rss_2.0Acta Veterinaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Veterinaria Veterinaria Feed of the Serum Protein Electrophoretic Pattern and Concentrations of Acute Phase Proteins in Bitches with and Without Mammary Gland Tumors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alterations in the serum protein pattern may be associated with many diseases, including neoplastic processes. In veterinary medicine, these changes are poorly understood. Therefore, this study was aimed at the analysis of the distribution of blood serum protein fractions separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, and at the determination of the concentrations of main acute phase proteins in bitches with mammary gland neoplasia. The evaluation was conducted on twelve female dogs with palpable single or multiple nodules in the parenchyma of the mammary gland and on ten tumor-free clinically healthy bitches to compare the possible differences in the obtained results. Blood serum was used to perform agarose gel electrophoresis of the main blood serum protein fractions and to analyze the concentrations of total serum proteins and the following canine acute phase proteins: serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and α<sub>1</sub>-acid glycoprotein. The concentrations of total serum proteins were slightly higher in bitches with mammary gland tumors. Serum protein electrophoresis showed lower mean concentrations of albumin and α<sub>1</sub>-globulins in the affected dogs, while the concentrations of α<sub>2</sub>-and β<sub>1</sub>-globulins were significantly higher (P=0.0032 and P=0.0021, respectively) compared to dogs without mammary gland tumors. In the concentrations of acute phase proteins, significantly higher mean concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin were obtained in dogs with mammary tumors (P=0.0025 and P=0.0002, respectively). The values of α<sub>1</sub>-acid glycoprotein did not vary markedly between the bitches with and without mammary tumors. Presented data suggest that neoplastic processes in the mammary gland may also alter the electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins and induce changes in the production of some inflammatory proteins.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Markers in Dogs with Mammary Gland Tumors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to determine and compare values of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA 15-3) in 50 bitches with mammary tumors and 150 clinically healthy dogs. A modified procedure was used to determine the CEA and CA 15-3 markers with the human kits using the radioimmunoassay method (RIA). Samples collected from extirpated tumors of mammary glands were histologically processed and classified as per WHO guidelines. The mean values of the carcinoembryonic antigen markers ± SD were as follows: control group 0.89 ± 0.79, group with mammary gland tumor 1.53 ± 1.15. The values of cancer antigen markers CA 15-3 ± SD were: 1.52 ± 0.66 and 2.87 ± 1.11, respectively. The statistical significance for the carcinoembryonic antigen marker between groups was P &lt; 0.0001. The cancer antigen CA 15-3 values between groups were also statistically significant with P &lt; 0.0001. The results of the present study show that there are significant differences in both antigens between the control group and groups with mammary gland tumor in dogs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Status in the Blood of Psychosocially Stressed Rats Treated with Honey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Linden honey represents a unique honey variety valued for its nutritional benefits, distinctive taste and aroma. Phenols, polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids in honey have antioxidant activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of linden honey on the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as on the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in individually housed animals. The investigated parameters were quantified using spectrophotometric method for determination of enzyme activities and MDA concentration in the blood. We found that treatment with linden honey in the socially isolated animals significantly increased the enzyme activities of CAT and GPx, and significantly decreased the concentration of MDA. The modulation of CAT and GPx activities in socially isolated animals treated with linden honey may be very important for understanding the role of honey in the capacity of antioxidant defense system to increase and maintain its stability in psychosocial stress conditions. Our results may be important in biomedical research for understanding the role of honey in the amelioration of oxidative stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) in Dog’s Hair as a Sign of Oxidative Stress – Preliminary Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Various endogenous and exogenous factors influence the occurrence of oxidative stress in all organisms, as well as in dogs. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration and the occurrence of oxidative stress can lead to changes in the structure of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The level of oxidative stress can be determined by measuring the end products of lipid peroxidation known as reactive substances of thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) of which malondialdehyde (MDA) is the most important. The concentration of MDA can be easily measured in various tissues and body excretions, but also by a non-invasive method of hair sampling. In this research, we have collected dog hair in grooming saloons, fluorometrically measured TBARS levels and compared the obtained values with factors such as breed, sex, age, passive smoking, sterilization, and season. No significant difference between sterilized and non-sterilized dogs was observed. The intensity of lipid peroxidation differed between the sexes, dog breeds, status of smoking by owner and exposure to UV radiation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Trehalose Lyophilized Platelets in Mice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The utilization of stored platelet transfusion has emerged as an effective approach in the management of thrombocytopenia. However, the limited availability of fresh platelets in veterinary medicine due to the challenging storage requirements poses a significant constraint. Lyophilized platelets offer extended shelf-life and convenient storage options, enhancing their accessibility for thrombocytopenic patients. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the clearance and survival rate of transfused lyophilized platelets, particularly regarding the lyophilization technique utilizing trehalose as a platelet stabilization agent. The objective of this study was to assess the recovery and survival rate of trehalose lyophilized platelets within the circulatory system. To investigate these parameters, CMFDA-labeled lyophilized platelets were administered to mice, and their recovery and survival rates were analyzed. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the rapid clearance of lyophilized platelets from the systemic circulation. The immediate post-infusion percent recovery of labeled platelet particles was 42.7 ± 8.15 %. The average survival rates at post-infusion time points at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes were 28.2 ± 4.31, 14.5 ± 3.56, 5.1 ± 2.02, and 0.82 ± 0.57, respectively. The calculated mean half-life was 8.39 ± 0.44 minutes. The most pronounced decrease in labeled lyophilized platelet count occurred during the 30-minute timeframe immediately following infusion. Subsequently, over 99% of lyophilized platelets were eliminated after 60 minutes post-infusion. These findings indicate that higher dosages and more frequent administration of trehalose lyophilized platelets might be necessary to achieve a therapeutic effect comparable to that of fresh platelets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Schmallenberg Virus in Sheep in Belgrade Epizootic Area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Schmallenberg disease is an infectious disease of cattle, sheep, and goats of viral aetiology caused by the Schmallenberg virus that belongs to the family <italic>Bunyaviridae</italic> and the genus <italic>Ortobunyavirus</italic>. Schmallenberg disease is a vector-borne disease transmitted by midges from the genus <italic>Culicoides</italic> but also by other hematophagous insects. The disease has a seasonal character and most often occurs in the warm months, from late spring to autumn. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of Schmallenberg disease in sheep in the epizootic area of Belgrade in the period from 2017 to 2022. A total of 600 sheep serums from the serum bank were tested, 100 serum samples from each year. Sera were tested by commercial ELISA test for the detection of specific antibodies against the Schmallenberg virus. The results showed an average annual seroprevalence of 24.5% in sheep in the Belgrade area in these six years with an increasing trend predicted for the next years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Onchocercidae) in the Oral Cavity of a Dog in Northeastern Brazil: Case Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An 11-year-old male dog presenting exophthalmia and perforation of the cornea of the left eye was seen at the veterinary hospital of the State University of Maranhão. Upon physical examination, irregularly shaped granulomas of crumbly appearance were observed on the dog’s tongue. The dog was sent for ocular enucleation surgery. The following tests were requested: complete blood count, serum biochemistry, hemoparasite investigation, chest X-Ray, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, cytology and nodule histopathology. The blood count revealed neutrophilia, signs of anemia, increased total plasma protein and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemistry and the imaging examinations showed normal results. The cytological examination on the tongue nodules showed microfilariae and the histopathological examination showed chronic glossitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genetic sequencing were performed on a blood sample, which made it possible to identify the species <italic>Acanthocheilonema reconditum.</italic> This is the first record worldwide of the occurrence of microfilariae of <italic>A. reconditum</italic> on tongue nodules. This finding serves to alert dermatologists and dentists regarding the need for a differential diagnosis for types of oral cavity lesions of unknown etiological origin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of dietary supplementation with benzoic acid and chelated copper, zinc and manganese sources on production performance in piglets<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of benzoic acid and chelates in which copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) were bound to methionine hydroxy analogue on growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota and digesta pH value of post-weaning piglets at 28 days of age. The experiment was conducted on 96 piglets randomly assigned to one of four treatments (6 replicate pens of 4 piglets each): 1) control (C) – microminerals were provided as sulfates of Cu, Zn and Mn at 130 (80 at second phase), 100, 120 mg/kg in the first phase, respectively; 2) chelates (CTM), microelements were provided as chelates of Cu, Zn and Mn at 130 (80 in second phase), 60, 60 mg/kg in the first phase, respectively; 3) benzoic acid (BA), with the addition of 2500 mg/kg during both periods; 4) chelates + benzoic acid (CTM + BA), microelements were provided as chelates of Cu, Zn and Mn at 130 (80 in second phase), 60, 60 mg/kg in the first phase, respectively, and 2500 mg/kg of benzoic acid during both periods. Results showed that chelates and benzoic acid supplementation not only improved the final body weight (p&lt;0.05), average daily gain (p&lt;0.05) and feed conversion ratio (p&lt;0.05), but also increased the morphology performance and decreased the number of <italic>E. coli</italic> in the jejunum and ileum in the treated groups (p&lt;0.05). This study provides the evidence that dietary supplementation has beneficial effects on the intestinal morphology and microflora of weaned pigs, which can partly explain why growth performance of the piglets was improved.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of endoplasmic reticulum stress response genes in homologous vs. heterologous asf infections<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for the production, processing and transport of proteins. Infection with pathogens activates Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), which can lead to their survival/replication or elimination from the body. Although little is known about the role of the ER stress response in the pathogenesis of viral infections, the regulation of ER stress may be important in intractable infectious diseases. We conducted a comparative analysis of the expression of genes involved in ER stress response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from animals immunized with an attenuated strain of ASFV strain Congo-a (KK262) and then stimulated <italic>in vitro</italic> by two serologically different virulent strains Congo-v (K49) or Mozambique-v (M78), to expand our understanding of the early determinants of response to homologous and heterologous infection. We found up-regulation of genes of all three sensory molecules (PERK, ATF6 and IRE1) of UPR pathway in cells infected with only a homologous strain. For the first time, a number of up-regulated genes of the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD), which destroys misfolded proteins, were also detected. By understanding how viruses modify elements of cellular response to stress, we learn more about the pathogenesis, as well as how we can use it to prevent viral diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Examination of the Horse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Thermography is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging technique that detects regions of the body surface with increased (or decreased) temperature by measuring infrared radiation. It reveals physiological and pathophysiological changes primarily related to blood flow and metabolic rate in the examined body regions, as well as altered heat production. These include physical stress, various physical injuries, medical conditions, and environmental factors. In equine medicine, thermography can be used for early detection of tissue temperature changes, allowing intervention at an early stage of a medical deterioration. Thermographic examination can be used to detect tissue abnormalities in all regions of the body. It is particularly useful for the detection of musculoskeletal disorders. Inflammatory processes are present in many diseases and injuries, which can be successfully detected with thermography. Thermography makes it possible to monitor the success of treatment. Often, thermographically visible disease changes are detected before clinical signs or other imaging techniques become visible in the animal. In physical therapy, it helps locate regions of the body in need of treatment and plays an important role in detecting illegal procedures (such as local analgesics) to improve competitive performance in horses.</p> <p>Thermography serves as a complementary diagnostic tool. However, in practice, it has some limitations. The method is not specific and cannot determine the etiology of pathological changes. Therefore, it is usually used together with other diagnostic methods (such as X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and can not replace them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the antibacterial effect of bee venom against rainbow trout pathogens and antibiotic resistance gene expression<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bee venom (BV) is a rich source of secondary metabolites from honeybees (<italic>Apis mellifera</italic> L.). It contains a variety of bioactive ingredients including peptides, proteins, enzymes, and volatile metabolites. This study investigated the antibacterial effects of the bee venom obtained from honey bees (<italic>Apis mellifera</italic> L.) against bacterial fish pathogens, such as <italic>Lactococcus garvieae</italic> (Lg1, Lg2, Lg3), <italic>Vibrio anguillarum</italic> (Va1, Va2, Va3), <italic>Yersinia ruckeri</italic> (Yr1, Yr2, Yr3), and <italic>Aeromonas hydrophila (</italic>Ah1, Ah2, Ah3) and the expression levels on the antibiotic resistance genes <italic>hly</italic> and <italic>fbp (hemolysin</italic> and <italic>fibronectin-binding prot)</italic> of them. It was determined that bee venom had an antibacterial effect against <italic>L. garvieae, L. anguillarum</italic>, and <italic>Y. ruckeri</italic> strains, while it had no effect only against Ah3 and Ah2 bacterial strains. As staded by the gene expression of <italic>hly (hemolysin)</italic> and <italic>fbp</italic> (<italic>fibronectin-binding protein</italic>), among the antibiotic resistance genes the effect levels of bee venom on bacterial species varied, although it affected antibiotic resistance and gene expression level in all bacteria. It was revealed that the expression level was the highest for <italic>V. anguillarum</italic> strains, whereas it was below the control group for <italic>L. garvieae</italic>. i.e the effect of bee venom on the resistance mechanism for <italic>L. garvieae</italic> was much less compared to <italic>V. anguillarum</italic>. Based on the results in the current study it could be concluded that applying bee venom to pathogenic bacteria that cause mortality in the aquaculture sector could induce the defense-related gene and change the broad-spectrum biocontrol activity at the molecular level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue immunological advantage of owned cats over stray cats: a comparative study of perforin and granzymes gene expressions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Some cats live at home with their owners while others live unattended on the streets or in shelters. One might expect that the owned cats would be better prepared for diseases with vaccinations, and good care and feeding conditions whereas the stray cats would be prepared for diseases by constant exposure to microbial factors. However, no study has investigated which group has the stronger immune response against diseases. Cytotoxic T cells and NK cells are known to initiate an immune response that causes apoptosis of the affected cells when stimulated by various factors. This immune response occurs due to an influx of perforin and granzyme proteins into the affected cell. Accordingly, this study compared owned and stray cats in terms of perforin and granzymes gene expression. Blood samples were collected from 30 owned and 30 stray cats, whose health conditions were checked. The samples were analyzed by qPCR for perforin, and granzyme A and granzyme B gene expression. All genes were expressed at a higher level in owned cats, although only the granzyme A gene showed a significant difference (p&lt;0.05). This indicates that this gene plays a more active and significant role in cats than perforin and granzyme B, and that owned cats have a stronger immune response to diseases than stray cats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of serovars of pathogenic leptospira in dogs and red foxes () from bosnia and herzegovina<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of <italic>Leptospira</italic> spp. in dogs and red foxes in the entity of the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, after heavy rainfall and floods in 2014 and for the two years thereafter. The seroepidemiological study involved testing serum samples from dogs (n = 98) and foxes (n = 112) using MAT (microscopic agglutination test).</p> <p>Antibodies to at least one <italic>Leptospira</italic> spp. serovar were found in 52.04% of the tested dogs. The dog seroprevalence in 2014 (81.25%) was significantly higher than in 2015 (51.42% p &lt;0.0001) and 2016 (22.5% p&lt;0.05). The highest seroprevalences were for serovars Australis (76.47%), Bratislava (70.58%), Sejroe (66.67%) and Autumnalis (45.09%).</p> <p>Antibodies to at least one <italic>Leptospira</italic> spp. serovar were detected in 34.82% of the examined red foxes. In 2015, the fox seroprevalence was significantly higher (52.94%) than in 2016 (6.82%) (p &lt;0.0001). The highest seroprevalences were for serovars Sejroe (64.10%), Bratislava (48.72%), Australis (43.59%) and Bataviae (25.64%).</p> <p>The high seroprevalence of <italic>Leptospira</italic> spp. in dogs and foxes determined during this study indicates the importance of these carnivores in maintaining leptospirosis in the study area, and the potential risk of infection for humans and other animal species that come into contact with these canids. The results obtained indicate that heavy rainfall and intense floods can result in increased <italic>Leptospira</italic> spp. infection in these canids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of and in Holstein Friesian dairy cows with subclinical endometritis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Mycoplasma</italic> spp. is the cause of serious cattle health disorders that lead to poor reproductive efficiency. Chronic seminal vesiculitis, infertility, vulvovaginitis and dystocia were observed in <italic>Mycoplasma</italic> spp. infection. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the frequency o f Mycoplasmas in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows and its potential role in the occurrence of subclinical endometritis. Our study included 102 Holstein Friesian dairy cows 22-32 days postpartum. Uterine samples for cytological, bacteriological, and molecular analysis were provided using Cytoprint A I<sup>®</sup>. Metricheck<sup>®</sup> was used for the assessment of cervicovaginal mucus. After detection of <italic>Mycoplasma</italic> spp. genome in uterine samples, the swabs of the vulva, vagina, nasal swab, and samples of milk were sampled in order to exclude possible contamination with other microorganisms as potential trigger of subclinical endometritis. The genome of <italic>Mycoplasma</italic> spp. in the uterus was confirmed in 4 cows (2.40%). Sequencing of the 16S RNA revealed that detected mycoplasmas belonged to <italic>Mycoplasma bovigenitalium</italic> and <italic>Mycoplasma tauri</italic> species, with a prevalence of 1.80% and 0.6%, respectively. The cytological evaluation showed a 69.90%, 54.87% and 48.33% of polymorphonuclear cells for <italic>M. bovigenitalium</italic> positive cows, and 61.64% for <italic>M. tauri</italic> positive cow. Bacteriological examination revealed <italic>Trueperella pyogenes</italic> in uterine samples in all 4 observed cows. This is the first study where <italic>M. tauri</italic> was detected in the uterus of a live cow with subclinical enodmetritis. In this paper we hypothesized that <italic>M. bovigenitalium</italic> and <italic>M. tauri</italic> may have a certain role in the etiology of subclinical enodmetritis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the current and future distribution of Brucellosis under climate change scenarios in Qinghai Lake basin, China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bruce llosis is a bacterial disease caused by various Brucella species, which infect primarily cattle, swine, goats, sheep, and dogs. The disease is typically transmitted to humans through direct contact with diseased animals, consumption of contaminated animal products, or inhalation of airborne pollutants. The majority of cases are caused by consuming unpasteurized goat or sheep milk or cheese. Based on observed Brucellosis occurrence data and ecogeographic variables, a MaxEnt algorithm was used to model the current and future distribution of Brucellosis in Qinghai Lake basin, P.R. China. Our model showed the Brucellosis current distribution and predicts suitable habitat shifts under future climate scenarios. In the new representatives; SSP 2.6 and SSP 4.5 for the year 2050s and 2070s, our model predicts an expansion in the current suitable areas. This indicates that under the possible climate changes in the future, the living space of Brucellosis in Qinghai Lake basin China will expand significantly. Ecogeographic variables that contributed significantly to the distribution of Brucellosis in Qinghai Lake basin are revealed by our model. The results of our study will promote comparisons with future research and provide a new perspective to inform decision-making in the field of public health in Qinghai province.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue investigation of the prevalence and genotype distribution of ., and Giardia duodenalis in cats in Siirt, Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. and <italic>Giardia duodenalis</italic> are protozoan parasites found in humans and many animal species worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. and <italic>Giardia duodenalis</italic> in cats and to evaluate the zoonotic potential of these agents. The animal material of the study consisted of a total of 40 cats brought to the Veterinary Faculty. Fresh fecal samples taken from the cats were placed in individual sample containers. All samples were examined under the microscope by Kinyoun Acid Fast staining for <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. and by the native-Lugol method for <italic>Giardia duodenalis</italic>. Nested PCR and sequence analyses were then performed. As a result of microscopic and nested PCR analyses for <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp., no positivity was found in any sample. The prevalence of <italic>Giardia duodenalis</italic> was 2.5% in both microscopic examination and nested PCR analyses. When the DNA sequences of the <italic>β-Giardin</italic> gene obtained in the study were compared with the database in NCBI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, it was determined that one sample overlapped with Assemblage B samples. As a result of this study, the prevalence of <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. and <italic>Giardia duodenalis</italic> in cats was determined and the presence of Assemblage B was revealed. It is recommended that repetitive studies should be carried out as much as possible to determine the possible role of these parasites in the transmission of these parasites to humans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue cyst in the caudal cranial fossa of a young Belgian Malinois dog with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid findings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fluid-filled cavities within the brain are well-recognized in human and veterinary medicine. Congenital or acquired brain cystic lesions could be isolated or associated with other diseases. Clinical signs related to cysts depend on their size and the mass effect they exert on surrounding neuroanatomical structures. We present a case of a 5-month-old Belgian Malinois dog with cervical pain and right head tilt. The dog had a normal haematochemical profile and negative infectious disease tests. A contrast enhancement Computed Tomography scan revealed the presence of a thin-walled cystic lesion in the caudal cranial fossa at the level of the right pontine-cerebellar junction. A cerebrospinal fluid tap was performed by lumbar puncture, revealing a monocytic pleocytosis. After initial improvement following corticosteroid and antibiotic therapy, clinical signs worsened, and the dog underwent a second clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging examination. After euthanasia a complete postmortem examination was performed. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were suggestive of an ependymal cyst.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue investigation of FIPV3-70 antigen expression in the ileum of cats with effusive feline infective peritonitis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most common infectious causes of cat mortality is feline infective peritonitis (FIP), along with panleukopenia and viral upper respiratory tract infections. FIP is more likely to affect cats whose immune system is weak or suppressed. It is thought that the infection of macrophages and monocytes plays a major role in the pathogenic process. In order to set a definitive diagnosis for this infectious disease, a histopathological examination of tissues, and feline coronavirus (FCoV) detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is necessary. In this investigation, 15 cats between the ages of 5 and 24 months with clinical suspicion of FIP, underwent post-mortem necropsy, pathohistological and immunohistochemical examination. The results showed that all the cats had abdominal effusion with pyogranulomas throughout the abdominal serosa. Ten out of fifteen cats were FIP positive using immunohistochemical methods. This method also showed the antigen deposition in the macrophages thus confirming their role in the pathogenesis of FIP.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Health Related Quality of Life in Dogs Treated with Chemotherapy for Lymphoma<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic tumor in dogs. The standard diagnostic approach and staging includes detailed clinical history, physical examination and extended laboratory workup including lymph node cytology. Multidrug chemotherapy is the main treatment of the disease. Often, owners are concerned about the side effects of the treatment and the quality of life of their dog during chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze the health related wellbeing of the patients with lymphoma previous, during and at the end of the chemotherapy. Five patients with multicentric lymphoma were monitored in three phases (beginning, middle and end of chemotherapy). The monitoring included clinical examination, laboratory analyses and a questionnaire for the owner. Results revealed significant improvement (p&lt; 0.1) of the basic red blood cells parameters (RBC, PCV and Hb), platelets (PLT) as well as liver enzymes (ALT, AST) and protein status (total protein and globulin). Regarding the life quality assessed by the owners, dogs' appetite, general health compared to each visit and the current quality of life were significantly improved (p&lt;0.1) and all of the owners were satisfied with the decision for chemotherapy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Subclinical and Clinical Hypothyroidism Effects on Rat Offspring: A Story of the Skin and its Derivatives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Epidermis stem cells have a crucial role through the processes of proliferation and differentiation, to replace cells that are constantly lost during tissue turnover or following injury. On the other hand, thyroid hormones regulate the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal cells and thus significantly influence the homeostasis of the skin. It is well known that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy leads to impaired development of many organ systems in their offspring. However, there is a lack of data about the influence of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and lactation on the development of the skin and its derivatives in the litter. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal thyroid dysfunction on the development of the skin and its derivatives in their offspring in the early postnatal period. Antithyroid substance 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil was added into the drinking water to female Albino Oxfords rats from the beginning of pregnancy and during lactation, with the aim to induce subclinical and overt form of hypothyroidism. Skin samples were taken from male pups within twenty-four hours and seven days after birth. The main findings of this investigation were that both forms of maternal hypothyroidism lead to serious damage of the epidermis in pups in terms of pronounced hyperkeratosis and reduction of the germinal layer along with a reduced number of hair follicles and their delayed morphogenesis. Epidermal impairments were more pronounced in pups with the overt form of hypothyroidism while offspring with the subclinical form had impairments that were less pronounced and delayed in occurrence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue