> <p><bold>Materials and Methods</bold>: Human lymphocytes were γ-irradiated at a dose of 2 Gy. The cells were fixed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 18 hours post-irradiation, permeabilized and IRIF were immunostained using appropriate antibodies. Cell images were acquired with the automatic Metafer system. Radiation-induced γH2AX and 53BP1 foci were enumerated using either manual counting (JCountPro program) or the Metafer software (after its classifier optimization has been done) and compared. The statistical analysis was performed using One-way ANOVA.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The enumeration of 53BP1, γH2AX foci manually by JCountPro did not statistically significantly differ from the automatic one performed with the optimized Metafer classifier. A detailed step-by-step protocol of this successful optimization is described in this study.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: We concluded that the Metafer software after the optimization was efficient in objectively enumerating IRIF, having a potential for usage in clinics and molecular epidemiology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Computer Modeling of D, L – Homocysteic Acid Microinjection into the Bötzinger Complex Area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The impact of D,L – homocysteic acid (DLH) microinjection (non-specific glutamate receptor agonist that causes excitation of neurons) into the Bötzinger complex area (BOT) was simulated using computer model of quiet breathing and cough reflex. Integrated signals from simulated neuronal populations innervating inspiratory phrenic and expiratory lumbar motoneurons were obtained. We analysed durations and amplitudes of these “pre-phrenic and pre-lumbar” activities during quiet breathing and cough reflex and the number of coughs elicited by a fictive 10-second-long stimulation. Model fibre population provides virtual DLH related excitation to expiratory neuronal populations with augmenting discharge pattern (BOT neurons). The excitation was modelled by a higher number of fibres and terminals (simulated a higher number of excitatory inputs) or by a higher synaptic strength (simulated a higher effect of excitatory inputs).</p> <p>Our simulations have demonstrated a high analogy of cough and breathing changes to those observed in animal experiments. The simulated neuronal excitations in the BOT led to cough depression represented by a lower cough number and a cough neuronal activity of the lumbar nerve. Despite the shortening of the phrenic activity during cough (compared to quiet breathing), which was not observed in animal experiments, our simulations confirm the ability of the computer model to simulate motor processes in the respiratory system. The computer model of functional respiratory / cough neural network is capable to confirm and / or predict the results obtained on animals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Nursing Students’ Perception of Patient Safety Culture During the Covid-19 Pandemic – Results of a Pilot Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: The COVID-19 pandemic posed health and social threats and directly affected the quality and safe care. Many nursing students had mandatory practical training in hospitals to help the national system respond to the crisis. The investigation of nursing students’ perceptions of patient safety culture (PSC) might be beneficial in identifying safety areas that need improvement.</p> <p><bold>Aim</bold>: The pilot study aimed to investigate nursing students’ perception of PSC during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: The data were collected using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture - Nursing Students (HSOPS-NS). The HSOPS-NS tool was distributed online via the Google Forms platform between February and April 2021. The respondents studied in the 3<sup>rd</sup> year of the bachelor’s degree in nursing (n = 66). Three nursing faculties from 3 regions in Slovakia were addressed. Descriptive statistics (mean, SD, frequency) was used for the sample characteristics and the HSOPS-NS tool. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal Wallis test analysed associations between sociodemographic data. The predictors of outcome dimensions of the HSOPS-NS were analysed by a multiple regression analysis.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The nursing students evaluated the overall patient safety grade as very acceptable. Concerning PSC dimensions, the best-rated dimensions were “Feedback &amp; communication about the error” (55.04%) and “Communication openness” (53.53%). The worst-rated dimensions were “Frequency of events reported” (33.32%) and “Staffing” (35.22%). A significant relationship was found between the perception of PSC and age, current area/unit, awareness of reporting systems, and supervision. The overall patient safety grade, the number of reported events, the number of reported events by nursing students were significantly predicted by several PSC dimensions (p ≤ 0.05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: The nursing students’ perspective on PSC revealed a weak perception of reporting adverse events. The awareness of reporting adverse events requires an increase in theoretical knowledge and the support of nursing students during their clinical training. A regular and comprehensive evaluation of PSC may strengthen patient safety and the overall awareness of patient safety among nursing students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Measurement of Base Transceiver Station Exposure in the Extra-Village Environment- A Pilot Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, communication using electromagnetic (EM) radiation became an integral part of our lives. As a result, there is a large number of base transceiver stations (BTSs) which act as a source of high EM exposure for inhabitants mainly in the “hot-spot” areas. They employ higher values of radiation, thus, providing potentially harmful effects on living or working environment. The aim of this pilot study was to study a distribution of hot-spots and EMF power in a vicinity of BTSs. BTS was located in an extra-village area at least 500 m away from the nearest city or surrounded villages in the district of Martin. The targeted area of EM radiation from the BTS was divided into two smaller zones, the right and the left. For a better visualization, topographic maps were created. Using spectral analyzer Aaronia Spectran HF-6085, intensities of EMF within the frequency range from 880 – 960 MHz (GSM900) were recorded. Maximum values of EMF power flux density were 146.827 μW/m<sup>2</sup> in horizontal and 96.448 μW/m<sup>2</sup> in vertical plane. Minimal va lues were 0.052 μW/m<sup>2</sup> in horizontal and 0.179 μW/m<sup>2</sup> vertical plane respectively. The maps revealed two hotspots in the left zone and also two (smaller and larger) hotspots in the right zone. Our values were below the actual limits given by the Slovak Republic and the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) safety guidelines. However, the values from the hotspots were above the limits suggested by the BioInitiative Report. Our results indicate an elevation of EMF values in the hot-spots even in the extra-village areas. Further studies are needed to analyze in detail EMF parameters in the hot-spots, and their effects on living and working environments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Association of Genetic Variability in Selected Genes with Platelet Hyperaggregability and Arterial Thrombosis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Inherited platelet hyperaggregability, so called “Sticky platelet syndrome” (SPS), is a prothrombotic platelet disorder. The syndrome contributes more often to arterial than venous thrombosis. The most common localization of arterial occlusion involves cerebral or coronary arteries. However, SPS may also lead to thrombosis in the atypical sites of the circulation. This qualitative platelet alteration causes platelet hyperaggregability after a very low concentration of platelet inducers – adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and/or epinephrine (EPI). The precise genetic background of the syndrome has not been defined. In the present study we aimed to determine the association between selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes for platelet endothelial aggregation receptor 1 (PEAR1) and murine retrovirus integration site 1 (MRVI1) and the risk for arterial thrombosis in patients with SPS. The products of these selected genes play an important role in platelet aggregation.</p> <p><bold>Patients and methods</bold>: We examined 69 patients with SPS and a history of arterial thrombosis and 69 healthy blood donors who served as controls. SPS was confirmed by a light transmission aggregometry (LTA) according to the method and criteria described by Mammen and Bick. We assessed two SNPs within PEAR1 gene (rs12041331, rs1256888) and two SNPs within MRVI1 gene (rs1874445, rs7940646).</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Selected PEAR1 and MRVI1 polymorphisms seem not to be a risk factor for the development of SPS as the syndrome with an arterial thrombosis phenotype. However, in the subgroup of SPS1 patients there was found a decreased frequency of the minor A allele of SNP rs12041331 in PEAR1 gene (borderline p value, p=0.061) that can be hypothesized as protective against arterial thrombosis. In the same SPS1 subgroup the haplotype TA in PEAR1 gene also showed a decreased frequency with a borderline insignificance (p=0.056). We can theorize also about its protective role in SPS1 patients. We did not confirm the protective effect of polymorphism (T/T of rs 12566888) in PEAR1 against arterial thrombosis in SPS patients and SPS subgroups.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Our results support the idea that examined genetic variability of the selected SNPs in PEAR1 and MRVI1 genes is not associated with platelet hyperaggregability manifested as arterial thrombosis. The possible protective role of the minor A allele of SNP rs12041331 as well as a role of haplotype TA in PEAR1 gene related to the arterial thrombosis found in the subgroup of SPS1 patients needs to be verified in further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Pathophysiology of Airway Afferent Nerves<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vagal afferent nerves provide an airway defense mechanism which is ensured by their activation. These nerves can be activated mechanically mainly through mechanosensitive Aβ fibers which are divided into slowly adapting (SARs) and rapidly adapting stretch receptors (RARs). Chemical activation is provided by an interaction of chemical substances with specific receptors. C-fibers are highly sensitive to a direct chemical stimulation accomplished by an activation of ligand-gated ion channels. According to the large influence and mechanisms of vagal afferent nerves, there is a probability that an inappropriate activity of these nerves can cause the symptoms of the respiratory diseases, e.g. cough, dyspnoea, or airway hyperreactivity. The aim of this review is to summarize the physiology of airway afferent nerves and point out the role of vagal sensory nerves dysfunction in the pathogenesis of some respiratory diseases. The understanding of its mechanism could lead to new therapeutic strategies in patients with airway-related pathology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00What is a Therapeutic Potential of N-Acetylcysteine in Lung Silicosis?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lung silicosis is a serious pulmonary disease caused by an exposure of lung to inhaled silicon dioxide (SiO<sub>2</sub>) or silica. Although pathomechanisms of the disease have not been fully elucidated, oxidative stress has been recognized as a fundamental factor triggering a fibrotizing inflammation leading to irreversible changes in lung tissue. Based on this knowledge, therapeutic potential of various antioxidants has been intensively discussed. Among them, N-acetylcysteine with its multiple anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions and a long-term experience with its clinical use in various diseases appears as a very promising choice. The purpose of this article is to review the therapeutic effects of N-acetylcysteine particularly in relation to a lung injury and to point out a potential of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of lung silicosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Covid-19 on Lifestyle Related Behaviors of Nigerians<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> A great threat of a novel virus – coronavirus otherwise known as COVID-19 pandemic rocked the entire world in the wake of the year 2020. The threat is so strenuous that the entire world was placed on lockdown in the matter of social restriction such as on international and national transport links, market or business transactions, school and organizational activities, and all related social and religious gatherings. This restriction might change people’s lifestyle. This study was aimed at assessing the lifestyle changes caused by the pandemic among Nigerians.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> A web based cross sectional survey was conducted using an e-questionnaire. A paired t-test, independent t-test were used to test hypothesis while mean, frequency, and percentage were used to summarize the data.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Majority of the participants were male (72.1%), single (83.2%), and middle class (79.5%) of social status. There was a decrease in the habit of consuming meals routinely at regular intervals during COVID-19 (19.4% vs 25.7%). There were significant differences in eating patterns before and during COVID-19 (P&lt;0.05). Likewise, significant differences in physical activity before and during COVID-19 were observed.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Some of the protocol put in place in curtailing the virus has been proven to have a positive impact on the lifestyle of Nigerians Such health benefits include but not limited to an increase in moderate exercise, increase in the consumption of healthy and reduction in the consumption of unhealthy food.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Re-Emphasizing the Roles of General Medical and Dental Practitioners Regarding Oral Cancer Eradication in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The burden of oral cancer in Nigeria is largely under-reported. The available data on oral cancer etiology/risk factors, clinical features, disease burden, and literacy rate in Nigeria points towards a possible explosion in prevalence in the near future, which poses a serious public health concern. The general medical and dental practitioners (GMDPs) in Nigeria can salvage this looming problem through appropriate public health and clinical interventions. This narrative review article re-emphasizes the key roles of GMDPs towards oral cancer eradication in Nigeria. It also discusses oral cancer case definition, etiology, risk factors, and the epidemiological burden in the Nigerian context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Obturation of Root Canals By Vertical Condensation of Gutta-Percha – Benefits and Pitfalls<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vertical condensation of gutta-percha is one of the frequently used techniques of hermetic and three-dimensional obturation of root canal system which is one of the primary goals of endodontic tooth treatment. Techniques for filling root canals have been described since ancient Egypt and have undergone dynamic development in recent decades. The aim of the article is to analyze the technique of obturation of root canals using vertical condensation of guttapercha and to point out its benefits and pitfalls.</p> <p>The poor-quality treatment of the tooth deteriorates its prognosis, function, and long-term survival in the oral cavity; thus, the hermetic obturation of the root canals is one of the most important pillars of the complex tooth treatment. Obturation of the root canals by vertical condensation of warm gutta-percha is nowadays considered in the correct indications as one of the most commonly used techniques in the excellent dental practices. Even though it is quite technologically challenging and time-consuming it enables to reach high level of predictability and clinical success. Currently, the obturation technique based on master gutta-percha cone combined with the calcium-silicate based sealer is emerging. However, long term results of clinical studies and follow-up are needed to make a significant improvement in the area of endodontics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Strategies for Reducing Rationed Nursing Care: Qualitative Secondary Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Nursing students spend a meaningful part of their professional training in clinical practice. However, to a significant extent, they actively or passively contribute to the occurrence of rationed nursing care in clinical practice. Therefore, it is crucial that they actively participate in implementing targeted strategies to reduce rationed nursing care.</p> <p><bold>Aim</bold>: To explore nursing students′ experience with strategies focusing on the reduction of rationed nursing care.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: We chose a qualitative secondary analysis to address unpublished data related to nursing students′ experience with strategies focusing on reducing rationed nursing care. The data included a set comprising of 148 pages with transcribed verbatim of 18 semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by a deductive content analysis.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Based on the outcome of the secondary analysis, we identified two meaningful categories: Preventive strategies in clinical practice and Importance and meaning of preventive strategies. These two categories reflected nursing students′ experience with targeted strategies to reduce rationed nursing care in clinical practice.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Proposal and subsequent implementation of preventive strategies are essential for reducing rationed nursing care phenomenon from the clinical practice environment. The perspective of nursing students is vital due to their intensive perception of rationed nursing care in clinical practice. Students may identify areas that work-place staff may not explicitly focus on and consider important but jeopardize the quality of care or patient safety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection of Subclinical Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Its Correlation with Candidate Genes in Patients with Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke and TIA<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Cardioembolic etiology is assumed to be the most frequent cause of cryptogenic strokes. The detection of subclinical paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is important in the correct choice of preventive treatment. The aim of this prospective study was to detect the incidence of AF in patients with a cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and to evaluate the association between the presence of AF and selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).</p> <p>Methods: Patients with a cryptogenic stroke/ TIA (n=100) and a control group (n=15) of volunteers without significant cardiovascular disease were included in the study during the period of 2014 to 2019. To detect AF they underwent 12 months of ECG monitoring using an implanted loop recorder (ILR). Genotyping for SNPs rs10033464, rs2200733, rs225132, and rs2106261 was performed by a high resolution melting analysis.</p> <p>Results: We found AF to be present in 24 (24%) patients with a cryptogenic stroke/TIA, versus no subjects in the control group. The SNPs rs2106261, rs2200733, rs225132, and rs10033464 were not found to be associated with AF in our study (p=0.240; 1.000; 0.887; 0.589). However, a weak trend for a higher frequency of rs2106261 risk allele A homozygotes was observed in the patients with AF compared to the patients without AF (0.416 vs. 0.263, p=0.073). Homozygotes for allele A of <italic>rs2106261</italic> were also present in a significantly higher frequency in AF patients compared to the controls (0.416 vs. 0.133, p = 0.012).</p> <p>Conclusion: In our study paroxysmal AF was a probable etiological factor in 24% of patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke / TIA during the 12 months of monitoring. The homozygous allele A of rs2106261 was identified to be the possible genetic risk factor of AF, but this should be verified in larger cohorts.</p> <p>The study has been registered at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>, identifier NCT02216370.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of Metastases in Ent Area – Comparison of Theory and Practice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In head and neck cancers the occurrence of nodal metastases is the most important prognostic factor. Their early diagnosis is crucial for proper treatment. Detection of early metastases is still very difficult. Predictive diagnostic methods such as the sentinel lymph node detection is limited by the occurrence of skip metastases. At our Clinic we prefer a selective neck dissection based on a surgical treatment of predilected lymphatic spread area for each type of head and neck tumor with a preservation of non-lymphatic structures of the neck. The main objective of this article is to analyze the distribution of neck metastases and to study the frequency of skip metastases in head and neck cancer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00How to Measure Patient Safety Culture? a Literature Review of Instruments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Patient safety culture is described as employees’ shared values, attitudes, and behaviours in a healthcare organization. Its main goal is to improve patient safety. Assessment of patient safety culture in the hospital environment is most often carried out using self-assessment tools. Although several of these tools have been developed, their comprehensive overview is lacking in literature.</p> <p>Aim: To provide an overview of instruments measuring patient safety culture in a hospital setting.</p> <p>Methods: The study has a character of a narrative literature review. The search was performed in the scientific databases Scopus, ProQuest, and PubMed in January 2021. The search produced a total of 1,767 studies and was limited to language (English). The search and the retrieval process reflected PRISMA’s recommendations. The content analysis method was used in the data synthesis.</p> <p>Results: We identified 24 tools for assessing the patient safety culture in a hospital setting, of which seven were developed for specific workplaces; others are considered general. Eighteen tools might be utilized by all healthcare professionals within the hospital setting and only three were designated explicitly for nurses. The most commonly used instruments were the Hospital Survey on Patient Culture and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire.</p> <p>Conclusion: Assessing a patient safety culture is considered one of the strategies for improving patient safety while increasing care quality. An appropriate tool’s choice depends on the target population, the instrument’s validity and reliability, and other aspects. Awareness of the various assessment tools can help hospitals choose the one that best suits their circumstances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Clinicopathological Study of Skin Adnexal Tumors: A Single Institute Experience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Skin adnexal tumors (SATs) encompass a very broad variety of rare dermatopathologic entities. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze an incidence and clinicopathological findings of patients with biopsy-proven ASTs.</p> <p>Material and Methods: A retrospective review of all consecutive cutaneous tumors that were diagnosed at the Martin Biopsy Center in Martin from July 2019 to March 2021 was carried out. ASTs have been searched for from this file and studied based on their histologic type and line of differentiation, anatomic distribution, age, and gender.</p> <p><italic>Results: Among</italic> over 3,700 skin tumors a total of 38 ASTs in 38 individuals (21 males, 17 females) have been found. The age of the patients ranged from 22-89 years (mean 55.5 y.). The head and neck region was found to be the most common site affected (26/38; 68.4%), followed by extremities (8/38; 21.1%) and trunk (4/38; 10.5%). Tumors of hair follicle origin constituted the largest category (22/38; 57.9%), followed by sweat gland tumors (15/38; 39.5%) and tumors derived from sebaceous glands (1/38; 2.6%). Benign lesions accounted for all 38 cases. Trichoepithelioma was the most frequent lesion found in the category of follicular tumors and poroma was the most common among tumours with sweat gland differentiation.</p> <p>Conclusion: An overall incidence of ASTs is low and in this institutional study they constituted about 1% of all cutaneous neoplasms. ASTs display a marked phenotypic heterogeneity, that is why many published studies have provided divergent results concerning their clinicopathological features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Biological Effects of a Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Yeast Cells of the Genus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Although the scientific community is extensively concerned with the effects of the EMF, the unambiguous explanation of its effects on living structures is still lacking.</p> <p>Goals: The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on the growth and multiplication of the yeast <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic>.</p> <p>Methods: Yeast cells were exposed to a frequency of 900 Hz and a magnetic flux density of 2.3 mT. The duration of each experiment was 8 hours, in the beginning of the measurement the value of frequency, rms (root mean square) value of electric current (2 A), and magnetic flux density were fixed set on the exposure device. A paired experiment was performed, a sample exposed to EMF, and a sample shielded from the field. Subsequently, samples were taken every two hours, the number of cells was recorded, and then the concentration of the yeast cells was evaluated at time points. The time points reflected the exposure time of the samples exposed to EMF.</p> <p>Results: The results indicate that LF EMF at given parameters has an inhibitory effect on the growth and multiplication of yeast cells.</p> <p>Conclusion: Exposure to EMF can cause the differences in growth dynamics between cells exposed to the field and the unexposed ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Correlation of Increased Total Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels and Hidradenitis Suppurativa<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical formation of inflamed nodules, abscesses, and sinus tracts usually in the axillary, inguinal, and anogenital region. We decided to investigate the possible association of hidradenitis suppurativa and total IgE elevation and to explore the patients’ characteristics which can be related to high IgE levels.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> We performed a retrospective observational study which included 67 patients with moderate-to-severe stage of hidradenitis suppurativa followed up in our outpatient dermatology department. Total IgE, IgA, IgG, IgM, and CRP serum levels were measured. A personal and family history was taken. We asked them about allergic diseases and cigarette smoking and determined the basic parameters such as the weight and height of the patients.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> Elevated total IgE levels were noticed in 21 patients (31.3%), of which 6 had a history of allergic disorder. Three of them had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and the other three were suffering from atopic dermatitis. The mean total IgE level was 203.0 IU/ml with a maximum value of 1,954 IU/ml. Analysis of the factors, such as cigarette smoking, sex, elevated CRP, body mass index, and the number of affected areas, did not show an association with increased IgE levels.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Our study showed a higher mean value of total IgE in patients with moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa than in the general population. However, we did not confirm an association with any characteristics of the patients. Limitations of this work include a small number of patients and a lack of the control group, therefore further and more extensive studies are needed to support these results.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Music on Heart Rate Variability (Review)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Music therapy and the use of music in medical practice have now become rapidly advancing and promising areas of non-invasive alternative medicine. However, the opinions of physicians and therapists on the implementation of this complementary therapy, especially in the process of treating the patient, are constantly different. In addition, the effect of music and individual methodological procedures are not uniform and defined in detail. Therefore, this review study summarizes the results and conclusions of some selected high-quality publications over the last decade and makes suggestions for improvement and further research. It focuses mainly on the evaluation of changes in heart rate variability (HRV) as an indicator of the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in connection with the application of music in the process of passive music therapy.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Spindle Cell Melanoma Harboring a Nodule of Epitheloid Cell Melanoma Component: A Study of a Diagnostically Challenging Case<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Background:</bold> Melanoma is a very heterogeneous human neoplasm. In addition to four major (conventional) histologic subtypes a number of uncommon variants do exist.</p><p><bold>Objective:</bold> An unusual case of a spindle cell melanoma (SCM) containing a demarcated nodule of conventional epitheliod cell melanoma component is described.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> A 71-year-old man manifested with a protuberated ulcerated skin tumor arising on the right forearm. The resected biopsy was analyzed immunohistochemically with a variety of anti-human antibodies.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The tumor consisted of a highly cellular mass of spindle-shaped cells without any significant intratu-moral fibrosis. In addition, a nodule of epithelioid cell tumor component was present within the lesion. The spindle cell component showed a disperse reactivity for S100 protein and was negative for other melanocytic markers. It exhibited a very high mitotic activity and proliferation Ki-67 index. No melanin pigment was detected. In contrast, the epithelioid cell component was strongly positive for S100 protein, Melan-A/MART-1, HMB-45, and PNL-2. The mitotic and proliferation indices were much less pronounced and melanin deposits were visible. A diagnosis of a non-desmoplastic SCM harboring a nodule of epithelioid cell melanoma component was established.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> SCM often posses a diagnostic dilemma because its histomorphology is atypical and its immunohistochemical profile may differ from other subtypes of melanomas. The present paper points out this uncommon histopathological entity that may sometimes be encountered in dermatopathological practice and that requires more complex diagnostic approach.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecstasy-Induced Malignant Hyperthermia with Fatal Outcome: A Case Report<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA), also known as “ecstasy”, “tulips”, or “Molly”, is an increasingly used “recreational drug” particularly among teenagers and young adults along with the widespread conviction that MDMA is a “safe drug”. The reason for this substance being abused is a desire for closeness to other people, develop a greater tolerance of their views and feelings, and even to touch them physically. According to these effects MDMA is classified also as an “<italic>empatogenic</italic>” or “<italic>entactogenic</italic>”. Although MDMA is used for the above-mentioned socially acceptable purposes, in many individuals the drug usage is followed with side-effects varying from mild to severe, potentially even life-threatening. One of the most significant complication of MDMA intoxication is hyper-thermia in the consumer. Authors presented a case of MDMA toxicity with severe hyperthermia (42 ºC) with a fatal outcome to the ecstasy-influenced subject. The aim of this article is to describe the effects of ecstasy, the “recreational drug” widely used in local pubs, dance clubs, and during open air festivals, even in the Slovak Republic.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1