rss_2.0Agriculture (Pol'nohospodárstvo) FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agriculture (Pol'nohospodárstvo) (Pol'nohospodárstvo) Feed of the Complex Microbial Formulation for Disease Protection and Productivity Enhancement of Plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Usage of the potential of beneficial soil microorganisms is one of the most promising areas for crop production enhancement. Of special interest are innovative multifunctional complex bioformulations based on associations of bacteria with phytoprotective and growth-stimulating properties. The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the new complex microbial preparation Ecophosphoryn. It was created based on associative growth-stimulating phosphate-mobilizing and nitrogen-fixing bacteria <italic>Bacillus</italic>, <italic>Azotobacter</italic> and <italic>Agrobacterium</italic> genera. Ecophosphoryn was used to treat the seeds of corn (<italic>Zea mays</italic> L.), white-headed cabbage (<italic>Brassica oleracea</italic> var. <italic>capitata</italic> L.), spray tomato (<italic>Solanum lycopersicum</italic> L.) and cabbage (<italic>Brassica oleracea</italic> var. <italic>capitata</italic> L.) during the growing season in laboratory, vegetation and field research. The protective effect of Ecophosphoryn against аlternaria of tomatoes averaged 76%. Against fusarium wilt of white cabbage on an artificial infectious background, the effectiveness of Ecophosphoryn was at the level of 78 ‒ 83%, and against alternaria head blight in the field on a natural infectious background – at the level of 45 ‒ 53%. The damage of corn by powdery mildew during the growing season decreased by 33%. The obtained results proved that various methods of using bioformulation contributed to increasing the resistance of plants against phytopathogenic micromycetes. The yield of white cabbage grew by 12%, tomatoes – by 14.9%, and corn ‒ by 26.6%. In most cases, the protective effect of the biological preparation and crop yields were not less effective than those of chemicals. In all field experiments, the use of Ecophosphoryn resulted in an increase in healthy fruit harvest compared to the control. The obtained data expand knowledge about the capabilities of biological formulations for ecologically oriented phytosanitary optimization of agrocenoses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Physiological Characteristics of Bertoni Stem Cuttings Under 3-Indoleacetic Acid (IAA) Treatment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Stevia rebaudiana</italic> is a high-value crop because of its metabolites, such as steviol glycosides. However, it only produces a few seeds, resulting in low productivity. Therefore, an appropriate propagation method is required to enhance its productivity. This study aimed to assess stevia’s morphological and physiological characteristics upon treatment with three doses of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) [mg/L] through stem-cutting propagation. The cuttings were treated with IAA at 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L by dipping them in the IAA solution for 1 minute, then planting in growth media (garden soil, organic compost and coco peat with a ratio of 2:1:1) and keeping them in the greenhouse. The survival percentage, root length and number, plant height, leaf number, total chlorophylls, and stomata length and number were assessed in the 3<sup>rd</sup> week. The application of 40 mg/L IAA resulted in a significant improvement in all parameters. However, IAA treatment also causes stomata abnormalities. This result suggested that stem cutting and IAA treatment significantly contribute to stevia propagation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Variability of Yield and Some Agronomical Traits of Promising Wheat Genotypes by R Project “Metan Package”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plant breeders have to employ strategies and techniques to produce new improved wheat cultivars to increase productivity to meet the needs of the growing population. Therefore, they have to develop a new cultivar for adaptation to a new environment and new management practices. One of the most important criteria plant breeders should focus on is the exploitation of genotype × environment interaction (GEI). Thus, this study aimed to assess the variability of 24 wheat genotypes growing in different seasons by using the R software “Metan Package”. Moreover, the study estimates the stability parameters and finally highlights the winning genotypes across seasons. Field experiments were conducted across three consecutive seasons specifically 2019/2020, 2020/2021 and 2021/2022 and at different locations. The assessment was done on traits such as plant height [cm], flag leaf area [cm<sup>2</sup>], chlorophyll index [SPAD], spike number [spike/m<sup>2</sup>], fertility ratio [%], grain number [grain/spike], grain weight [g], and yield [kg/ha]. Results indicated different performances of wheat genotypes in certain environments as well as across the three environments included in this study. Winner genotypes such as G-20, G-10, G-30, G-4, and IRAQ were selected according to their stability and high grain yield potential. It can be concluded that the use of the Multi-Environment Trail Analysis-METAN package is powerful for detecting promising wheat genotypes with high and stable yields across different environments and under various climate change conditions. Furthermore, it can be recommended that wheat performance needs to be assessed across very wide geographical locations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Stability and Inter-Traits Relationships of Maize Hybrids Under Low- and Optimum-Nitrogen Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The menace of low soil nitrogen poses a significant challenge to maize production in sub-Saharan Africa, necessitating the development of high-yielding hybrids with increased nitrogen (N) tolerance. Two hundred and forty (240) maize hybrids were evaluated across eight environments at Zaria and Mokwa in Nigeria during the 2020 and 2021 growing seasons, encompassing both low- and optimum-N conditions. The primary objective of the study was to identify high-yielding, stable, and low-N-tolerant hybrids for potential adoption in Nigeria. The study results underscored the significant impact of nitrogen availability on various agronomic traits, causing a substantial 53% reduction in grain yield. Significant genetic variation was observed among hybrids for most measured traits. SMLW146 × IITA1878, SMLW147 × SAM50M and SMLW147 × IITA1878 were the highest-yielding hybrids across the test environments with a yield advantage of 48.2%, 46.6% and 43.1%, respectively over the best check. GGE biplot analysis identified Mokwa Low-N 2021 (MLN21) and Mokwa optimum-N 2021 (MOP21) as discriminating and representative environments for selecting superior hybrids. SMLW147 × SAM50M emerged as the most stable low-N tolerant hybrid with the highest yield performance. Conversely, hybrid SMLW147 × IITA1878 produced a high yield across environments but was unstable. The study concludes by recommending SMLW147 × SAM50M for cultivation across both low- and optimum-N conditions, while SMLW147 × IITA1878 is specifically recommended for cultivation in optimum-N environments. Anthesis-silking interval, plant aspect, ear aspect, and ear height were identified as the most suitable secondary traits for selecting hybrids for high grain yield under low-N conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Isoflavonoid and Flavonoid Content in Soybean Leaves Affected by UV-B or Copper<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The production of antioxidant flavonoids is an important aspect of plant defence mechanisms under stress conditions. The hypothesis of increased antioxidant flavonol quercetin and isoflavone content in soybean leaves subjected to UV-B irradiation and copper toxicity was proposed, and their accumulation was investigated using HPLC analysis. However, the accumulation of antioxidant quercetin was not induced by either UV-B irradiation or copper treatment. UV-B irradiation strongly induced isoflavone aglycones, mainly genistein, daidzein, formononetin, and to a lesser extent, biochanin A. Isoflavone glycosides, genistin and daidzin were also induced. Copper treatment, whether applied to leaves or root media, resulted in the accumulation of genistin and its malonylated form, whereas aglycones were only slightly affected. The higher accumulation of genistein over daidzein after copper treatment could be related to the higher chelating ability of genistein and its glycosides. Soybean isoflavones, which possess antioxidant and chelating properties, rather than flavonols, play a crucial role in the plant‘s defence mechanisms against both UV-B irradiation and copper toxicity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Grasslands Fertilisation on Soil Organic Matter Quality and Nutrients Status<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil organic matter (SOM) represents one of the largest and most important reservoirs of organic carbon in terrestrial eco-systems. The quality of SOM (e.g., content of soil organic carbon, humic substances, humic acids, fulvic acids, and HA/FA ratio) is a key factor in determining soil fertility and productivity. The loss of SOM is currently considered a detrimental form of soil degradation. The study aims to evaluate the effect of mineral fertilising (NPK), farmyard manure, cattle slurry, and digestate applications in intensively used permanent grassland. The long-term field experiments were carried out at the locality Jevíčko, region of Boskovice Furrow Malá Haná (the Czech Republic). The effect of amending soil with different organic and mineral fertilisers was studied. Qualitative parameters of SOM, soil reaction, and the content of available nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) were followed. Results showed that the control (no organic input) and the NPK variants had the lowest SOM quality. Higher SOM quality was after the farmyard manure, Slurry, and Digetsate applications. The highest acidity (indicated by the lowest values of pH/KCl) was determined in the control, NPK, Slurry, and D variants. The most favourable soil reaction and available nutrient content were after the farmyard manure application. Humic substances spectral absorption in the UV-VIS and infrared spectral ranges showed that the highest absorbance and amount of aliphatic hydrophobic components were observed after the application of farmyard manure. The multi-criteria statistical evaluation, including principal component analysis and factor analysis, confirmed that amending soil with farmyard manure and slurry resulted in an increase in humic substances content and improved SOM quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Soil Organic Carbon Dynamic on Grassland Under Different Management and Climate Scenarios<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Improperly used farming systems and agrotechnical practices with ongoing climate change can contribute to the reduction of the level of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks not only in intensively cultivated arable soils but also in grasslands. One of the ways to track changes in the SOC stock is the use of mathematical models. The RothC model was validated at the locality Suchý vrch, which hosts long-term experiments on grassland. The soil type is sandy-loam textured Cambisol. Validation was done for the period 1993 – 2009 on grassland with various applications of mineral and organic fertilisers. Results of validation show that the RothC model appropriately predicts the development of grassland SOCs and can be used in forecasting SOC stock in the future. Five different management scenarios, with carbon input 2.3 to 6.4 t/ha and three climate scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 8.5) of the MPI climate model were used to track the changes of SOC stock on grassland in the period 2009 – 2100. Modelling results of SOC development show, that in the future, a relatively low-temperature increase (RCP 2.6) and a relatively high carbon input into the soil (6.4 t/ha) can ensure moderate carbon sequestration. However, between the low-carbon management scenarios (2.3 and 4.1 t/ha), SOC stocks are continuously decreasing in the RCP 2.6 climate scenario. At a significantly higher temperature (climate scenario RCP 8.5), that is expected in future, it will not be possible to maintain the current level of SOC stock not even at a high carbon input (6.4 t/ha).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Efficacy of Fungicides Against in Field Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is focused on the evaluation of the efficacy of conventional fungicides against Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) on sugar beet. The results showed that the best protection against CLS was achieved by treatment with kresoxim-methyl + epoxiconazole (T1) and tetraconazole (T2). The second highest fungicide efficacy was detected after treatment with (kresoxim-methyl + epoxiconazole -T1) + difenoconazole -T2, followed by (azoxystrobin + cyproconazole) + difenoconazole, (prochloraz + propiconazole) + tetraconazole, <italic>Urtica dioica</italic> plant extracts + <italic>Salix</italic> spp. plant extracts, (trifloxystrobin + cyproconazole) + tetraconazole, and picoxystrobin + tetraconazole. The positive effect of fungicide protection on yield and sugar content was higher in the year with a higher occurrence of CLS. Good CLS management could increase the root yield by up to 19.34%, and sugar yield by up to 23.83% in comparison to the untreated check. The highest sugar yield was achieved in the treatment by (prochloraz + propiconazole) + tetraconazole, followed by (kresoxim-methyl + epoxiconazole) + difenoconazole, (azoxystrobin + cyproconazole) + difenoconazole, (trifloxystrobin + cyproconazole) + tetraconazole, picoxystrobin + tetraconazole, and <italic>Urtica dioica</italic> plant extracts + <italic>Salix</italic> spp. plant extracts. The results showed a strong relationship of root yield and sugar yield on fungicide treatment during the vegetation. The occurrence of fungicide resistance in <italic>Cercospora beticola</italic> population has an important impact on efficacy of applied fungicides in field conditions. The highest economic effectiveness coefficient was achieved at treatment by (prochloraz + propiconazole) + tetraconazole.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Yield Stability of Quality Protein Maize ( L.) Hybrids under Rainfed Condition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Quality protein maize (QPM) commercialization can combat the food and nutritional insecurity that is common in some developing nations of the world. Evaluation of QPM hybrids under varying rainfed environments provide valuable evidence for the selection of the most productive genotypes for the target environment. The present study was conducted at three locations to assess the agronomic performance and the grain yield stability of 11 QPM and 2 commercial hybrids (checks) over two years. There were significant (<italic>p</italic> ≥ 0.01) differences among the environments in the expression of all measured traits while genotype as well as genotype × environment interaction also differed significantly for all the traits except for husk cover and Anthesis-silking interval. The tested QPM hybrids outperformed the local and reference checks by 17.28% and 29.47% respectively. The biplot explained 85.3% of the total variation in yield, with 65.4% attributed to principal component 1 and 19.9% to principal component 2. Three vertex hybrids, EWQH-25, EWQH-21 and Local Check, were identified as the most responsive in the environments within which they fall. Hybrid EWQH-21 produced the highest yield across all environments but was unstable. Therefore, hybrids EWQH-22, EWQH-9, and EWQH-13, with similar yield values and more stable performances were recognized as ideal across environments. Lapai 2017 (E2) proves to be both representative and discriminative, making it the ideal test environment for selecting hybrids with broad adaptability. The study concludes that EWQH-9, EWQH-13, and EWQH-22 be recommended for cultivation across the environments while EWQH-21 be recommended for the specific area of adaptation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue polymer and its effect on maize germination, emergence and genetic diversity of rhizosphere microorganisms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The application of superabsorbent polymer (SAP) for seed coating of agricultural crops is an innovative and promising method to effectively reduce plant stress during dry periods and thereby contribute to sustainable agriculture. However, due to the lack of experiments using SAP in field conditions in Central Europe, we focused on determining the effect of synthetic SAP, which was used for coating maize seeds, on the germination and emergence of these plants as well as on determining its impact on the genetic diversity of microbial communities in the maize rhizosphere for two consecutive years. The results showed that the growth parameters of coleoptiles and root systems of germinating maize plants at the very early development stage were biased in favour of SAP-coated seeds, and some values were statistically higher in the second year of evaluation. Similar observations were recorded in the assessment of maize emergence parameters. Also, these values were better when using SAP-coated seeds compared to the untreated controls. Plant height, dry weight, leaf tip number, and the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD ) value were statistically higher in the second year of evaluation. The rhizosphere bacterial and fungal genetic diversity results did not confirm statistically significant differences between the SAP-coated and control maize seeds. They concern both alpha diversity indices and the results from multivariate statistical methods. Principal coordinate analysis results with cluster analysis show that the main factor influencing the microbial diversity in the maize rhizosphere was the collection date, especially the year of sampling than t he use of SAP-coated seeds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue case study – The occurrence of pests in stands of newly introduced energy crops in large-scale pilot experiments in conditions of Central Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this paper is to document the occurrence of pests recorded in a large-scale pilot field experiment, where a unique set of newly-introduced herbaceous energy crops was tested under conditions of eastern Slovakia. The set consisted of <italic>Elymus elongatus, Secale cereanum, Silphium perfoliatum, Galega orientalis, Sida hermaphrodita, Panicum virgatum, Amaranthus</italic> spp., <italic>Panicum miliaceum, Sorghum sudanense,</italic> and <italic>Sorghum bicolor.</italic> A total of 14 cultivars were tested on 4 sites during 4 crop years (2016 – 2020). At least 17 species of pests were recorded in total, as some of the species may represent the identity of the couple or several relative ones, which was rare only as usually a fower common species. The occurred pests list consists of <italic>Anisoplia lata</italic> Erichson, <italic>Agriotes lineatus</italic> L., <italic>Capreolus capreolus</italic> L., <italic>Deroceras agreste</italic> L., <italic>Oulema gallaeciana</italic> Heyden, <italic>Lepisma saccharinum</italic> L., <italic>Lepus europaeus</italic> Pallas, <italic>Meloe proscarabaeus</italic> L., <italic>Metcalfa pruinosa</italic> Say, <italic>Microtus arvalis</italic> Pallas, <italic>Philaenus spumarius</italic> L., <italic>Psylliodes chrysocephala</italic> L., <italic>Rhopalosiphum padi</italic> L., stemborers as any insect larva or arthropod boring into plant stem, <italic>Sus scrofa</italic> L., <italic>Aleyrodes proletella</italic> L., <italic>Tettigonia viridissima</italic> L., and <italic>Trialeurodes vaporariorum</italic> Westwood. Overall, the occurrence of pests was regular and scattered, and damages caused by them were negligible usually, but a total destruction of the crop stand even cultivar-specific was recorded too. Most of the meaningful pests are primarily field hunting animals and only secondarily commonly occurring insect species, which for further observations are desirable in order to capture the tendency of important pests’ overpopulation, confirming respectively. Although even rare finding of the single caterpillar of <italic>Xylena exsoleta exsoleta</italic> L. was recorded in a buffer zone, within the experiment no newly introduced pest species was recorded.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Variation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Krasch. × Willd<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The results of seasonal variation of total polyphenols (TPC), flavonoids (TFC) and phenolic acid (TPAC) accumulation and antioxidant activity of <italic>Artemisia balchanorum</italic> Krasch. × <italic>Artemisia taurica</italic> Willd. genotypes from the Kherson Oblast of Ukraine represented in this study. The total polyphenol content was identified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and ranged from 20.51 to 132.52 mg GAE/g (gallic acid equivalent). The flavonoid content conducted with aluminum chloride reagent ranged from 8.16 to 70.77 mg QE/g (quercetin equivalent) and phenolic acid content determined with Arnova reagent ranged from 6.26 to 38.67 mg CAE/g (caffeic acid equivalent) depending on genotype and stage of growth. The antioxidant activity of investigated genotypes determined by the DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method (FRSA) varied from 4.68 to 10.38 mg TE/g (Trolox equivalent), molybdenum-reducing power of extracts detected by the phosphomolybdenum method (MRP) and was from 41.43 to 209.93 mg TE/g depending on genotype. The total polyphenol content, flavonoids and antioxidant activity by the phosphomolybdenum method increased from spring vegetation to flowering. The accumulation of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity by the DPPH method was uneven and depended on genotype and stage of growth. It was found a weak correlation between FRSA and TPC (<italic>r</italic> = 0.189), TFC (<italic>r</italic> = 0.211), and TPAC (<italic>r</italic> = 0.111) for genotypes. A strong correlation was found between MRP and TPC (<italic>r</italic> = 0.703), and TFC (<italic>r</italic> = 0.657). A moderate correlation was detected between MRP and TPAC (<italic>r</italic> = 0.481) for genotypes. The obtained data can be used for further breeding work to get genotypes with high antioxidant activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of lavender () and lavandin () in explant culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lavender plants are preferably propagated vegetatively. The aim of the work was to propose the composition of nutrient media for <italic>in vitro</italic> multiplication of plants of <italic>Lavandula angustifolia</italic> (var. Krajová and Beta) and <italic>Lavandula x intermedia</italic> (var. Budrovka and Grosso). Explant cultures were initiated from apical or nodal segments. Apical segments were more suitable and regenerated the highest number of shoots in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L BAP with or without 0.1 mg/L IAA in all used varieties. Nodal segments are suitable for var. Budrovka, where the number of shoots was not statistically different between the apical or nodal segments and among the media tested. Shoot multiplication of <italic>L. angustifolia</italic> varieties was the most effective in the MS media with 0.5 or 1 mg/L BAP. For variety Grosso, the optimal medium was MS with 1 mg/L BAP, while var. Budrovka regenerated a similar number of shoots in all media supplemented with 0.5 or 1 mg/L BAP with or without 0.1 mg/L IAA. All genotypes rooted with the highest frequency on growth regulator-free medium with a half dose of MS salts. After transplanting into the soil and <italic>ex vitro</italic> acclimatization, plantlets survivability after 10 weeks was 78.9 – 87.7%, except for var. Beta with a lower survivability of 50%. The proposed procedures enable a rapid plant multiplication of varieties Budrovka, Grosso and Krajová. With the Beta variety, it is advisable to continue working on the optimization of nutrient media to verify whether the procedures can be further optimized.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue release dynamics and carbon sequestration by legume and non-legume cover crops under pure and mixed planting conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Synchronizing crop residue decomposing and releasing nitrogen with subsequent cash crop needs provides benefits for ecosystems, but it is difficult to carry out. This study aimed to investigate the trend of decomposition of vetch (<italic>Vicia sativa</italic>), rye (<italic>Secale cereal</italic>e) and mixed (rye + vetch) cover crop residues as well as nitrogen release after incorporating them into the soil during 12 weeks of the potato growth season by using the mesh bag method. Vetch residues decomposed very quickly in the spring and their nitrogen is released due to their higher nitrogen content and consequently a lower Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio. However, rye residues decomposed at a slower rate compared to mixed treatment, and their nitrogen content was immobilized mainly due to a higher C/N ratio. A better understanding of cover crops residues decomposition dynamics leads to maximizing the cover crop effects and higher nutrient uptake by subsequent main crops. The results of this study showed that the input level of nitrogen fertiliser can be reduced by implementing management strategies in farming potatoes and using cover crops, which will reduce the harmful environmental effects and increase the economic benefit for farmers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of causality of climatic and soil physical factors affecting the corn ( L.) yield for silage in the climate-soil-yield network<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to confirm the causality of climatic and soil physical factors on silage corn yield based on the climatesoil-yield network in Korea. The climatic variables were growing degree days, high temperature, low temperature, surface temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration before and after silking. The soil physical variables were the effective depth, slope and drainage class of the soil. The yield variables were total digestible nutrients, dry matter and fresh matter yields. The network was constructed using structural equations and neural network models. In the result of the network, three causalities were remarkable. First, all longitudinal climatic causality before and after the silking stages were significant. It implies that the effect of climate in the vegetative stage reaches to yield through themselves in the reproductive stage. Second, there was the causality between climatic and soil physical factors based on indirect effects. Thus, it is likely to lead to an offset between the direct and indirect effects of soil physical factors. Finally, the effects of drought and heavy rainfall were clear before and after silking stages, respectively. It indicates that stress can damage the corn yield for silage. Here, the damage caused by the drought could be recovered due to various indirect effects, while the damage caused by heavy rainfall was fatal because there was a lack of an indirect path to recover from. This study contributed to identifying how various climatic and soil physical factors can affect production in the network. Furthermore, the climate-soil-yield network for silage corn in this study will help extend the structure with various factors in future studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis by selecting optimal hormonal balance in Sarnav and Desiree potato varieties<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in potato varieties are effective ways to obtain an entire plant from a single cell. The implementation of embryogenesis is widely used in improving plant materials and creating new biotechnological varieties. In our research, the optimum level of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) was determined in the formation of callus tissue in the local Sarnav potato variety, and the Desiree variety taken as a control. Leaf and stem explants were used in the processes of callus tissue formation and somatic embryogenesis of both varieties. We tried various plant growth regulators for callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in different ratios. The 1 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP were established as the best option for callus formation resulting in 92 and 100% development of callus in internodes of Desiree and Sarnav varieties, respectively. The 0.1 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) resulted in almost 80% development of somatic embryogenesis in both varieties and were found as the most optimum option. These results showed that regenerated plants can be obtained from the Sarnav potato variety by somatic embryogenesis. This method can be applied to the Sarnav variety for genetic transformation studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Quality of Spring Wheat Grain in Intercropping System with Different Legume Species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Intercropping is a technique in which two or more crops are grown together that is reported to be soil and water friendly. Field trials were conducted at three different localities in the Czech Republic. Spring wheat was grown together with different legumes (Egyptian clover, crimson clover, red clover, white clover, common pea, dun pea, common vetch, bird’s-foot-trefoil, common kidney vetch, and fenugreek) in an organic cropping system. Two basic systems were compared mixture and row-by-row cropping. The yield of grain was lower on average in row-by-row cropping than in the mixture. Lower yields were found in Prague (PR) compared to Uhříněves (UH) and Zvíkov (ZV). The mixture system seemed to be more effective in grain production than cultivation in separate rows (PR 2.14 t/ha, UH 4.71 t/ha, ZV 3.00 t/ha) in terms of spring wheat grain yield in comparison with the mixture system (PR 2.45 t/ha, UH 5.44 t/ha, ZV 3.14 t/ha). Quality parameters such as crude protein, wet gluten, gluten index, Zeleny test of wheat grown with legumes were compared to the control. The mean quality parameters of both systems were the following: test weight 75.75%, crude protein 13.9%, wet gluten 31.5%, Zeleny test 56.2 mL, falling number 266.4 s. The combinations of spring wheat with Egyptian clover, white clover, common vetch, common kidney vetch, and bird’s-foot-trefoil are recommended as the most promising according to the results obtained across all sites and considering all parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Differentiated Nitrogen Nutrition on Aboveground Biomass of Selected Cultivars of L. Cultivated Under Central European Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hemp (<italic>Cannabis sativa</italic> L.) is one of the traditional crops currently being newly re-introduced in Slovakia and cultivated for multi-purpose uses, while still there is a lack of crop biomass yield data. The main objective of the paper is to document the yield of aboveground biomass of selected cultivars of hemp ('Bialobrzeskie', 'Felina', 'Santhica', 'Epsilon', and 'Futura'), which were tested in the pilot open-field experiments conducted during 2009 − 2012, immediately after a wave of legislative changes. The trial was agronomically designed including three nitrogen treatments as follows: (i) T1 30 kg N/ha (the full 30 kg/ha in the phenophase BBCH 31), (ii) T2 60 kg N/ha (dividing on 30 + 30 kg/ha in the phenophase BBCH 31 and 51, respectively), and (iii) T3 90 kg N/ha (dividing on 30 + 30 + 30 kg/ha in the phenophase BBCH 31, 51 and 59, respectively); whereas NPK 15-15-15 in the dose of 200 kg/ha was applied before the sowing all across the treatments. The total average dry matter (DM) yield of 9.49 t/ha was achieved, ranging from 2.12 to 16.80 t/ha. DM yield was affected mainly by years (<italic>F</italic>-ratio 337.40, <italic>P</italic>-value 0.0000), followed by nitrogen treatment (<italic>F</italic>-ratio 47.86, <italic>P</italic>-value 0.0001), then by cultivars (<italic>F</italic>-ratio 22.37, <italic>P</italic>-value 0.0019) and finally by replications (<italic>F</italic>-ratio 0.65, <italic>P</italic>-value 0.58). However, the need for further studies aimed to quantify more precisely the response of the cultivars to the weather and soil conditions is necessary, especially the cultivars of new and foreign origin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Quality and Calorific Value of L. and the Novel Tested Under Central European Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the paper is to determine ligno-cellulose quality and calorific value of tall wheatgrass Szarvasi-1 and Alkar, as well as perennial rye Kriszta and Gergő cultivars, tested within a huge pilot field experiment. The experiment was established in the autumn of 2016 and was carried out until 2020, while four trial sites with marginal soil and three nutrition treatments (intensive, semi-intensive and untreated control) were included as well. The impact of the nutrition, years, sites, and cultivars on quality was statistically evaluated as the main effects, with two complete data set points of acid-detergent fibre (ADF), acid-detergent lignin (ADL), crude cellulose (CE), hemicellulose (HEM), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and high heating value (HHV), primarily in terms of quality content and a secondarily in terms of quality yield. In terms of quality content, the impact decreased in alternating order: of sites, years, and cultivars, each of them over the least important nutrition, while in terms of quality yield nutrition has been confirmed as the most important factor followed by sites, then by years, and finally by cultivars with the least impact. Average ADF content according to cultivars sequence Szarvasi-1 – Alkar – Kriszta – Gergő was 45.95 – 45.65 – 42.25 – 42.97%, ADL 8.67 – 8.24 – 8.51 – 8.37%, CE 37.27 – 37.41 – 33.74 – 34.60%, HEM 24.14 – 24.78 – 25.46 – 25.00%, NDF 70.03 – 70.43 – 67.71 – 67.71% and HHV 16.86 – 16.89 – 17.21 – 17.17 MJ/kg, respectively. The maximum yield values of ADF yield according to the order were 6.373 – 6.180 – 6.112 – 4.983 t/ha, ADL 1.340 – 1.374 – 1.261 – 1.027 t/ha, CE 5.253 – 5.111 – 4.851 – 3.997 t/ha, HEM 3.000 – 3.097 – 3.052 – 2.655 t/ha, NDF 9.285 – 9.133 – 9.164 – 7.626 t/ha and HHV 225.3 – 221.1 – 228.9 – 185.7 GJ/ha, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Variability of Some Physiological Traits, Yield Components and Grain Quality Characters in Rice Entries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An experiment was performed to evaluate the variability parameters of the quantitative features in fifteen rice genotypes planted during the growing seasons of 2020 and 2021. These genotypes were grown in three replications with a randomized complete block design. For all of the studied characters, analysis of variance revealed that variations between the genotypes were highly significant. Among the studied phenotypic and genotypic parameters, the number of filled grains/panicles showed the highest variations, while grain width had the lowest value in this respect. The highest genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was found for grain yield while hulling rice % had the lowest GCV. In yields, the genotypic and phenotypic coefficients were the highest, clarifying the action of additive genes in commanding these traits. Most of the studied traits had a high heritability. The highest genetic advance value (98.06) was determined for the number of filled grains/panicles, while total chlorophyll content had the lowest value (0.11). Five principal components with eigenvalues above 1 were identified using principal component analysis. The first and second principal components were responsible for about 30.34 and 15.24 of the total variation, respectively, indicating that these traits played a larger role in the overall clustering distinction of the populations. Rice enhancement programs can be more successful if selection efforts are focused on these characteristics. Cluster analyses of the fifteen genotypes have grouped the genotypes into five clusters based on the data taken. Genotypes found in Cluster II had the highest thousand-grain weights, grain yield and head rice, and they could be recommended for breeding due to these favourable parameters of height, yield and head rice percentage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue