rss_2.0Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianaehttps://sciendo.com/journal/AFEPUChttps://www.sciendo.comActa Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6374fe9398240f0297d6409e/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/AFEPUC140216Participation and Youth Sport Coaching Good Practice - An Overview and Reflection of the Active Sussex Coach Support Officers Schemehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In order to meet a wide variety of social policy objectives (such as health, educational attainment, community cohesion etc.), ensuring wide access to community and youth sport programmes remains an objective of many governments. In the UK, the post 2012 Olympic Legacy Strategy, overseen by Active Partnerships under the auspices of Sport England, promoted Sportivate and Satellite Clubs programmes (aimed at increasing participation levels) through most of the rest of the decade. In order to ensure minimum standards of operation and to develop the skills of the local coaching workforce, Active Sussex (one of the Active Partnerships) commenced a Coach Support Officer (CSO) scheme with the support of the University of Chichester from 2013 to (through various iterations) time of writing. Through a longitudinal reflection/summary of the various interventions and data collection points over the last nine years, we present an overview of this scheme. Further, we outline a clear philosophy, guidelines, and accompanying set of values that extol what can be considered good (best) practice for sustainable community sport and physical activity programmes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00192022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Trunk Rotational Power in Female and Male Athletes of Gymnastics and Dance Sportshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study investigates between-gender differences in trunk rotational power produced at various loads in athletes of gymnastic and dance sports. A group of 24 female and 15 male competitive aerobic and acrobatic gymnasts, ballroom and rock &amp; roll dancers completed two trials of standing trunk rotations at each side with a barbell of different weights (increasing from 1 kg by ~5 kg up to max. of 20 kg) placed on their shoulders. The power produced during trunk rotations was evaluated using the FiTRO Torso Premium. Results showed significantly higher mean power in the acceleration phase of trunk rotations in male than female athletes at loads of 10.5 kg (206.8 ± 22.0 W and 165.4 ± 17.8 W respectively, <italic>p</italic> = 0.033), 15.5 kg (231.8 ± 27.5 W and 155.6 ± 24.4 W respectively, <italic>p</italic> = 0.001) and 20 kg (196.9 ± 25.3 W and 111.4 ± 20.9 W respectively, <italic>p</italic> = 0.001). Similar significant between-gender differences for angular velocity at weights ≥10.5 kg were observed. Alternatively, power and force were greater at lower velocities in male than female athletes. However, some females were able to produce slightly greater power and force at higher velocities in spite of their lower values at lower velocities when compared to males. This may be ascribed to both the genetic predispositions and the specificity of their acrobatic and dance elements including trunk rotations at various velocities under different load conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00182022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Heart Disease After Covid: Exacerbated Future Health Risks Aligned to Previous and Existing AAS/Androgen Usehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In this commentary/short communication we build upon our existing research and viewpoints related to the deleterious effects that AAS/Androgen use has, and the growing body of work and case studies/reports that identify the substantially increased risks that AAS/Androgen use presents to those who have (or have had) COVID-19. We position this commentary/short communication then, as one that builds on our prior calls for public health policy to be in part framed by, or at least to recognise the risks, of AAS/Androgen use. This is of particular contemporary importance now that COVID-19 is endemic, and we report on how long COVID-19 (Post COVID-19 syndrome) can present a wide range of lasting <italic>c</italic>ardiovascular problems, a particular issue given that AAS/Androgen use may well exacerbate future health risks aligned to COVID-19.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00122022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Tensiomyography of Selected Upper-Limb Muscles in Crossminton Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Crossminton is characterized by the repetition of specific one-side movements that is the determining factor of the development of muscle asymmetry and damage to the musculoskeletal system.</p> <p><bold>Aim:</bold> The purpose of the study was to identify the lateral symmetry between the dominant and nondominant upper limb of crossminton players and to compare the muscle profile of the players with the recommendation values of tennis players.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> Four elite crossminton players with world ranking position in top 10 participated in our study. We used a tensiomyography to measure the occurrence of functional disorders of the upper limb muscles. Tensiomyography measures were obtained for 8 muscles: m. deltoideus posterior, m. deltoideus anterior, m. pectoralis major, m. biceps brachii, m. triceps brachii, m. brachioradialis, m. flexor digitorum, m. extensor digitorum. We represented the parameters of overall lateral symmetry, maximal displacement (Dm) and contraction time (Tc) for each player individually.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Individual TMG-derived parameters such as Tc, Dm and lateral symmetry were different between the dominant and non-dominant upper limb. The major finding of this study was that in each crossminton player was found a significantly overall lateral asymmetry of m. triceps brachii. Interestingly, Tc and Dm values were higher in the non-dominant limb in m. triceps brachii compared to the dominant limb for all the crossminton players.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> According to the results of this study, finding the occurrence of muscle asymmetry between the upper limbs, we recommend carry out regular diagnostics of the musculoskeletal system and the inclusion of compensatory exercises, which would prevent or reduce the occurrence of muscle imbalance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00132022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Physical Activity During Covid-19 Pandemic Lockdowns in Germany – an Overviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In Germany, different ministries are responsible at state level for sport and physical education. The same applies for Covid-19 pandemic decrees. As a result, different rules and regulations have to be followed depending on the place of residence. The same applies to regulations of physical activity in various settings – kindergarten, school, clubs, municipality. The periods of Covid-19 lockdowns have been marked by nationwide closures of kindergartens, schools and in- and outdoor sport facilities. Resulting in an increase in screen time and sedentary activities (Langmeyer et al. 2020) and a notable decrease in children’s daily physical activity to 23.9 minutes (Schmidt et al. 2020). However, during the first lockdown (22. 03. 2020 – 04. 05. 2020), participation in daily activity increased from 108.8 min. per day before the pandemic to 146.8 minutes per day (Schmidt et al. 2021). This development in more casual sporting activities was not sustained into the second lockdown. Daily activity decreased to 62.2 minutes per day (Schmidt et al. 2021). Only organized sport showed a slight increase from 0.0 to 3.7 minutes per day in lockdown two (Schmidt et al. 2021). This was in spite of the fact that high-level athletes were allowed to train and some sport clubs changed to online offerings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00102022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The Integration of Muscle Strengthening in the Improvement of Muscular and Technical Parameters of Young Footballershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study aimed to evaluate the effect of an integrated muscle strengthening program on the improvement of muscular and technical parameters in young football players.</p> <p>There were two objectives, scientifically to measure the impact of integrated muscle strengthening on young players, and practically to present an educational tool for coaches and students to understand this concept of training. To carry on this research, we proceeded to a development of the 8-week program applied to a sample of 24 well-trained players of the first division under 18 years. The hypotheses put forward, were confirmed through the educational intervention and the results obtained were significant. Our results have increased the importance of strength training integrated into the training of young footballers. The margin progress of the experimental group was significant compared to the control group, and the impact of this concept proved to be positive in the approach to the physical preparation of young footballers. It is recommended to pay attention to the concept of integrated muscle building, with all its technical components.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00172022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Rate of Fatigue of Explosive Force of Lower Extremities of Artistic Gymnastshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The aim of our work was to find out the level of explosive force of lower extremities and the rate of muscular fatigue of lower extremities of artistic female gymnasts. The research file consisted of 8 female competitors of B category (year of birth: 2010.5 ± 1.20, physical height 148 ± 10 cm, body weight 36.25 ± 5.44 kg, BMI 16,46 ± 0,68 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). In our ex post facto research, which took place in gymnastic club PAVLO Trencin, we used measuring device FiTRO Jumper that has been placed on floor exercise. In input and output measurement we found out the parameters of jumps by two standardized tests. The female probands had 2 attempts (IO: 2´) in each motoric test we recorded the better attempt on the tables. We measured the height of upward leap (V.V.) [cm] in vertical jump with countermovement (VVsPP) without swing work of arms. In 10s test of repeated upward leaps without the aid of arms we measured power in active phase of take-off (P<sub>max</sub>) in [W.kg<sup>−1</sup>] and fatigue index (I.U.) in [%]. Among measurements the female gymnasts underwent the circular training with 10 exercises (IZ: 40 s, IO: 15 s) and acrobatic preparation. For processing of results we used non-parametric Wilcoxon´s T-test and paired T-test in which we found up significance at the level p ≤ 0.01, p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.10 of statistical significance level. By comparison of obtained results at the beginning of training unit (TJ) in tests of VVsPP (V.V.= 26 ± 2.12 cm), 10s test of repeated upward leaps (P<sub>max</sub>= 40.64 ± 7.6 W.kg<sup>−1</sup>, I.U.= 23.79 ± 8.01 %) and at the end of TJ in tests of VVsPP (V.V.= 24.08 ± 1.36 cm), of 10 s test of repeated upward leaps (P<sub>max</sub>= 40.71 ± 5.16 W.kg<sup>−1</sup>, I.U.= 29.46 ± 10.2 %) we found out that the statistical significance was confirmed at the 0.05 % level of statistical significance only in the height of upward jump in VVsPP where significantly lower values were measured at the end of the training unit. Differences in parameters performance and fatigue index did not manifest themselves at the level of statistical significance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00152022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Static and Dynamic Post-Activation Potentiation Protocols on Change of Direction Performance in Adolescent Soccer Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Purpose:</bold> The study aimed to investigate the temporal effects of static and dynamic post-activation potentiation (PAP) conditioning activities on agility performance.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> Fourteen male adolescent soccer players participated in the study. Participants performed three different conditioning activities randomly on non-consecutive days. Conditioning activities consisted of static, dynamic, and control protocols. The dynamic protocol was performed with the dynamic squat at 85% of 1-repetition maximum while the static protocol was performed 3 repetitions x 3 seconds of the isometric squat. The control protocol only completed a standardized warm-up. After the baseline measurements were taken, all protocols completed the agility test in 15<sup>th</sup> seconds, 2,4,6,8,10,12,14<sup>th</sup> minutes. Repeated measures in ANOVA were used to determine differences between PAP protocols and the Bonferroni post hoc test was employed to determine which protocol caused a significant difference.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> There was no significant difference between protocols in baseline (<italic>p</italic>&lt;.925, ηp2 = 0.006), however, the control protocol caused a significant difference in 15<sup>th</sup> seconds and 2<sup>nd</sup> minutes compared to static and dynamic protocols (<italic>p</italic>&lt;.001, ηp2 = 0.73, 0.72, respectively). In the 4<sup>th</sup> and 6<sup>th</sup> minutes static and dynamic protocols caused a significant difference compared to control (<italic>p</italic>&lt;.001, ηp2 = 0.46-0.89, respectively), and in the 8<sup>th</sup>-minute static and dynamic protocols reached the peak performance (<italic>p</italic>&lt;.001, ηp2 = 0.96). Although in the 10-12-14<sup>th</sup> minutes static and dynamic protocols’ performance values gradually reduced. However, they always were better compared to the control protocol (<italic>p</italic>&lt;.001, ηp2 = 0.91-0.93-0.96, respectively).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Adolescent soccer players can benefit from both static and dynamic PAP protocols before competition or halftime to improve performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00092022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Improving Physical Fitness Levels Among 6- and 7-Year-Old Children as a Result of Physical and Sports Educationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The purpose of the study was to extend knowledge about physical fitness levels and their development among first-grade elementary school students as a result of school physical and sports education. A total of 23 children participated in the study, and nine physical fitness tests were administered to determine their physical fitness levels (Měkota &amp; Blahuš, 1983; Šimonek, 2015). The <italic>t</italic> test for dependent samples was used to determine changes in physical fitness levels for both sexes. Boys showed significant improvements in the 20-meter dash, repeated routine with a pole, standing long jump and 4 x 10 m shuttle run. Girls showed significant improvements in the 20-meter dash test and a repeated routine with a pole. The results have confirmed the necessity to enhance physical fitness levels in children and systematically develop all motor abilities in physical and sports education classes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00142022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Self-Perceived Fatigue Symptoms After Different Physical Loads in Young Boxershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of self-perceived fatigue symptoms during 48 hours after different physical loads in young male boxers. The research sample comprised a total of 21 adolescent male boxers (mean age 14.00±2.05 years), members of the Slovak club named “Best boxing cub” in Devínska Nová Ves (Slovakia). For 48 hours after one-day national championship and five-day training camp, were young male boxers asked to observe symptoms of fatigue on themselves. The level of self-perceived fatigue (S-PF) was measured with the Training Distress Scale (TDS). In young male boxers was found a very low rate of S-PF during 48 hours after the different physical loads. A lower rate of S-PF was declared after the national championship compared to the 5-day training camp. At both events, fatigue was reported with the same three symptoms of muscle soreness, heavy feelings in arms or legs, and lack of energy. Significantly higher S-PF during 48 hours after 5-day training camp compared to national championship was showed in heavy feelings in arms or legs, restless sleep, being unusually tired during the day, and insomnia. No significant differences in overall TDS between different physical loads were found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00112022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Can the Unesco Award be a Facilitator to Change the Quality in After-School Programmes? - Visions for Futurehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In April 2021 the “common welfare oriented sports club culture” has been awarded by German UNESCO intangible cultural heritage (ICH). To maintain this award, there has to be a future vision for the immaterial cultural heritage in terms of inclusive, equal opportunity, high-quality education.</p> <p>In Germany, sports clubs cooperate with (primary) schools in after-school programmes, often organized by the school (ASPO). However, offers of sports clubs are understood as offers for pastime and day-care, on the contrary, offers of other partner of cooperation are regarded as offers of education.</p> <p>During Corona crises grassroots sports in Germany was forbidden and more than that, ASPO and PE were cancelled immediately, with consequences e.g. for common welfare and health. “Existing concepts no longer work!” (Pühse, oral comment Bratislava 2021). P.E. teachers experimented with homework, but failed. However, exercise instructors and coaches came up with new motivating ideas and sports clubs seem to take over the role of high-quality education. Can the UNESCO award be part of a creative change not only for sports club culture but also for ASPO and excessively so to understanding PE in its multi-perspective? Let´s finally consider it in a future workshop, based on scenario, which reflects the relevant developments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00162022-11-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The Acute Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Some Performance Parameters in U11-16 Soccer Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Purpose:</bold> The purpose of the study is to examine the acute effects of different warm-up protocols on some physical performance parameters in the Under 11-16 (U11-16) category soccer players.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> The participant group of the study consisted of seventy-two male soccer players who regularly train in the U11-16 category. Soccer players randomly and counterbalanced participated in the one of the warm-up protocols of FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, Dynamic warm-up, or Mixed warm-up on non-consecutive days. After participants performed one of the protocols, their flexibility, vertical jump, 30m sprint, and agility performances were measured. Repeated measures in the ANOVA test were used to determine intra-group differences (U11-U12-U13-U14-U15-U16) and Bonferroni test was used to decide which protocol caused a significant difference.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> In all underage categories, FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up caused a significant difference in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility compared to Mixed warm-up (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0. 05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> As a result of the study, it was shown that FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up protocols acutely caused a positive influence in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility in all underage categories. These three warm-up protocols may be used to prevent athletes from warm-up uniformity and monotony and support multidirectional development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00042022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Explosive Power of Lower Limbs of Acrobatic Rock and Roll Dancershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Acrobatic rock and roll is dynamic sport dance where explosive power is very important ability.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the thesis was to determine and compare the level of explosive power of the lower limbs of acrobatic rock and roll dancers. We assume that dancers from couple categories will reach a significantly higher level of explosive power of the lower limbs than dancers from ladies formations.</p> <p><bold>Methods.</bold> The research sample consisted of 22 acrobatic rock and roll female dancers. To determine the level of explosive power of the lower limbs, we used a 10 s test on a jump ergometer. We used the non-parametric statistical method Mann Whitney U-test for independent files.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>. The female dancers from couple categories achieved better results in all parameters than dancers from ladies formations. The first examined parameter was the power in the active phase of the take off where the dancers from couples achieved 46.08 ± 5.32 W.kg<sup>−1</sup>, the dancers from ladies formations reached 38.13 ± 3.63 W.kg<sup>−1</sup> (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.64). The second examined parameter was the height of the jump, where dancers from couples achieved 28.91 ± 2.49 cm, dancers from ladies formations reached 25.92 ± 3.21 cm (p ≤ 0.05, r = 0.48). The last examined parameter was the rebound efficiency, where dancers from couples achieved 177.41 ± 25.62 cm.s<sup>−1</sup>, dancers from ladies formations reached 138.48 ± 15.96 cm.s<sup>−1</sup> (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.65).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> In addition to differences in the explosive power of the lower limbs, the results also pointed to the importance of development in all categories. We recommend dancers to include plyometric exercises and repeated rope skipping jumps in the pre-competition and competition period, after completing strength training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00022022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Self-Perceived Fatigue After Motor Abilities Testing in Adolescent Elite Tennis Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of the study was to determine self-perceived fatigue (S-PF) after motor abilities testing (MAT) in adolescent male and female elite tennis players. The research sample comprised of 17 male (mean age of 13.00 ± 1.54 years) and 20 female (mean age of 13.15 ± 1.42 years) adolescent elite tennis players who underwent testing of selected motor abilities in tennis. The level of fatigue in adolescent elite tennis players was measured with the Training Distress Scale (TDS). Both groups of elite tennis players declared the lowest, zero level of S-PF by TDS symptoms as inability to remember things and loose bowels or diarrhoea and significant S-PF during 48 hours after MAT was in both genders felt by lack of energy, feeling of heavy arms and legs, joint stiffness of soreness, and muscle soreness. Boys versus girls experienced significantly higher S-PF in the symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, being unusually tired during the day, joint stiffness of soreness, and ordinary tasks require extra effort. No significant differences were found in overall TDS between males and females adolescent elite tennis players.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00032022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Psychical Health and Social Relationships Among University Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>We have never faced such a global pandemic as COVID-19 in modern history. It´s important for us to find out how it can affect mental health and social relationships of students. This pandemic has brought us not only the risk of dying from a viral infection, but also brought the enormous psychological pressure on people. Purpose of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and social relationships of university students.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The research group consisted of 95 students of the Faculty of Sports of the University of Prešov in Prešov (men: n = 62, women: n = 33) with an average age of 22 +/- 6 years. As a method of data collection we used the standardized questionnaire of the World Health Organization - WHOQOL-BREF. Our modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire represents a selection of 9 items, six of them represent mental health: (1) Positive feeling (2) Self-esteem (3) Thinking, learning, memory and concentration (4) Bodily image and appearance, (5) Satisfy with you, (6) Negative feelings, and three represent social relationships (7) Personal relationships, (8) Sexual activity, (9) Social support. Due to the extraordinary pandemic situation an online survey was conducted to the students. Students had time to complete the questionnaire from 17.11.2021 to 19.11.2021.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Statistical significant difference between periods before and during COVID-19 pandemic was determined using the Wilcoxon paired t test. There were statistically significant differences in the psychological experience and social relationships of university students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> We recommend monitoring the mental health of university students and raising awareness of various media platforms about psychological problems during a pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00052022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time At the Men’s World Athletics Championships 1999 - 2019https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Men’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019. We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at WCH at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the aging point of view, or more different false start judging conditions. The results shows that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction time. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters over 30 years old sprinters can achieve very low reaction time at the start. Reaction abilities can be improved by regular and systematic training, so it is necessary to pay attention to them in the training process and focus on their monitoring and subsequent improvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00072022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Professional Competency Indicators of University Physical Trainer Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The main purpose of this study was to analyse the indicators of the professional Competency of University physical Trainer students, and to explore the importance of these professional indicators. By referring to the two international physical fitness education institutions and literature reviews, three important perspectives of professional Competences are: Professional knowledge, Professional skills, Professional attitude, Furthermore, the result of this research was concluded after three integration of opinions.</p> <p><bold>Method</bold> : Delphi technique was used to integrate the opinions of fifty-two experts and scholars, and the research results were obtained after three integrations. Among the 52 indicators at the three levels.</p> <p><bold>Result</bold>: experts agree that professional attitude is the most important. followed by professional skills, and then professional knowledge. the professional attitude level, “maintaining a positive and enthusiastic professional attitude” was the most important indicator. In the professional skills level, it was noted that “physical fitness training cycle plan design ability”, “physical fitness action correction ability”, “emergency intervention” Ability to adapt” and “ability to use and demonstrate sports equipment” are the most important indicators. In terms of professional knowledge, “customer sports curriculum design” is the most important.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: this research can provide references for the university in future development of physical trainer’s training program and establish regulations; fitness club hiring process; self-growth in the industry; future researches and studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00062022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00COVID-19, Public Health Strategies and Post Pandemic AAS/Androgen Use: A Commentary/Short Communicationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In this commentary/short communication we summarize many recent developments related to public health strategies for COVID-19. At this time, there are a wide range of emerging themes post various lockdown measures that have been reported, such as increased exercise, increased drug use, and various associated declines in mental health and other deleterious effects on eating behaviour patterns. Aligned to this, AAS/Androgen use has increased during and post-lockdowns and we posit, in the context of the aforementioned additional risks that have been reported, that future public health strategies need to demonstrate awareness of increased risk that they (AAS/Androgens) present at this time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00012022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Post-Pandemic Policy Priorities for Financing Sport and Physical Activity in the EUhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The most sport-relevant points in a resolution adopted by the European Parliament with regard to the use of post-Covid-19 relief funds from the general budget of the European Union (EU) are highlighted. Members of Parliament (MEPs) have indicated unambiguous preferences for part of the EU funding to be directed towards the need of youth and sport, the latter in particular at grassroots level, and the resolution represents a piece of soft law which should be drawn upon to interpret relevant legal acts such as the relevant financial instrument(s). The article goes on to discuss the implications in relation to traditional sport policies, as opposed to more participation-driven policies following the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) paradigm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2022-00082022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Recreational Sports Activities in Reducing Some Psychological Problems Caused by Covid-19 Pandemichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study is aimed at knowing the role of recreational sports activities in decreasing some psychological problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents, and done on a sample of 400 adolescents chosen from the final year of the Intermediate education stage (Hamam bouhjar Middle school - Ain Temouchent state, Sig middle school – Mascara state), the questionnaire was applied as a tool for the study and it consisted of three axes: the axis of aggressive behavior, isolation, and self-confidence, and each axis consists of a group of questions. We used Frequencies, Percentage, and Chi-square goodness of fit test to analyze and interpret the results. In the end, we concluded that recreational sports activities have a role in alleviating some psychological problems resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents, and this is based on the results that we have researched which states that recreational sports alleviate the aggressive behavior caused by the COVID-19 and its major role in reducing the weakness of self-confidence caused by COVID-19 among adolescents, as well as mitigating the weakness of self-confidence under the COVID-19 pandemic Finally, the researchers recommend the necessity of practicing recreational sports activities in spare time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-00122021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1