rss_2.0Agriculture (Pol'nohospodárstvo) FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agriculture (Pol'nohospodárstvo) (Pol'nohospodárstvo) Feed transmission of plant viruses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plant viruses are a threat to a sustainable economy because they cause economic losses in yields. The epidemiology of plant viruses is of particular interest because of their dynamic spread by insect vectors and their transmission by seeds. The speed and direction of viral evolution are determined by the selective environment in which they are found. Knowledge of the ecology of plant viruses is critical to the transmission of many plant viruses. Accurate and timely detection of plant viruses is an essential part of their control. Rapid climate change and the globalization of trade through free trade agreements encourage the transmission of vectors and viruses from country to country. Another factor affecting the emergence of viruses is the cultivation of monocultures with low genetic diversity a nd high plant density. Trade in plant material (germplasm and living plants) also cause the emergence of new viruses. Viruses have a fast adaptation and development in a new environment. Aphids are the most widespread and important vectors of plant viruses. <italic>Myzus persicae</italic> transmits more than 100 different plant viruses. In nature plant viruses are transmitted also by nematodes, fungi, mites, leafhoppers, whiteflies, beetles, and planthoppers. The symptoms of viral diseases are very diverse and are often confused with symptoms of abiotic stress. Control of viral diseases is based on two strategies: i) immunization (genetic resistance acquired by plant transformation, breeding, or cross-protection), ii) prophylaxis to limit viruses (removal of infected plants and control of their vectors). For management, we rely on quick and accurate identification of the disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue review on the biology and management of potato tuber moth<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The potato tuber moth (PTM; caused by <italic>Phthorimaea operculella)</italic> is one of the most serious insect pests that causes damage to crop production and storage of potatoes. It causes damage to the potato, while larvae of <italic>P. operculella</italic> feed on and grow in the leaves and tubers of potatoes, resulting in direct product losses. The larvae construct tunnels through tubers and mine leaves, stems, and petioles, resulting in uneven galleries. Foliar damage to the potato crop does not normally result in major output losses, although contaminated tubers may have lower marketability and storage losses of up to 100%. Light watering every 4 days and mulching with neem leaves during the last 4 weeks before the harvest was found to be a successful treatment. Spraying a thin layer of testing natural oils also acts as a defensive layer, which causes confusion or disturbance to the searching neonate larvae. The pest is tough to eradicate, so producers rely heavily on insecticides and biological approaches. Potato tuberworm damage was reduced by rotating esfenvalerate and indoxacarb treatments before and after vine kill. At 5 g/kg potato tuber in farmer rustic storage, <italic>Acorus calamus</italic> dust exhibited great efficiency in preventing PTM tuber damage. In different regions of the world, parasitoids such as <italic>Copidosoma</italic> spp. and <italic>Apanteles</italic> spp. are significant in PTM management. Pheromone traps are used for pest population monitoring as well as pest management in the field and during storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue mycorrhizal fungi induced different proline accumulations in two sorghum accessions in a response to drought stress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sorghum has good adaptability to drought stress conditions, but its early vegetative phase and the generative phase are susceptible to stress. Understanding the physiological response of plants under drought and mechanisms regulating drought tolerance in a plant, mediated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) will be useful in developing a strategy to deal with drought. Here, a pot experiment was used to explore the growth performance, biomass production and physiological responses of two sorghum accessions (4183A and JP-1) inoculated by the AMF under drought stress, as well as the effect of AMF on soil enzyme and microbial stability. Based on growth observations, the AMF inoculation treatment had not significant effect on increasing the drought resistance of the two sorghum accessions. Drought stress decreased the rate of height increment for 4183A, and JP-1 accessions by 37% and 55%, respectively, compared to normal conditions. Shoot dry weight and root dry weight losses were up to 59% and 66%, respectively, compared to well-watered conditions. However, the interaction of AMF and plants to deal with drought can be captured through physiological response, particularly proline accumulation. AMF inoculation in JP-1 accession reduced proline accumulation (99.91 mM/leaf fresh weight) compared to non-AMF inoculated plants (149.86 mM/leaf fresh weight). It can be implied that mycorrhiza can reduce plant stress. In contrast to accession 4183A, there was an increase in the accumulation of proline in plants inoculated with mycorrhiza under drought conditions. Additionally, AMF inoculation improved acid phosphatase activity in the soil and proved crucial for maintaining the stability of the rhizosphere microorganisms under drought-stressed conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue control of in sunflower, soybean and maize<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Ambrosia artemisiifolia</italic> L. (Asteraceae) has become a major threat to agriculture in many parts of the world. Global agriculture relies on the use of herbicides against <italic>A. artemisiifolia</italic> in the crops most at risk – sunflower, maize and soybean. This paper aims to provide an overview of the chemical control of <italic>A. artemisiifolia</italic> and to summarize the latest knowledge in this field. The sunflower is the crop most threatened by <italic>A. artemisiifolia</italic>, as both plants belong to the same family. The best control level was achieved after the preemergence application of flurochloridone and the combination of dimethenamid-P + pendimethalin. The introduction of the non-GM Clearfield and ExpressSun technologies allowed effective control with postemergence herbicides in sunflower varieties tolerant to imidazolinone and tribenuron-methyl herbicides. In soybean, the highest efficacy was observed in trials with imazamox and bentazone alone and in combination. The combination of imazamox with bentazone had a positive effect on yield compared to untreated stands. The introduction of transgenic soybeans tolerant to glyphosate led to increased glyphosate use and the predictable emergence of weed resistance in America in 1996. Preplant followed by postemergence herbicides were critical for the effective control of glyphosate-resistant <italic>A. artemisiifolia</italic> in glufosinate tolerant soybean. In maize, the highest efficacy was obtained after the application of glufosinate, bromoxynil and mesotrione + atrazine. Of the above substances for the control of <italic>A. artemisiifolia</italic> in maize, only mesotrione is currently registered in the EU.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Herbicides Uptake by Soil and Translocation in to Different Maize Segments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Increased agricultural operations result in increased usage of various pesticides to safeguard crops, however, this is done without paying attention to the effects of the amounting potential harm to both humans and the environment. In this present study, a structured study was conducted on the uptake of <italic>atrazine, mesotrione, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D),</italic> and <italic>glyphosate</italic> herbicides from contaminated soil and translocation into different maize segments. It was observed that <italic>2.4-D</italic> was least absorbed by the soil, however, all the studied herbicide showed high absorption in the leafy segment of the maize plant due to the high polarity of the leaf cuticle. <italic>Glyphosate</italic> showed a high absorption rate in soil, roots, stalk, and leaves while <italic>mesotrione</italic> was highly absorbed in corn and tassels in all treatments. The absorption rate of the herbicide increased with increasing growth days. The higher treatment concentration (0.75 µg/l) showed elevated accumulation with the highest concentration (1.0 µg/l) observed for <italic>glyphosate</italic> in leaves after 140 days and high <italic>mesotrione</italic> in corn (0.51 µg/l) and tassel (0.42 µg/l) observed after 120 days. The PTi values of all treatments were &gt;1 however, the hi data were below 100% indicating minimal possible health risk linked to the intake of these crops by both adults and children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the changes in soil conditions due to land rolling on the growth of barley ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to determine the changes in soil properties due to land rolling after sowing and analysis the effects of these changes in soil properties on the plant growth in barley (<italic>Hordeum vulgare</italic> L.) production. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted by using three weights of the land roller (196.37, 337.67, 478.97 kg/m) and untreated control treatment after sowing barley. The results showed that land rolling significantly changed the soil properties such as bulk density, moisture content, and penetration resistance. These changes in soil conditions significantly affected the plant growth parameters in barley production. The increased bulk density at the 0 ‒ 100 mm depth of the soil due to land rolling increased the seed emergence, the plant growth parameters and the yield of barley. However, it was observed that the grain yield per ear started decreasing at the higher penetration resistance than 345, 486, and 630 kPa for 50 mm, 75 mm and 100 mm, respectively. Consequently, it can be said that the use of a land roller after sowing in barley production can increase the yield by improving the plant growth parameters and soil physical properties under the soil and climate conditions like the experimental field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue modification and application to improve soil fertility and crop productivity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biochar as an eco-friendly and low-cost product has the potential for modification to improve its functionality. The application of modified biochar is a new approach that can improve soil properties, quality, and productivity of plants, thereby helping sustainable agriculture. The focus of the recent studies has dealt with methods for improving the function of biochar. Biochar can be modified to enhance its physicochemical properties (such as bulk density, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and porosity) and nutritional value. This review provides crucial and summarizing information about the classification of biochar modification techniques for agricultural application and a comparison of pristine and modified biochar function on soil fertility and plant production. There are several approaches for modification of biochar, which can be divided into four main categories: chemical, physical, enriched with minerals, and nanocomposites. The modified biochar could be more appropriate for poor-nutrient soils and has a high adsorption capacity and potential for different pollutants immobilization. Further research is needed to determine the best methods of biochar modification with short-term and long-term effects on soil fertility and plant growth under different environmental conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and a new Challenge for managing Fusarium crown and root rot in asparagus plant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Fusarium oxysporum</italic> f. sp. <italic>asparagi</italic> is one of the main problems associated with the roots of asparagus plants and inflicting serious losses worldwide. A novel and eco-friendly strategy to reduce pathogen resistance and management of the Fusarium crown and root rot is using chitosan and <italic>Trichoderma harzianum</italic> as a sustainable treatment approach to improve both disease resistance and yields, while also effectively managing the asparagus product. In this study, the effect of chitosan and <italic>Trichoderma harzianum</italic> on growth promotion and control of Fusarium crown and root rot in asparagus plants was investigated. diseased plants from the main production areas of Iran were surveyed. The <italic>in vitro</italic> antifungal properties of chitosan solutions (concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL) and <italic>T. harzianum</italic> strain were evaluated by the dual culture method. <italic>T. harzianum and</italic> chitosan solution (20 mg/mL) gave the largest inhibition zone against <italic>F. oxysporum</italic> and were selected for further studies in the greenhouse. Chitosan (20 mg/mL) and <italic>T. harzianum</italic> were applied as seed treatments and they significantly reduced disease incidence by 92% and 73% respectively, compared to the control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue performance of new pro-vitamin A maize ( L.) hybrids using three selection indices<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of new bio-fortified maize hybrids is crucial for achieving food security and alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies. This study aims at assessing the performance of new pro-vitamin A maize hybrids and identifying potential high-yielding hybrids using base index, multivariate selection index, and rank summation index. Twenty-four pro-vitamin A maize hybrids and one hybrid check were evaluated in the rainy seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching and Research farm in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Hybrids were planted each year in a 5 × 5 α lattice design with three replications. Data collected on grain yield and agronomic traits were analysed. The hybrids showed significant (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.001) variations for all measured traits except plant aspect and maize <italic>streak</italic> virus scores. The mean grain yield of hybrids over two years varied from 1,106 kg/ha (LY 1312-12) to 5,144 kg/ha (LY 1501-9). The highest yielding hybrid across the years had a 31% yield advantage over the single-cross hybrid used as a check. The base index had the highest selection differential (34%) for grain yield. The rank summation index had a strong correlation with the multivariate selection index (r = ‒0.86<sup>+++</sup>) followed by base index (r = ‒0.56<sup>+++</sup>). The three selection indices used identified three superior three-way cross hybrids (LY 1409-21, LY 1501-9 and LY 1501-1) with a slight change in rank order. These outstanding hybrids which combine high productivity with nutrients may be considered for advanced multi-location and on-farm testing before their release to farmers in derived savanna agroecology of Nigeria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a Simple Empirical Yield Predition Model Based on Dry Matter Production in Sweet Pepper<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of models for yield prediction in greenhouse sweet peppers may help improve yield and labour productivity. We aimed to monitor the growth and yield of hydroponically grown sweet pepper plants without destructive sampling. First, we constructed a prediction model and validated it in a cultivation experiment. In the developed model, daily node appearance and light use efficiency were predicted from daily mean air temperature and daytime carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) concentration. The daily light interception was obtained by non-destructive leaf area estimation. Second, we validated the