rss_2.0Agricultural Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agricultural Engineering Engineering 's Cover of Elements from Soil in Grassland Field Crops Treated with Raw and Acidified Slurry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The state of soils was presented in the aspect of environmental protection when using acidified slurry was used as fertilizer to protect ammonia from escaping into the atmosphere. The use of concentrated sulfuric acid to lower the pH of the slurry and thus retain nitrogen in the soil and then use it by crops gives a double benefit, reduces nitrogen losses, and reduces the cost of mineral fertilizers that should be purchased. Injecting raw slurry below the surface of the soil has some benefits in the form of reducing ammonia emissions, but it does not affect the use of fertilizers with the addition of sulfur, which is ensured in the case of acidification of the slurry. Additional benefit is to obtain environment protection. Leaching of elements from grassland and corn crop soil treated with raw cattle slurry and acidified cattle slurry (m<sup>3</sup>·ha<sup>−1</sup>) was presented. The K content was highest in the leachate collected after the application of the last batch of acidified slurry. Yield tests were conducted on similar soils as presented in the tables for grass, using six 500 m<sup>2</sup> plots with corn, cultivar <italic>ES Cirrus</italic>, with acidified slurry and one test plot with non-acidified slurry. Analysis of variance and significant difference among the treatment means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a probability level of 0.05. Based on statistical analysis, it was demonstrated that crop yields of corn grain increased when fertilized with acidified slurry, at an average of 4 t·ha<sup>−1</sup>. During field tests corn crop yield varied from 14 t·ha<sup>−1</sup> to 18 t·ha<sup>−1</sup> when non-acidified and acidified slurry were used. The yield on the grassland was approx. 30 t·ha<sup>−1</sup>. The soil sorption complex, in combination with its buffer properties and acidification, did not affected the pH value. This makes the acidification process safe for plants and for the soil environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization of Parameters of a Vibroconveyor System for Infrared Drying of Soy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal parameters for the drying of soybean using a kinematic vibration dryer. Among the main parameters of the investigated vibroconveyor are heat and mass transfer, physical and mechanical. The paper presents a mathematical model of the dependence of parameters of the soybean drying process of soybean built based on experimental data obtained by organizing an effective experiment plan with a sufficiently large number of factor levels. To determine the rational parameters for drying soybean, it is important to build the most accurate and adequate mathematical model, which will determine the most accurate values of the required parameters. For this purpose, it is recommended to conduct an experiment with as many levels of factors as possible. The article proposes an experiment established on a dedicated balanced orthogonal plan, which is optimal according to the D-efficiency criterion. Based on the experimental data, an adequate mathematical model of the dependence of the drying characteristics of soybean (moisture of the processed material (%), temperature inside the product layer (<sup>°</sup>С) on the parameters – vibration amplitude (mm), distance from the conveyor surface (mm), radiation power (Wt), weight (g·min<sup>−1</sup>). Following the analysis of the constructed mathematical model, optimal parameters of the developed vibroconveyor infrared dryer were substantiated. The main characteristics of the vibroconveryor mechanism of interoperational transportation of bulk products in the working area were also determined, and a technical and economic analysis of the developed oscillatory system was conducted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovative Technology of Accelerated Composting of Chicken Manure to Obtain an Organic Fertilizer with a High Content of Humic Acids<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most important fractions of soil organic matter which has significant environmental and agricultural importance is humus. The specific humus compounds of soil include the complex of amorphous organic humic substances which include humic acids, fulvic acids and humins. The effectiveness of the natural formation of active humic substances during composting processes depends on the chemical composition of organic residues and the environmental conditions influencing the development and activity of native microorganisms. The aim of the project was to build innovative composting boxes for chicken manure that allow to effectively obtain a fertilizer with the highest possible content of humic acids, by creating perfect and controlled conditions for the rapid development of indigenous thermophilic microorganisms and by combining it with the owned bio-acceleration technology. For perfect conditions (temperature, humidity, oxygen, pH) for the controlled growth of microorganisms, an algorithm of the dependence of the box operation parameters on the course of the biological process, was built. The product obtained after composting is an easily digestible complex organic fertilizer of brown-black colour, pH 7.5-8.0 and NPK 5:3:4 and a high content of native humic acids. Its use increases the growth of green mass of plants and improves soil fertility, which has been proved by the conducted pot research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Adjuvant Concentration on Changes of Spray Characteristics and Spraying Parameters for Selected Types of Nozzles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the results of the research on the influence of the adjuvant concentration on the size of the drops produced by the spray nozzles of agricultural sprayers. For the tests, adjuvant Normaton with the composition of total nitrogen, amide nitrogen (N-NH<sub>2</sub>) and phosphorus pentoxide (P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) was used. The adjuvant was added to the water taken from the municipal water supply system of the city of Lublin. The tests were carried out for three concentrations, i.e. 75%, 100%, and 125% of the adjuvant concentration recommended by the manufacturer, and water without the adjuvant. The surface tension of water with adjuvant was examined for each nozzle. Then, the size of the obtained droplets was measured for each adjuvant concentration. Two types of nozzles were used for spraying, standard nozzle AP 120-03 and 6MSC injector nozzle, both with the same nozzle flow rate, but with a different design. The size of the droplets produced was measured on a HELOSVARIO laser diffractometer by Sympatec. The droplet measurement was performed at a pressure of 3 bar. The nozzle was placed 50 cm above the diffractometer laser light line. The droplet size was measured in three places of the sprayed liquid, i.e. in the position of the nozzle axis, 30 and 60 cm from the nozzle axis. It was shown that the addition of the adjuvant influenced the number of droplets produced in the indicated droplet size classes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Influence of Wave Processes of Hydraulic Oils on the Operation of a Hydraulic Drive<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper reviews the state of research of wave processes in hydraulic systems of machines, and their impact on the quality and stability of hydraulic drives. As noted in the works of previous researchers, these phenomena occur in hydraulic systems and adversely affect the quality and stability of their work, significantly reducing reliability. The method of construction of mathematical models is offered. A mathematical model of the hydraulic system with two series-connected hydraulic motors is built, taking into account transients. The Runge-Kutta-Feldberg method with automatic change of the integration step was used to solve this model. The application of this method makes it possible to estimate the amplitude and frequency of the pressure wave in real time for each part of the pipeline. As a result of the analysis of the obtained transients it was concluded that at the length of the pressure line in a group hydraulic drive with 2 series-connected hydraulic motors up to 1.5 m, wave processes do not significantly affect the system and in the mathematical model they can be ignored. With the length of the pressure line from 1.5 m to 9 m, the wave processes in the cavity do not affect the stability of the system, although significantly impair the quality of its work. Hydraulic systems with a pressure line length of more than 9 m are not recommended for implementation, because the wave processes in the cavity lead to vibrations and noise in the hydraulic system and require additional measures to eliminate the impact of this phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Reverse Engineering in Modeling Agricultural Products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the study was to use reverse engineering to model biological products, especially sugar beet root. In the process of creating the solid model, the appropriate tools available in the 3D design environment were applied. The 3D scan of the beet, in the form of a spatial point cloud, was used to project the root geometry. This was, in turn, used to construct a triangulation grid that includes nodal points of triangles. The subsequent steps presented the process of creating a solid model using the Interpolation Spline tool. Attention has been paid to the possibility of modifying the geometry by inserting additional points into the existing interpolation spline and changing angular position as well as the distance of the structural planes. Geometry mapping error values were determined with regard to the reference model depending on the spread value of the Structural Planes. Error courses are non-linear with a logarithmic line trend (surface field error) and a linear line trend (volume error). The effects demonstrated the usefulness of geometry projection and its applicability to support the strength testing of biological materials, with particular emphasis on dynamic tests using whole roots.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Verification of the Measurement System in a Production Organization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Monitoring the accuracy of meters by qualified workers and managers is a preventive measure of every organization. The paper focuses on monitoring the accuracy of measuring devices and proposes preventive and corrective actions. The discussed measurement device was tested for accuracy using accuracy indexes C<sub>g</sub> and C<sub>gk.</sub> The identified deviations in measurements showed that the meter was not fully efficient. Consequently, actions were taken to ensuring that the measurement device is accurate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Analysis of the New Farm Tractors Market in Poland in 2010-2020 in the Context of Income Generated by Farmers’ Households<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the paper is to analyse changes in the new farm tractor market in Poland and the annual income of farmers’ households generated in the same period. The studies covered the period from 2010 to 2020. The new farm tractors market was analysed with reference to the number of sold tractors, which was measured by the number of registrations. The paper considers quarterly seasonality of sale along with demand for selected producers and engine-power categories of new farm tractors sold in Poland. By “new tractors” the authors mean those registered for the first time in Poland and manufactured in the same or the preceding year. In 2010-2020, there were over 148,000 new farm tractors registered in Poland. The highest number of tractors sold was recorded in 2012, the lowest in 2016. Tractors from Western Europe, USA, and Japan predominate on the Polish market. Among new vehicles, the highest number registered in the investigated period constituted New Holland (23,780) tractors, followed by John Deere (19,453), Zetor (16,398), Deutz-Fahr (10,508), and Kubota (7,674). The total share of these producers in 2010-2020 amounted to approx. 58%. With regard to the engine-power categories in the analysed period, tractors with power of 37-73 kW and 74-132 kW (33.85%) constituted the largest proportion (49.07%). An increased interest in tractors with power below 36 kW was also observed from 2016 to 2020. Such vehicles accounted for 10% of all registrations. The general trend related to the volume of average annual income is not consistent with the trend of purchasing new farm tractors, while the highest number of registrations was recorded during the period in which inflation rates reached their highest values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Grain Cleaning Production Lines’ Energysaving Operation Modes of Electromechanical Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research was aimed at reducing the power consumption for grain cleaning by using energy-saving modes in the electromechanical systems of grain cleaning units. Specific consumption of active energy per production unit was adopted as a criterion for assessing energy-saving operation modes. The applied method of mathematical experiment planning (MEP) reduced the number of experiments to a minimum to obtain a reliable mathematical model of the research object. To determine the optimal specific power consumption, a theoretical method was developed to rebuild the mathematical model. Thus, the minimum specific power consumption of grain cleaning production lines was obtained, which allowed developing science-based rates of power usage that allow energy savings up to 8-10%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Methodical Aspects of Soil Ecosystem Services Valuation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ecosystem Services Valuation is an important tool for dialogue in the decision-making process and to highlight the society’s dependence on the biosphere for well-being. Soil is the primary source of ecosystem services such as the production of food and regulating the climate, however the methodological alternatives for valuing soil ecosystem services remain poorly studied. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate methodical aspects of ecosystem services valuation, with the special attention to soil services within agricultural context. We introduce frameworks specific for soil ecosystem services. Then, we present a case study where soil ecosystem services were evaluated within agricultural context. We conclude that such valuation represents the newest trend in soil science wherein soil resources are treated in the wider context of impacts on human well-being.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling Wheat Grain Flow During Sowing Based on the Model of Grain with Shifted Center of Gravity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Winter wheat is one of the widespread crops in Ukraine. The search for methods to increase the yield and consumer properties of wheat, without compromising environmental safety, is one of the important scientific problems. The principles of precision agriculture point to the proper positioning of the seeds, recommending the method of “upward germination” (positioning the wheat germ vertically). The main objective of this study was to develop a new geometric model of wheat grain with a displaced centre of mass, as well as to conduct the theoretical research and numerical experiments on the orientation of grains using their multiple impact interaction with inclined surfaces. A new model of germ consisting of two different end semispheres and amid-line truncated cone was proposed, with a displaced centre of mass. Taking into account the physical properties of the objects, the concept of arrangement of gravity orientation of seeds in a stream was applied. This concept was based on various ratios of kinetic parameters of bodies with a displaced centre of gravity following an impact. The results showed that the orientation process can be controlled by changing the inclination angles and the length of the walls of the tray orientator within the working velocity range. This must be done before impact interaction of 0.2-0.3 m s<sup>−1</sup> when the inclination angles of the impact interaction planes are 24-32°C.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the Impact of Tractor Field Works on Changes in Selected Elements of Engine Oils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tractors are used for various types of field work, as well as for transport on public roads, in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The main goal of the study was to analyze the changes of trace elements in engine oil during various field works. For this purpose, engine oils from two tractors were selected for the study. These tractors were coupled with: a cultivator, a reversible plow, a tillage-sowing unit, and a trailer. The samples were taken at the beginning and after the field work with a given unit was completed. The instrumental chemical analysis method HDXRF was used to determine changes in the content of the trace elements: Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Ca, P, Zn, and Mo in the engine oil. The comparison of oil from tractors coupled with various agricultural machines allowed the conclusion that the distribution of the consumption of tested metals, as well as the concentrations of individual elements, differed significantly depending on the coupled machine. The research showed that agricultural treatments with a cultivator caused the highest percentage of wear-induced changes in the content of metal elements such as Cr, Cu, and Pb. On the other hand, the operation of a tractor coupled with a tillage-sowing unit resulted in the vehicle’s accelerated wear.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Practical Potential of Grain Impurities in the Processing of Sunflower Oil Raw Materials in the Oil and Fat Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The analysis of statistical data showed that a large amount of plant waste is generated annually in oil and fat production plants, which must be processed and reused. The paper analyzes the problems of reusing sunflower oil production waste, which is characterized by a relatively high energy value: 1 ton of plant waste is equivalent to 0.625 tons of conventional fuel. According to the mathematical estimation, the actual total amount of impurities is 7.29%, in which major impurities constitute 25.7%. Studies have shown a high probability of oil – containing impurities – 37.25%. Therefore, it is recommended to process such impurities into fuel briquettes and technical oil to increase the profitability of sunflower oil production. For example, at the annual load of technological equipment of the Melitopol Oil Extraction Plant, in 250 days, at a daily processing capacity of 550 t˙day<sup>-1</sup>, an annual profit of 560,000 EUR is obtainable from the sunflower grain impurities processed into fuel and technical oil.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Reeze-Drying Impact on Hardness of Selected Soft Fruit Liophilisates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the paper was to describe the impact of freeze-drying conditions on hardness of lyophilizates obtained based on soft fruit pomace. Raspberry, cherry, and grape pomace from the pressing process carried out with a low-speed rotary press constituted a research material. Immediately after the pressing process, pomaces were placed in forms, frozen, and after freezing they were freeze-dried in the pressure of 20, 42, 63, 85 and 110 Pa. The obtained lyophilizates were subjected to the measurement of hardness with the use of texture meter equipped with a penetrometer in the form of a cone with a vertical angle of 30°. The increase of pressure during freeze-drying of samples was accompanied by the increase of hardness of the obtained lyophilizates, which may affect the energy consumption of the grinding process and the nature of rehydration of the final product. Moreover, the water content of raw material, pomaces, and lyophilizates was determined. The obtained results of measurements were subjected to a statistical analysis which showed that the pressure of freeze-drying significantly diversifies the hardness of the obtained lyophilizates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Concept of Biohydrogen Production by Agricultural Enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biohydrogen production in agricultural enterprises is an urgent matter. It is appropriate to utilize two methods of biohydrogen production: a thermochemical method – from crop-based biomass and anaerobic digestion (fermentation) method – from animal-based biomass.. It is appropriate to use gasifiers for the thermochemical method and biore-actors for fermentation method.</p> <p>The theoretical potential of biohydrogen was established with due regard to the amount of biomass which is necessary for utilization in livestock agriculture, for fields fertilization as well as with the consideration of the coefficients of concordance with hydrogen equivalent and loss factor under biohydrogen production. The theoretical potential of biohydrogen from crop-based biomass in Ukraine amounts to 77 billion m<sup>3</sup>, during the period of three years (on average 25.6 billion m<sup>3</sup> per year).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Thermal Insulation of the Gastronomic Refrigeration Furniture Prototype<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An innovative method of insulation by injection to a cooling tank was investigated with consideration of a sustainable development need during production of thermo-insulation materials. An insulation material consisted of polyurethane foam. The manufacturer has chosen HFO gases for filling in the pores, since this is a product with a low environmental impact. HFO gases have a zero potential for destruction of the ozone layer and an extremely low global warming potential. Cooling tanks insulated with modern technologies of injection of polyurethane foam were investigated with regard to heat permission. They were also tested on account of occurrence of heat leakage bridges. The investigation covered also cooling furniture insulated with a conventional method of gluing ready-made polyurethane boards. The tests showed that a modern insulation technology influences reduction of the heat permission coefficient towards the presently applied technology. The investigated insulation of cooling furniture did not prove any heat leakage bridges. Therefore, it may be concluded that the technological process is correct. Cooling tanks manufactured in the present insulation technology did not show the occurrence of heat leakage bridges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Energy Consumption by Electric Agricultural Tractor Model Under Operating Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is analysis of consumption of electric energy which is necessary to drive a farm tractor with an electric motor as a drive unit under the conditions of a drive with varied loading of the power transmission system. The object of the research was a tractor model where a combustion engine was replaced with a dc electric motor. During the tests, a decrease of voltage and current strength collected from supplying batteries as a function of tractor drive time and in relation to the mass of a tractor with a trailer, temperature of the surrounding and resistance to motion were reported, which enabled determination of the collected power and energy. For the used set of batteries, also the maximum range of the tractor drive on the paved road was determined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Proposals of Universal Algorithms for the Automation of the Irrigation Process of Plant Crops<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the issues of water saving, declining freshwater resources in the world, and the problems of drought in the context of proper and effective irrigation of various types of crops. The use of microprocessor irrigation management systems has a significant impact on the quality of the yield and the rational use of water. An example of the irrigation system construction scheme is presented. The system uses strain gauge soil moisture sensors, which can be used to determine the relative water demand of plants, depending on the growing substrate. Additional system security in the form of rainfall and wind speed sensors provide the necessary information for the correct operation of the irrigation system. Then, two universal algorithms were proposed to automate the irrigation process of plant crops due to the way water is supplied to the plants. The first algorithm is designed for systems using drip lines - they are widely used in various types of crops where there is a need to precisely supply water to the plant, such systems are destined especially for crops grown undercover or for nursery crops. The second algorithm for sprinkler-based systems is mainly used in field crops and in mushroom farms. The presented algorithms can be used to design and implement intelligent irrigation systems, and after adding an additional module – for plant fertilization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Energy Assessment of the Pneumatic Sieve Separator for Agricultural Crops<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As a result of energy assessment of a pneumatic sieve separator for agricultural crops it was determined that the specific energy consumption of the experimental pneumatic sieve separator was 0.18 kW·year·t<sup>−1</sup>. It is lower than in case of its domestic and foreign equivalents. For instance, the specific energy consumption of the separator of preliminary grain purification called SPO-50 (Ukraine) is 0.31 kW·year·t<sup>−1</sup>, and that of the machine of preliminary grain purification called MPO-50 (Russia) is 0.38 kW·year·t<sup>−1</sup>. Specific energy consumption of a pneumatic sieve separator is 1.72-2.11 times lower than in case of its domestic and foreign counterparts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Nonparametric Methods in the Analysis of the Quality of Kernel of Selected Winter Wheat Cultivars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a statistical analysis of weight and diameter of kernel obtained for eight investigated winter wheat cultivars. Preliminary analyses of experimental results, such as compliance with a normal distribution, equality of variance for particular cultivars, and occurrence of outliers proved that there is no justification for the use of a traditional one-way analysis of variance for verification of hypotheses according to which weight and diameter of grains of the investigated winter wheat cultivars do not differ. A nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used for verification of hypotheses which based on the experimental results enabled to reject both hypotheses. Further, simultaneous average weight and diameters of grain of the investigated cultivars were compared with the use of Nemenyi-Dunn test. The applied test enabled to conclude which cultivars had a significantly higher weight than the others. Analogous comparisons were carried out for the diameter of kernels of the investigated winter wheat cultivars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1