rss_2.0Acta Chemica Malaysia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Chemica Malaysiahttps://sciendo.com/journal/ACMYhttps://www.sciendo.comActa Chemica Malaysia 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d35ce797941b18f2872a/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220627T200100Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220627%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=3c8094e90897ff300279e060e6faa86489b2a3a9775d77f214b10b26f0b25c1c200300Optimization and Characterization of Bio-oil Produced from Rice Husk Using Surface Response Methodologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study depicts the production, optimization and characterization of bio-oil from pyrolyzed rice husk using a fabricated fixed bed reactor. The pyrolysis process was conducted with bio-oil response, bio-char response and non-condensable gases response as products. The effect of pyrolysis variables were observed by the production of the bio-oil as the response. Sixty runs of pyrolysis experiments were suggested by Box Benkhen design indicated optimum pyrolysis conditions at particle size of 2.03mm mesh, reaction time of 81.80 mins and temperature of 650oC for rice husk. The maximum bio-oil yield was obtained with 38.39% at optimum condition of the variables. The bio-oil sample obtained had better performance compared with ASTM standard. Such a determination would contribute so immensely to a significant comprehension of the chemical efficiency of the pyrolysis reaction.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Bio-Fuel Properties and Elemental Analysis of Bio-Oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Gmelina Arboreahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Nigeria demand for sustainable, affordable and accessible energy is on the rise. Hence, this led to rigorous research to determine affordable processes of using waste materials for production of sustainable energy. In this research pyrolysis was carried out in a fabricated fixed bed pilot-scale reactor using <italic>Gmelina arborea</italic> (sawdust) biomass for the production of bio-oil. The physical, chemical properties and the ultimate analysis of the bio oil produced were determined following standard methods. The physicochemical properties and ultimate analysis obtained were favourable. The highest moisture content of 21 % at 600 °C and least moisture content of 12 % at 900 °C were obtained from <italic>Gmelina arborea</italic>. The elemental results of the products show low sulphur quantity which is of good prospects that <italic>Gmelina arborea</italic> are good materials for bioenergy production without posing danger to the environment. Utilisation of <italic>Gmelina arborea</italic> for bio-oil production as an alternative fuel would shun unfavourable environmental abasement related to the use of conventional fuels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00An Overview of Strategic Non-Biological Approaches for The Synthesis of Cupper Nanoparticleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Metal Nanoparticles show specific physical and chemical properties attributed to its small size and high surface area to volume ratio. These chemical and physical properties using different strategies and conditions enhance its biological application especially in the field of medicine. Earth abundant and cheap cupper metal is the essential element in many processes and has been used as a focus element to synthesize nanoparticles by different methods using new technology, which are being broadly classified as biological methods that includes green synthesis, microorganism etc. and the non-biological synthesis which includes chemical and Physical methods. Thus, the imperative need to synthesize cupper nanomaterial that are economic and efficient is necessary. This review have briefly described the modern methods to synthesize nanoparticles particularly focusing on the non-biological methods of cupper nanoparticles. An overview of current methodologies that are used for cupper nanoparticle mainly chemical reduction using organic and inorganic solvents, Reverse micelle, microemulsion, polyol method and several physical methods such as vapor condensation, photo irradiation and plasma synthesis methods are discussed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Microplastics: Holistic overview of source, identification, interaction, health and environmental implications and strategies of abatementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Microplastic (MP) is currently a subject of discussion in all parts of the world because it has increasingly over the years become the dominant source of pollution in marine ecosystem. Huge number of these Mps emanate from waste management, decommissioning of ships and oil rigs, plastic products in aquaculture and fishery, sewage treatment, consumer products, agricultural production, transportation, offshore oil and gas production and city dust and wears. Microplastic are characteristically non- biodegradable or durable, exhibits buoyancy, travel long distances, complex with toxic chemicals and bioaccumulate being invisible to the human eye. Classification of MPs into primary and secondary based on source and established standard protocols visa-vis the sampling and identification in matrices were critically reviewed. Physicochemical processes for identification of MPs such as pyrolysis-Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM-GS and TGA/MS were reviewed. Deleterious chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dioxins, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic chemicals (POCs) associated with MPs and mechanisms of chelation were appraised. Several menace and health hazards such as hepatic inflammation, genetic mutation, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) /oxidative stress, tissue necrosis and proliferation of cells linked with MPs were also discussed. Furthermore, green approaches to arresting the menace such as replacing polymer products with biopolymer an eco-friendly alternative, recycling of plastic products, use of paper bags and glass materials and abrogation of consumer products laced with microbeads were advocated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of Potentially Toxic Elements from Poultry Feeds in Ebonyi State, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study examined potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from poultry feeds. The presence of PTEs in the environment raises health concern because these elements can be toxic, ubiquitous and cannot be degraded to non-toxic forms by any known method and as a result remain in the environment for decades. This is a potential pathway through which these PTEs could easily enter the food chain. Six PTEs (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) were determined from four feed types (starter, grower, finisher and layer) from four manufacturers coded A, B, C and D. The samples were prepared, digested and analysed for PTEs using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations obtained were in the following ranges: 0.49 – 0.76 mg/kg (Cd); 11.9 – 7.90 mg/kg (Cr); 5.10 - 7.91 mg/kg (Cu); 7.17 - 9.47 mg/kg (Pb); 26.9 - 34.9 mg/kg (Mn); 3.80 - 6.50 mg/kg (Ni) and 27.8 - 38.4 mg/kg (Zn). These results were compared with the maximum acceptable concentration for PTEs in feeds as stipulated by the European Union standard and the concentrations of Pb and Ni exceeded maximum acceptable concentration. When concentrations exceed set standard, it implies risk to human health. Thus, the need for continuous monitoring of feed compositions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Mathematical Modeling of Polyphosphazeneshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Polyphosphazenes was synthesized and their self assembly behavior was observed as reported in our previous work [1–5]. A number of experiments were carried out to study the polymerization behavior at various conditions of the polymerization time and temperature. The experimental data were analyzed by graphical and statistical methods and it was found that the polymerization phenomena was controlled by the synthesis time, i.e. <italic>M<sub>w</sub></italic> = <italic>M<sub>o</sub> e<sup>k</sup><sub>s</sub><sup>t</sup>s</italic>, where <italic>M<sub>w</sub></italic> is molecular weight of the polymer at time <italic>t<sub>s</sub>, M</italic><sub>0</sub>(=203.24) is pre-exponential factor in the model and <italic>k<sub>s</sub></italic> is (=10686) is synthesis rate constant for the polymer.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Spectroscopic Study of Metal (II) Complex of Sulphamethazine with 1,10 Phenanthrolinehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0010<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>As part of the current research for more effective antimalarial drug, Cu (II) complex of sulphamethazine with 1,10 phenanthroline was synthesized. The novel complex was characterized by Elemental analysis, FT-IR and electronic spectroscopy. The novel complex is insoluble in water, which is an indication of covalent and non- electrolyte character. The elemental analysis result of the complex correspond with the proposed formula [Cu(SUF)(phen)(SCN)<sub>2</sub>]. The electronic spectrum of sulfamethazine and 1, 10- phen showed absorption bands at 212 nm (47169 cm<sup>−1</sup>) and 306 nm (32679 cm<sup>–1</sup>). These bands were assigned to the n – δ* and π – δ* transitions. The infrared bands were seen at 3443 – 3344 cm <sup>−1</sup>which were attributed to the presence of <italic>v</italic>(NH2), <italic>v</italic>(NH) and <italic>v</italic> (OH) vibrations experience bathochromic shift in the metal complex. The parent ligands acted as a bidentate chelating agent showing coordination through the pyridine nitrogen and the nitrogen of the NH moiety in this case.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Liquid Phase Adsorption of Methylene Blue Onto Phosphoric Acid Modified Bambaranut Shellhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In view of the global need to curb the effect of contaminants in waste water on our environment, the adsorption potentials of modified carbon from bambaranut (<italic>Vigna subterranean</italic>) shell was investigated for its efficiency in the removal of methylene blue from waste water. The adsorbent morphology and surface chemistry were established by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) determination and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), as well as other standard laboratory procedures. The prepared material was used for the uptake of MB from aqueous solution in a batch process, using UV spectrophotometer Model 752 at 620nm to analyze for the residual dye concentration. The effect of operational parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and pH were analyzed to determine the factors controlling the rate of adsorption. Results from the study showed that the active carbon prepared was a porous material, with surface area of 193 m<sup>2</sup>/g, average pore size of about 10.98nm, and pore volume of 0.530cm<sup>3</sup>/g. With increase in initial dye concentration from 15mg/l to 75mg/l, a decrease in percent adsorption from 95.4% to 72.19% was observed. Increase in adsorbent dosage (from 0.1g to 0.5g), contact time (from 5 min to 40 min) and pH from 2 to 10 resulted in increase in percent adsorption from 84.03% to 98.83%, 54.24% to 84% and 48.17% to 84.03% respectively. About 98.83% removal of MB dye was achieved after 20 min, at pH of 6, temperature of 27±2<sup>o</sup>C, 0.5g weight of adsorbent and initial concentration of 60mg/l of 50ml MB dye solution. Langmuir isotherm best fits the equilibrium adsorption data with R<sup>2</sup> = 0.996; the adsorption intensity obtained from Freundlich model (n&gt;1) and the energy of adsorption obtained from the D-R model (&lt; 8kJ/mol) suggested that physisorption dominates the adsorption of methylene blue onto the prepared activated carbon. Adsorption kinetic data was best described using Pseudo second order kinetic model (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.996), giving equilibrium rate constant (k<sub>2</sub>) of 7690g mg<sup>-1</sup> min<sup>-1</sup>. The characteristic results showed that bambaranut shell can be employed as an alternative to commercial adsorbents in the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions and waste water.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Changing Pattern of Heavy Metals Accumulation in and around in Ship breaking Area Over the 40 years and Its Impact on Fish Diversity in Adjacent Areas of Bangladeshhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Coastal area of Bangladesh is one of the significant ecologically productive areas and full of rich biodiversity that includes variety of species that are endemic to this region. The Shipbreaking activity has turned out to be more significant within the economic situation of the poverty-stricken Bangladesh. The study vicinity was alienated into the Shipbreaking zone and control site for proportional investigation. The study was administered to assess the changing pattern of the concentration of trace metals in soil Soil samples of the study areas and its impact on fish diversity of the ship breaking area in Bangladesh over the 40 years. From the finding of the study, it had been found that the concentration of the heavy metals found within the ship breaking area followed a pattern within the following fashion Fe&gt;Pb&gt;Cr&gt;Mn&gt;Zn&gt;Ni&gt;Cu&gt;Cd&gt;Hg. The finding of this heavy metal analysis of sediments demonstrated that there has been in an increment of two to eight times of selected heavy metals from the finding of 1980 to 2019. The study compared with the two relatively pristine or less impacted (undisturbed) areas, that served because of the reference zone. These studies also found that about 30 species of fishes became irregular or are threatened with extinction than they were 40 years ago.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Isotherm and kinetics of methylene blue removal by peel adsorbentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2021-0009<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Adsorbents were derived from banana peel through chemical treatment using phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide to adsorb methylene blue from water. The adsorption of methylene blue was performed at varying concentrations and contact times. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir equation, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 99.28 mg/g (28%). Phosphoric acid-treated adsorbent exhibits a greater capacity despite a lower affinity than the other adsorbents. A two-stage batch adsorber model was developed to optimize the adsorbent dosage for performance evaluation. Banana peel is a promising resource of adsorbent for wastewater treatment.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Improved method for separation of silver nanoparticles synthesized using the Nyctanthes arbor-tristis shrubhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2019-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles through green chemistry approach has evolved into a new era of research; however, the heterogeneous size and dispersity of silver nanoparticles have limited its applications, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering, plasmon resonance, and more specifically in the medical field of target drug delivery and therapeutic activity. Here-we investigated the effect of purification and separation modes on the dispersity, size, and morphology of silver nanoparticles, synthesized by plant extract (<italic>Nyctanthes arbor-tristis</italic>). Transmission electron microscopy revealed silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 13.0 nm when synthesized through ethanol precipitation, which is advantageously smaller. This result suggests that the silver nanoparticles size can be fine-tuned by changing the separation mode during purification from plant extract. Due to uniformity, our obtained nanoparticles can be expected to show higher catalytic activity towards photochemical reactions, drug delivery and antibacterial activity due to the absence of inactive coating layer (capping agent).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution, Compositional Pattern and Potential to human exposure of PAHs in Water, Amassoma axis, Nun River, Bayelsa State, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2019-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study was carried out to investigate the distribution and contents of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from Amassoma axis of the Nun River, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The PAH contaminations in the river water samples was performed using GC-MS method. The results were similar for all of the three sampling stations. Six LMW PAHs: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene and five HMW PAHs: fluoranthene, pyrene benzo (a)anthracene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene were found. The ∑ PAHs concentration ranged from 0.111mg/L to 0.26mg/L. In this study, PAH fingerprint ratios for determining both petrogenic and pyrogenic (pyrolytic) PAH accumulation in the environment and Toxic equivalency factor (TEF) used to estimate relative toxicity of a PAH compared to that of BaP was employed. The Ph/An ratio for water samples were 0.00, 0.33 and 0.00 in three stations, while associated figures for Fl/Py ratio values were 0.67, 0.83 and 0.50 respectively. Pearson correlation matrice analysis reveals a positive correlation between the PAHs; this could indicate a common source for some of the PAHs, however, some were negatively correlated with each other. This behavior could indicate non-point source. A comparative analysis of PAHs concentrations in the water samples with WHO standards revealed that the results obtained in this study were within the permissible levels, however, carcinogen PAHs present in the water of the Amassoma axis, Nun River may pose a threats to human health.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Remediation of Nickel ion from wastewater by applying various techniques: a reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2019-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The remediation of organic and inorganic pollutants from the aqueous environment has touched a certain level with the development of research. Environmental pollution is increasing day by day due to industrial activities which cause a negative effect on human health and the ecosystem. Nowadays, heavy metals have a special concern due to its toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in nature. Toxic metals like chromium, nickel, arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium are the main contaminants of water because they are non-biodegradable in nature. Nickel is also a toxic metal, mostly used in industries because of its anticorrosion behaviour. As a consequence nickel is present in the wastage of electroplating, tableware, metal finishing, plastics manufacturing, nickel-cadmium batteries, fertilizers and mining industries and these waste have dangerous impact on the human health and environment and causes the diseases i.e. diarrhea, anemia, hepatitis, kidney damage, gastrointestinal distress, skin dermatitis, and central nervous system dysfunction. In the present review article, several techniques are discussed for the treatment of nickel from the industrial environment. The elimination of nickel from wastewater is not important only for economic purposes but also for environmental safety.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Removal of Malachite Green and Congo Red Dyes from Water by Polyacrylonitrile Carbon Fibre Sorbentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2019-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present work was aimed at evaluating the adsorption properties of malachite green and congo red dyes by polyacrylonitrile carbon fibre sorbents. The sorbents were activated and oxidized using potassium hydroxide and ammonium persulfate, respectively at mild conditions. Consequently, the sorbents were characterized for surface area, surface functional groups and thermal decomposition. The activated sorbent displayed a 18.8 mg/g (94 %) of malachite green removal at Co = 20 mg/L, while both modified sorbents showed a 17.5 mg/g (87.5 %) removal of congo red at the same concentration. All sorbents showed a rapid equilibrium of malachite green and congo red dyes in water. Also, the sorbents are somewhat tolerable against different solution pH conditions despite a slight change due to possible electrostatic interactions. Thus, the materials could be successfully employed to treat dyes-laden wastewater.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Characterization of Corrosion Behavior of Archaeological Iron Spear from Sanur (300 BC – 50 AD) – A Megalithic Site in Southern Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2019-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This investigation deals with the chemical composition and microstructural analysis of the iron object, a spear excavated from Sanur, Tamil Nadu- a megalithic site dated 300 B.C. to 50 A.D. Phase analysis and microstructural examination were carried using XRD, optical and variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Optical micrograph shows the equiaxed grain structure along with the Newman bands. Formation of Newman bands suggests that the original artifact was forged at high temperature followed by cooling, although not so rapid to produce the marked hardening. The absence of carbides at the grain boundary, within the grains and lower value of micro-hardness indicates that the iron spear was not subjected to the carburizing treatment. Results of corrosion characterization revealed that deterioration of excavated iron artifact is associated with the presence of chlorine in corrosion products. However, <italic>compact nature of the outer rust (goethite) was helpful in protecting the object. The formation of goethite [ ∝-FeOOH] layer may prevent the iron matrix suffering from attacks by other environmental factors due to its good continuity. In addition, less aerated environment of storage and no history of any cleaning of object were also helpful in preventing the iron spear from further deterioration.</italic></p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Bioethanol Production from Corn, Pumpkin and Carrot of Bangladesh as Renewable Source using Yeast https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2020-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Bangladesh produces a large amount of corn, pumpkin and carrots every year. To meet its huge energy demand and to lessen dependence on traditional fossil fuel these products are cost effective, renewable and abundant source for bioethanol production. The research was aimed to evaluate Bangladeshi corn, rotten carrot and pumpkin for bioethanol production. About 100 g of substrates was mixed with 300 ml distilled water and blended and sterilized. All the experiment was conducted with a temperature of 35oC, pH 6.0 and 20% sugar concentration. For fermentation, 200 ml yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCD) was added to make the total volume 500 ml. Addition of small amount of 1750 unit α-amylase enzyme to the substrate solution was found to enhance the fermentation process quicker. After 6- days of incubation, corn produced 63.00 ml of ethanol with 13.33 % (v/v) purity. Bioethanol production capacity of two different local varieties of pumpkin (red and black color) was assessed. Red pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) produces 53 ml of ethanol with purity 6 %v/v and black color pumpkin produces 40 ml of yield with a low purity 4 %v/v. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) produces 73.67 ml of ethanol with 12.66 % (v/v) purity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Branched nanofibers for biodegradable facemasks by double bubble electrospinninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2020-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>World health organization (WHO) data shows that air pollution kills an estimated seven million people worldwide every year. A nanofiber based biodegradable facemask can keep breath from smoke and other particles suspended in the air. In this study, we propose branched polymeric nanofibers as a biodegradable material for air filters and facemasks. Fibers have been elecrospun using double bubble electrospinning technique. Biodegradable polymers, PVA and PVP were used in our experiment. Two tubes, each filled with one of the polymers, were supplied with air from the bottom to form bubbles of polymer solutions. DC 35-40 kV was used to deposit the fibers on an aluminum foil. Results show that the combination of polymers under specific conditions produced branched fibers with average nanofibers diameter of 495nm. FT-IR results indicate the new trends in the graph of composite nanofibers.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Synthesis And Antibacterial Activities Of Benzothiazole Derivatives Of Sulphonamideshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2020-0009<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aims to synthesize hybrid compounds “via” the coupling of sulphonamide and benzothiazole into one structure that may have improved antibacterial property. The N-(biphenyl-4-yl) thiourea (1) used for the synthesis of the targeted sulphonamides was obtained by reacting diphenylamine and ammonium thiocyanate at room temperature. Cyclization of N-(biphenyl-4-yl)thiourea gave 2-amino-6-phenylbenzothiazole (2) which reacted with benzenesulphonyl chloride and para-toulene sulphonyl chloride to give the targeted sulphonamides (3a &amp; 3b). The synthesized compounds were characterised using melting point, infra-red spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and elemental analysis. Anti-bacterial screening of the synthesised compounds indicated that all the compounds showed anti-bacterial properties, except 2-amino-6-phenylbenzothiazole that did not show any activity on <italic>Escherichia coli.</italic></p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Load and Geo-Electric Characterization of Soils from Ogale Community, Eleme, Rivers State, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2020-00010<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons load in soils of Ogale community, Rivers State, Nigeria and as well delineate the lateral and vertical extensions of the soils and groundwater. Geo-electric characterization of the soils and groundwater, using Electrical Resistivity methods (vertical electrical sounding, VES by Abem Terrameter and Gas chromatograph - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) for finger-print was employed. The interpreted VES results revealed four geo-electric subsurface layers. The first layer which has a resistivity value of 60Ωm and a thickness of 2.0M was interpreted as top soil. Underlying the first layer is the second layer which had a resistivity value of 122Ωm with a thickness of 3m, interpreted as lateritic sand. The third layer had a resistivity value of 750Ωm and a thickness of 9.0m, and is interpreted as coarse sand. The fourth layer which had a resistivity value of 1255Ωm and a thickness of 49m is interpreted as very coarse sand. Borehole one was used as control and it is 1.85km away from the Resistivity sampling points. The results revealed that the presence of C10-C40 hydrocarbon which indicates un-weathered to fresh hydrocarbon in parts of the study area and heavy metals were below detection limits. The vulnerability of the aquifer to hydrocarbon contamination was due to high permeability, unconsolidated coarse grained and poorly sorted sands, of the vadose zone as well as shallowness of the aquifer. It is recommended that boreholes in the study area should be of deeper depths, and well constructed to avoid contaminated water from the polluted zone entering the borehole through the annulus.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Phytochemical Analysis and Efficacy Of Rosemary () and Mint (Mentha Spicata) Extracts Against Fall Armyworm () on Baby Corn ()https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acmy-2020-0011<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith) is a pest with devasting effects on maize. A laboratory biassay was conducted to analyse the phytochemicals and determine the efficacy of M. spicata and R. officinalis extracts on FAW. Treatments were laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications. The factors included solvent [Methanol (Me), dichloromethane (DCM), distilled water (Di)] and the plant species (M. spicata and R. officinalis). Coragen SC 200 (Co) and Distilled water (Di) were the positive and negative controls, respectively. FAW rearing, plant extract preparation and phytochemical screening were done using standard procedure. Data collection and analysis was done using standard procedures. The extract yield was highest for R. officinalis regardless of the solvent used. Me-R. officinalis and Di-M. spicata extracts yielded the highest. Saponins, glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids and tannins. Flavonoid contents were 7.9036 mg/mL and 6.0073 ± 0.6117 mg/mL in methanolic extract of M. spicata and R. officinalis, respectively. M. spicatha and R. officinalis extracts caused 100% mortality to 3rd instar larvae. Based on the findings, both M. spicata and R. officinalis have several secondary metabolites that confer insecticidal activity of the plants against FAW, hence should be evaluated under field conditions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1