model through the cultivation experiment. The predicted total dry matter production at 200 days after transplanting (DAT), 1,379 g/m<sup>2</sup>, fell within the range of the observed value, 1,353 ± 46 g/m<sup>2</sup> (mean ± SE). The predicted and observed yields at 200 DAT were 7.90 kg/m<sup>2</sup> and 7.73 ± 0.82 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively. We approximately predicted node appearance, total dry matter production, and fruit yield, while partially succeeding in predicting leaf area index and dry matter partitioning to fruit. Our non-destructive prediction model can be an effective tool for growers and to improve the yield of sweet pepper production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and nutritional qualities of grain of new F winter rye hybrids in the Southern Ural<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents field experiments and laboratory analyses to study productivity and nutritional qualities of the grain of four F<sub>1</sub> hybrids of winter rye (Aviator, Ravo, Prommo, Eterno), and the population variety Chulpan 7 in the natural conditions of the Southern Ural. The research revealed an individual difference in the nutritional qualities of grain and the content of anti-nutritional substances between different studied F<sub>1</sub> hybrids, and compared them with the Chulpan 7 variety. Hybrids of winter rye formed higher grain productivity (from 4.65 t/ha to 6.07 t/ha) in comparison with the Chulpan 7 variety. The paper assesses the content of anti-nutritional substances (water-soluble pentosans) in grain, the kinematic viscosity of the water-extractable from grain hybrids (water-soluble pentosans 1.55 ‒ 1.74%, the viscosity of the water extract 18.3 ‒ 23.1 cSt and winter rye variety (of water-soluble pentosans 1.75%, the viscosity of the water extract was 23.4 cSt), and the dependence of these indicators on the environment during the growing season. The paper also presents the results of determining the nutritional value of the grain of hybrids and the Chulpan 7 variety by the content of crude proteins, starch, phosphorus, calcium, and potassium.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue soils situated in non-Chernozem regions in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is focused on an evaluation of some important soil properties as a result of the genesis of mollic soils which are located outside of the main Chernozem regions in Slovakia. Several soil profiles selected from the Soil Monitoring Network in Slovakia were evaluated and interpreted. Unified analytical procedures used in soil monitoring system have been applied. Following soil indicators: pH, humus content, and qualitative components as humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) as well as the fractional composition of HA, the content of labile carbon (C<sub>L</sub>), potentially mineralisable nitrogen (Npot) have been analysed. Based on obtained results in more details, it may be said that the dark-coloured soils in non-Chernozem regions opposite dark-coloured soils in Chernozem regions have a higher content of labile carbon and higher index of lability as well as higher C<sub>L</sub>: Npot ratio. This indicator seems to be more significant than the often used C/N ratio. In addition, the darkcoloured soils in non-Chernozem regions are characteristic with higher content of aliphatic carbon as well as lower content of carboxylic groups (-COOH) and lower value of the optical parameter (E<sup>1%</sup> <sub>6</sub>). These indicators in more detail are of higher interpretation value for a better evaluation of dark-coloured soils in non-Chernozem regions compared with similar soils in Chernozem regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of fertilisation and crop rotation on grain yield and quality of winter wheat ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At the present time, crop rotations are constantly adapted to economic conditions and one or two main crops are grown in agricultural farms. This has a negative impact on the environment. The optimization of grain yield and quality of winter wheat are dependent not only on the appropriate crop rotation but also on the nitrogen fertilisation. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of crop rotations, fertilisation and preceding crop on grain yield and quality of winter wheat during the years 2015/2016 – 2017/2018. The grain yield of winter wheat after preceding crop pea in crop rotation with 40% proportion of cereals was statistically higher (5.91 t/ha) than in crop rotation with 80% share of cereals (5.55 t/ha). In the treatment with mineral fertilisation and organic manure Veget® incorporation, the grain yield was statistically higher (6.00 t/ha) than in the treatment with mineral fertilisation (5.50 t/ha). According the standard STN 46 1100-2:2018 based on the wet gluten content, the winter wheat grain was classified into the class E by mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget® in all monitored years. In 2017 the winter wheat grain was categorized into the class P based on wet gluten content in crop rotations with 80% proportion of cereals in the treatment with fertilisers only after preceding crop winter barley.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue agricultural practices adoption<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As it has been practiced for many decades, agriculture has had a significant negative impact on the environment. More land, fertiliser, and pesticides had been used to increase the yield to meet the demands of an expanding population. Consequences included deforestation and soil degradation as well as the extinction of biodiversity, irrigation issues, and pollution, among other things. This has resulted in developing a new type of agriculture known as sustainable agriculture to remedy the situation. Specifically, the goal is to “meet the food and textile needs of society in the present without risking the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Using appropriate agricultural practices to implement sustainable agriculture is the most effective method of accomplishing this goal. According to research, farmers’ decisions to effectively adopt sustainable agricultural practices are influenced by a variety of factors. In this paper, we firstly give an overview of sustainable agriculture practices. Then, we review the various factors affecting the adoption of these practices, and finally, we highlight the gap found in the literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of different seedling growing methods on the SPAD, NDVI values and some morphological parameters of four sweet corn ( L.) hybrids<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main goal of our investigation was to determine the relationship between different growing methods of sweet corn seedlings and some physiological and morphological parameters of four hybrids in order to get information about the ability of their stress tolerance in a two-year experiment (2019, 2020). Seedlings were grown with and without pre-conditioning. Pre-conditioning is based on growing young plants exposing them to cold stress. Seedling emergence percentage, plant height, total leaf number, the total mass of fresh aboveground biomass, and ear length were determined as well as Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. In 2019, the pre-conditioned seedlings were more tolerant to cold stress for most of the tested parameters. Overall, the SPAD and NDVI values of the pre-conditioned seedlings were considered better in both years, however, it was not verified for all the studied hybrids. Among the hybrids, ‘Strongstar’ had the highest benefit from pre-conditioning compared to the standard growing method in terms of resulting in 17.5% higher plants, 13.1% longer ears, and 10.4% higher SPAD values in 2019. In 2020, when the cold stress was not so dominant, ‘Gyöngyhajnal’ gained the most from pre-conditioning with 9.7% higher plants, 32% more fresh aboveground biomass, 6.8% longer ears, 3.6% higher SPAD, and 9.3% higher NDVI values. More emphasis should be placed on the choice of stress-tolerant hybrids as well as on the seedling growing method and the date of transplanting to improve adaptation to the more frequent weather extremes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue functions of lignans in plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Naturally occurring lignans are present in seeds, nuts, cereals, vegetables, and fruits. Lignans play various roles in plants and their multipurpose functions of different organisms including humans is considerable. They are involved in plant defence mechanisms through their antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal properties. The lignans content may be affected by a variety of factors such as genotype, tissue type, geographic origin, local environmental conditions, nutrition, and plant maturity. Interactive relationships between individual factors are also considered. This review aimed to summarize the biological functions of lignans for plants and empasize the importance of these compounds for the added value of individual genotypes of plant food resources. Understanding the biological functions of lignans in plants can provide solutions to the ever-increasing requirements for the production of functional foods. Flaxseed is the richest source of lignans, and as such is considered the model species for lignans studies. Within our review, one paragraph is focused on the properties and biological functions of flax lignans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Chicken Manure-Based Fertiliser on Bacterial Communities and Diversity of Tomato Endosphere Microbiota<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The frequent use of chemical fertiliser produces harmful effects on the soil ecosystem. Therefore, biocompatible methods are used to improve plant health and production through natural fertiliser or plant beneficial microorganisms. This study aims to investigate the effect of amended chicken manure-based natural fertiliser on bacterial communities and plant beneficial bacteria of tomato endosphere microbiome using the high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results showed <italic>Proteobacteria</italic> (89.4 ± 4.7% to 86.7 ± 3.9%), <italic>Actinobacteria</italic> (6.03 ± 2.9% to 3.56 ± 2.1%), and <italic>Firmicutes</italic> (3.34 ± 1.3% to 0.59 ± 0.3%) as the dominant bacterial phyla of tomato endophytic microbiome. <italic>Pseudomonas</italic> and <italic>Bacillus</italic> were the most abundant identifiable genera in the chicken manure root (CMR) (amended manure treatments) sample. There was no significant difference in alpha bacterial diversity (Shannon index: <italic>p</italic> = 0.48) and species richness (Chao 1: <italic>p</italic> = 0.43) between control original root (OR) and CMR. However, the distribution of the dominant phyla was mainly affected by manure fertilisation. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and PCoA of beta diversity analysis suggested a significant separation in bacterial communities of tomato endophytes between CMR and OR. The most differently abundant bacterial taxa belong to <italic>Bacteroidetes</italic> in the OR group, whereas the beneficial bacterial communities of <italic>Actinobacteria</italic> and <italic>Firmicutes</italic> were more abundant in the CMR group. Therefore, the chicken manure application can significantly affect bacterial communities of tomatoes´ root endophytic microbiome and effectively improve the abundance of the beneficial microbes as biofertilisers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Compounds, Pre-Conditioning and Orientation of Explants – Important Factors Affecting Regeneration from Cotyledons of Legume Crop<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Sesbania aculeata</italic> is a multipurpose legume crop grown primarily for green manuring in the rice-based cropping system. Besides this, it is an industrial crop and is also used as food in many parts of the world. The present work reports for optimization of various parameters (growth medium, plant growth regulators, pre-conditioning, orientation of explant, and presence of thiol compounds) affecting <italic>in vitro</italic> regeneration using mature cotyledon explants. The 5-day-old mature cotyledon explants excised from seedlings grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and Gamborg (B5) vitamins medium containing 15 μM 6-benzylaminopurine were cultured with its adaxial side facing on medium containing 2.5 μM 6-benzylaminopurine and 50 mg/L thiourea and produced multiple shoots (7 ‒ 8) in 100% cultures within 28 days. Healthy shoots were rooted on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and full-strength vitamins medium augmented with 2.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Nano-Silicon and Other Soil Conditioners in Improving Physiology and Yield of Drought Stressed Barley Crop<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A field experiment was conducted in sandy soil to assess the effect of different sources of soil conditioners on barley (<italic>Hordeum vulgare</italic> L. cv. Giza 137) growth and its yield under drought stress. Plants were exposed to two levels of drought stress until grain maturity: (A) drought at 75% available water (AW) with NPK as control (treatment, T1); (B) mild drought stress at 50% AW with foliar spray of nano-silicon at 75 ppm (treatment, T2), foliar spray of nano-zeolite at 75 ppm (treatment, T3), perlite at 4 tons/h (treatment, T4), natural zeolite at 600 kg/ha (treatment, T5), bentonite at 4 tons/h (treatment, T6), and a combined treatment of T2+T3+T4+T5+T6 at the half amount of each material (T7). All the treatments received the recommended doses of organic matter. Vegetative growth and yield characters as well as anatomical characters were recorded. The physical and chemical soil properties were significantly improved by both foliar and soil conditioners application. The nutrients content of the barley crop were augmented under combined treatment (T7) as compared to other treatments. Under that treatment, barley crop chemical components, i.e. protein, ash, chlorophylls, amino acids, vitamins, and fibre were significantly higher compared to other treatments. In addition, gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) and abscisic acid (ABA) content besides antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly affected by all treatments. The economical profits were achieved, as reflected by an investment factor value equal to or higher than 3, and this was achieved for all tested nanosilicon, zeolite, and soil conditioners indicated the effectiveness and profitability of studied treatments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Soil Conditioning on Soil Penetration Resistance and Traction Power Demand of Ploughing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil compaction and degradation due to improper tillage are problems involving significant natural and economic damages. On compacted soils, suitable cultivation can be implemented only with higher energy and traction force input. In our study, the effect of a soil conditioner (Neosol) was examined on the penetration resistance of the soil and the traction power demand for ploughing in the experiment set up in the East-Slovak Plain in 2017 ‒ 2018 to justify several preliminary results showing that long-term soil conditioning results in enhanced root system, improved soil structure, cultivability, water- and salt regime. We found a positive effect of Neosol application with both investigated parameters and its long-term effect was also justified. The penetration resistance values of the soil of the untreated plot were 17 ‒ 23% higher, while the traction power demand values were 9 ‒ 32% lower in comparison with the Neosol treated plot in the first and the second year of the study, respectively. We assume the cumulative positive effect of soil conditioning on the physical soil properties in the study area, therefore the long-term application of Neosol is recommended for farms having similar soil properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue