rss_2.0Agricultural Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agricultural Engineering Engineering Feed and Efficiency of a String Hulling Machine for Buckwheat<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An important task of food engineering, namely grain processing and the pro-duction of cereals and fodder, is the improvement of hulling equipment and the creation of complex technological lines for the processing of the original crops is gaining particular relevance. The reason for this is the need to carry out several preparatory stages, and, as a result, the use of additional equipment. To solve this problem, a string hulling device had been developed, the use of which allows reducing the number of operations due to the exclusion of preliminary sorting into fractions and wet-heat treatment. These operations are required by other hulling machines included in the technological lines of buckwheat processing. The structural scheme of the string hulling device had been developed and the principle of the shell removal operation had been substantiated. Theoretical studies had been carried out by the methods of analysis and synthesis of the mechanics of destruction and systematic analysis of the process of buckwheat hulling by impact. Experimental studies had been carried out using a laboratory string hulling device. The conducted analytical studies made it possible to determine the regularity between the physical and mechanical characteristics of buckwheat and the critical linear impact speed necessary for the destruction of the shell. This allows deter-mining the frequency of rotation of the string at which the destruction of the shell will occur while preserving the integrity of the core. Experimental studies made it possible to determine the quality of buckwheat hulling by determining the coefficient of integrity of the kernel and the coefficient of hulling. It has been determined that the ranges of the rotation frequency of the strings required to ensure a high degree of the buckwheat hulling technological process efficiency are within 15.8-16.9 s<sup>−1</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Optimization of the Green Extraction Conditions of Bio-Active Compounds from a WDJ Koch: Pareto Optimality and Compromise Solutions for Process Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plants belonging to the Apiaceae family (including <italic>Levisticum officinale</italic> WDJ Koch) are rich sources of phytochemicals and secondary metabolites, with possible health-promoting and agrochemical potential. The objective of this work was to provide important guidelines for controlling conventional aqueous extraction to obtain <italic>Levisticum officinale</italic> root extracts with maximised levels of bioactive compounds. The ultimate goal was to optimise the total phenolic compounds, flavonoid content, sugars, and total antioxidant capacity to identify the process conditions necessary to produce highly bioactive extracts that could be used in a wide range of industries. Biomass extraction of lovage root was carried out using water as the extraction solvent. To perform the optimisation of the aqueous extraction, multivariate regression models were used and multi-criteria analysis was performed using Pareto set navigation. Pareto front analysis showed that for the maximum extraction efficiency of bioactive compounds from <italic>Levisticum officinale</italic>, the optimal extraction process parameters were 0.0714 g·mL<sup>−1</sup> as biomass/water ratio and a time of 35.7142 min, at the highest analysed temperature. For the highest analysed value of plant biomass/solvent ratio (0.075 g·mL<sup>−1</sup>) and maximum process temperature (95ºC), extraction could be carried out for 20 min or in the range 37.1429-38.5714 min. On the other hand, if the extraction time reaches 40 min and the sam-ple/solvent ratio 0.075 g·mL<sup>−1</sup>, the optimum process temperature is be-tween 75ºC and 95ºC.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Asparagus Chitosan-Rutin Coating on Losses and Waste Reduction During Storage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Storage is a crucial component of a sustainable and efficient food supply system. Reduction of postharvest losses and waste is a vital strategy to improve efficiency, ensure product availability, and reduce environmental impact. Asparagus (<italic>Asparagus officinalis</italic> L.) boasts a high nutritional value and complex of phytonutrients. Yet, the storage period for fresh asparagus is quite short, leading to rapid quality deterioration. An effective method to extend storage periods involves postharvest treatments using the natural biopolymer chitosan. The aim of the research was to assess the effectiveness of applying sustainable postharvest treatments based on chitosan and rutin, with a focus on losses and waste reduction during asparagus storage. The impact of the applied storage technology on the visual appeal and sensory attributes of asparagus, along with its effects on respiratory metabolism, weight loss, soluble solids, soluble carbohydrates, chlorophylls, and carotenoids, was systematically assessed. The findings indicate that the post-harvest treatment using chitosan and rutin effectively preserves the visual characteristics of asparaguswhen the storage period is prolonged to a week. A major advantage of this technology is a substantial reduction in waste, achieving the levels of 1.0-1.5%. The proportion of standard products post-storage ranged from 94.4% to 96.0%. The treatment with chitosan and rutin efficiently reduces weight loss by half and suppresses the respiration rate, leading to decreased losses in soluble solids, carbohydrates, chlorophylls, and carotenoids during storage. These outcomes underscore the effectiveness of the applied coating in impeding metabolic processes, resulting in minimized quantitative and qualitative losses in the product quality during a prolonged storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Forming Die Design on Processing and Physical Properties of Gluten-Free Crisps<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of the forming die openings shape on processing parameters of the extrusion-cooking process and on the selected properties of gluten-free crisps. The experiment used blends of corn grits, unroasted buckwheat, rice, and dried blackberries. The extrusion process of gluten-free crisps was carried out via a prototype EXP-45-32 single-screw extruder with L/D=16. During the tests, 5 different forming dies were assessed: 2 openings with a diameter of 2 mm each, 1 round opening with a diameter of 3 mm, 1 cross-shaped opening, a star and a heart. During the tests, the processing efficiency and energy consumption of the extrusion process were tested, and the expansion index, bulk density and hardness of the crisps were investigated. The research demonstrated that the forming die shape affects the efficiency and energy consumption of the extrusion-cooking process of crisps. The lowest efficiency was found if a heart-shaped die was used, and the highest efficiency was determined in the case of a star-shape die. Moreover, the highest specific energy consumption was noted when using a star-shaped die during crisps extrusion. Crisps obtained using dies with larger diameters were characterized by a lower expansion index. The complicated shape of the die opening resulted in less expansion of the obtained crisps. The highest bulk density and hardness were found in the case of crisps obtained on a star-shaped forming die.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Mass Transfer in Infrared Assisted Heat Pump Drying of Purple Yam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study focused on an engineering problem of heat and mass transfer in infrared (IR) assisted heat pump (HP) drying of purple yam including both a drying experiment and theory of heat and mass transfer mathematical equations. The experimental drying of yam by the IR assisted HP drying method was performed to evaluate the effect of IR power on drying rate and heating rate. The input drying parameters included the drying air temperature of 50°C, drying air velocity of 2.5 m·s<sup>−1</sup> and IR power of 0, 300 and 350 W, in which, at the IR power of 0 W, the HP-only drying mode was performed. The experimental drying results showed that the IR assisted HP drying method could improve the drying rate and heating rate as compared to HP-only drying. At the IR power of 350 W, the drying time was the shortest (150 minutes), followed by the IR power of 300 W (210 minutes) and HP-only drying (300 minutes). The IR assisted HP drying obtained the high heating rate as the time required for the drying material to reach the drying temperature was about 35 and 25 minutes corresponding to the IR power of 300 and 350 W. While in HP-only drying, it took about 270 minutes for the drying material’s temperature to reach nearly the drying air temperature value. Besides, the comparison between the predicted data by numerically solving the heat and mass transfer equations and experimental drying data was also conducted. The analysis results indicated that the predicted data could be used to predict the experimental data accurately. The theoretical results of heat and mass transfer in the IR assisted HP drying process as well as experimental drying results would be the basis for improving the IR assisted HP drying equipment to achieve the drying efficiency including the drying rate, quality of dried products, and energy consumption.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Ways of Improving the Process of Separation of Seed Materials on the Working Surface of the Pneumatic Sorting Table<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The object of the study is the process of separation of seed material according to the seed density on the working surface of the pneumatic sorting table. The main defining design variables and linkage parameters of the equipment are analyzed, which realizes the process of separation of seed materials, and is coordinated with physical and mechanical variables of raw materials. The principles of modeling of seed material layer movement as a multiphase medium are provided. Under the effect of working surface vibrations and the power of an airstream the layer take on the properties of pseudoliquid. The criteria of chosen variables are presented, on which depend quality and quantity indicators of the separation process of seed materials according to the seed density. Optimal values of the separator linkage parameters are analytically determined and dependence diagrams are built. Secant lines of surfaces for a concrete crop (raw material) are performed. The “purity” of heavy fraction during the variation of indicated parameters is studied. It is proved that there are differences in types of the dependences: different decreasing of functions and increasing of airstream velocity. It is obvious that this nature is determined by difference in density of original raw materials. This way the smallest influence a change in the air-stream velocity causes to soybean raw material, as soybean has the biggest density. At the same time, the biggest affect is provoked on sunflower seeds, which have the smallest density among the used types of raw materials, as well as a triangle form.</p> <p>It is determined that the maximal frequency of the basic fraction, gained by the separation of wheat seed material on PST, is obtained under the airstream velocity in the range 1.3-1.5 m·s<sup>−1</sup>. For corn the rational air-stream velocity falls in the range 1.3-1.6 m·s<sup>−1</sup>, for sunflower – 1.2-1.4 m·s<sup>−1</sup>, for soybean – 1.2-1.4 m·s<sup>−1</sup>. These figures are valid under the condition of using the relevant rational decisions of frequency and amplitude of vibrations of pneumatic sorting table deck during the separation of grain mixtures, as well as longitudinal and transverse angles of inclination. The veracity of experimental studying results is proved by the corresponding theoretical models of the process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Energy Indicators of Dry Farming Wheat Production in Northwest of Iran<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Majority of past research on agricultural product production is related with irrigated areas. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy use pattern in wheat production planted as dry farming in Northwest of Iran. Initial data were collected by means of questionnaires from farmers and agricultural experts in the area. Energy use efficiency indices, net energy, specific energy, energy productivity, energy intensiveness and the total input of energy and total output were computed. Analysis of the total input energy showed that fuel and chemical fertilizer had the highest energy consumption, and the seeds, labor work and chemical pesticides had the lowest energy consumption in wheat production. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity of 1.79 and 0.748 kg·mJ<sup>−1</sup> were obtained, respectively. The total input and output energy were 33927.61 and 60803.81 MJ·ha<sup>−1</sup>, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of the DPMO Indicator to Verify the Fulfilment of Hygienic Requirements in the Food Industry - A Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The quality of the manufactured product plays a special role in the food industry. Food producers, in addition to meeting consumer requirements, are obliged to comply with legally sanctioned, rigorous requirements of hygiene and cleanliness at work, as well as the way it is performed. In order to maintain the legally required hygiene rules in production plants specializing in the production of food products, manufacturers implement numerous management systems aimed at maintaining legally imposed guidelines in the field of quality management and occupational health. The article describes the use of the DPMO indicator, which allows for a thorough analysis of process parameters affecting the final quality of the manufactured product. For the analyzed process, the maximum DPMO value for one of the areas is 636364. In nine cases, which constitutes 12.5% of the total, DPMO is 0. The purpose of this article is to identify non-compliances in the field of occupational hygiene in the production plant analyzed using the DPMO indicator and then to introduce improvements. The developed recommendations concern marking, standardization and responsibility for individual processes as well as additional cleanliness inspections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reduction with Rubber-Metal Cab Supports<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates the possibility of improving the vibration isolation of a tractor cab by changing the stiffness of its rubber-metal supports. A spectral analysis of the vibration isolation properties of these supports is presented. The research was conducted on a BELARUS 1221 tractor at idling, at the maximum engine speed, with no load. The cab was mounted on rubber-metal vibration absorbers of serial design with different rubber hardness. Measurements were made with a first class certified Oktava 101VM instrument with registration of RMS acceleration values, expressed in dB, in the frequency range of 8-1000 Hz. The instrument was set in “local vibration” mode. The AR2082M probe was attached to the respective measurement points using adhesive. Mathematical relationships are given to optimize the work on the development of a new and upgraded design of the rubber-metal supports in use. It is shown that varying the stiffness of the rubber-metal supports has different effects in the low and high frequencies of the spectrum. A stiff support is effective in damping low-frequency vibrations but degrades the support’s properties in damping high-frequency vibrations, and vice versa. A soft support is more effective at higher frequencies and reduces the effectiveness of the support at lower frequencies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Modes of Pre-Sowing Electrical Stimulation of Winter Rape Seeds Based on the Study of the Intensity of Single Photon Emission by Them<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results that can be a prerequisite for the introduction of a pre-sowing electrotreatment of winter rape seeds into the production process. The results of photon emission by rape seeds after electrical stimulation are highly correlated with the data obtained during determination of its sowing qualities and field germination. Absorption and transformation of the energy of the external electric field during the electrostimulation of winter rape seeds occurs non-linearly. It was established that the main transformations take place during the first 15 s, regardless of the electric field intensity. Relaxation processes were revealed, which become dominant after 15 s of electrical stimulation. The pre-sowing electrical stimulation improved the sowing properties of winter rapeseed. The highest values of germination energy and laboratory germination (87% and 96%), which exceeded the control by 9% and 8%, were obtained under the treatment mode E=2 kV·cm<sup>−1</sup>, t=30 s. Pre-sowing electrostimulation of winter rape seeds at optimal conditions helps to increase its field germination. Under the treatment mode E=2 kV·cm<sup>−1</sup>, t=30 s was 90%, and with E=3 kV·cm<sup>−1</sup>, t=30 s – 83% versus 79.7% in the control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Expert System Supporting Decision-Making in the Process of Vegetable Pests Extermination During Vegetation Period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a computer system supporting the identification of vegetable pests during the vegetation period and the way in which it works on the example of red beet. The objective was to develop an expert system to facilitate the identification of pests and suggest an appropriate method of controlling them. Filling the database with the knowledge applying to one narrow area of knowledge turns the expert system framework into an expert system in this area of knowledge. The system consists of the expert system and the database in the form of text files, which contain additional explanations. The user of the expert system - “DSS – pest control” needs to answer the following questions: in the first stage the user selects the diagnosed vegetable, in the second stage, the user selects the symptom or symptoms on the above-ground vegetable part, in the third stage, the user selects the symptom or symptoms on the below-ground vegetable part. The designed decision support system (“DSS – pest control”) may be used by individual vegetable growers. It may also serve as an educational program, e.g. for students who want to find out more about the specific areas of knowledge as well as for scientists and researchers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of the Spelt Dehulling Process in a Cylinder Separator<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spelt is one of unprofitable wheat types and requires an additional hulling process, in which the husks are removed from the grain. A device for dehulling spelt kernels was proposed. The described solution consists of a stainless-steel wire mesh cylinder with 4×20 mm and 4×30 mm longitudinal openings and a rotor with adjustable blade angles. Kernels were dehulled at the following angular speeds of the shaft: 16.76, 23.04, 29.32, 35.60, and 41.89 rad·s<sup>−1</sup>, and the following rotor blade angles: 50°, 60°, 70°, 80°, and 90°. The efficiency of glume and glumelle removal, the proportion of damaged kernels, and kernel and husk separation efficiency were evaluated during the experiment. The highest of kernel separation efficiency <italic>η</italic><sub>z</sub> was 81.86% using a wire mesh cylinder with 4×30 mm longitudinal openings and 81.60% for a wire mesh cylinder with 4×20 mm longitudinal openings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Carrot and Apple Pomace in the Production of Healthy Snack Bars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the increasing popularity of healthy eating brought about a significant increase in the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the form of juices, purees and cocktails. In the process of their production, the byproduct is pomace, which is treated by the food processing industry as waste. Assuming that pomace accounts for only 20% of the raw material used, annually up to 630 000 tonnes of pomace are obtained globally. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that fruit pomace is a valuable source of many nutritious substances. The objective of the study was to develop a compression-based production technology of apple pomace-based bars, and to assess their quality. Based on the analysis of the structure of produced bars, it can be concluded that their hardness and resistance to cutting does not differ significantly from that of commercial bars made with alternative technology and from different ingredients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Studies on the Operation of Agricultural Crops Mowing Unit with Simultaneous Chopping and Incorporation of Stubble Into the Soil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For harvesting crops, one-phase and two-phase methods are most often used. When implementing the second one, mounted and trailed units are used. The latter is becoming less and less used due to the problems with movement stability in the horizontal plane because of the asymmetric layout. A stubble background, which is susceptible to solar and wind influences, is formed as a consequence of application of the mounted harvesting unit, As a result, the field’s soil in the inter-swath space intensively loses moisture. A harvesting unit based on a tractor with rear steerable wheels has been designed to eliminate this shortcoming. A header is mounted on its front hitch linkage system, and a disc harrow is mounted on the rear one. During the working movement, such a harvesting unit mows the crop into swaths, chops the stubble in the inter-swath space, and simultaneously incorporates it into the soil. This article presents the operation results of such a unit for harvesting winter wheat, oats, and sudan grass. Research has established that oscillations in the deviations of the mowed crops’ swaths from a straight line are of low frequency. The variances spectra of this process, as follows from the Analysis of normalized spectral densities, are concentrated in the frequency range of 0-0.5 m<sup>−1</sup>. The mean value velocities of the harvesting unit are 2.13-2.61 m·s<sup>−1</sup>, which is 0.17-0.21 Hz. The variances of oscillations in the header operating width, the cut crop’s swath width, and the disc harrow’s width are concentrated in approximately the same low-frequency range, the maximum value of which is small and does not exceed 0.9 m<sup>−1</sup> or 0.37 Hz. The oscillation processes of the mowed crops’ stubble height have a higher frequency. The cutoff frequency of their normalized spectral densities is at the level of 3.0 m<sup>−1</sup>. In terms of time, considering the harvesting unit movement velocity of 2.13-2.61 m·s<sup>−1</sup>, this is 1.02-1.25 Hz. At the same time, oscillations in the stubble height of mowed crops are characterized by small variances, the maximum value of which does not exceed 11 cm<sup>2</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Metal Content in Substrates in Agricultural Biogas Plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The content of heavy metals in soil should be continuously monitored, especially in organic crops. Exceeding the permissible concentrations of these elements may lead not only to inhibition of plant growth but also to ingestion into the organisms of animals that feed on these plants.</p> <p>Heavy metals usually enter the soil via precipitation or manure. There is a noticeable increase in interest in digestate for fields fertilization. Therefore, the authors decided to test the heavy metal content in substrates (slurry and solid input) and digestate. The 15x3 samples tested showed that only trace amounts of heavy metals were present. The study shows that the content of these elements in the digestate is not the sum of the elements supplied to the digester with the substrates. In most of the samples tested, lead concentrations did not exceed 5 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>. The lowest amounts of cadmium (an average of 0.28 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>) were observed in the slurry, and the highest (an average of 0.34 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>) in the solid substrate fed to the digester. Slurry had the lowest mercury and cadmium contents (average 0.012 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>and 5.8 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>). The highest concentration of chromium was registered in the digestate (average 3 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>) and this was on average 0.3 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup> higher than the feedstock and 0.5 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup> than the slurry</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Energetical Properties in Methane Fermentation of Morphological Parts of Corn with Different Variety Earliness Standard FAO<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the last decades, the production of biomass biofuels for thermochemical conversion to replace fossil fuels has attracted increasing attention as it offers significant environmental benefits. A very common way to convert biomass to energy is methane fermentation. The importance of biogas as a source of energy is growing. The use of biomass to biogas production on a large, global scale may lead to controversial competition for arable land, water, and consequently, food. Therefore, only waste materials and agricultural by-products and residues should be used for biogas production. Corn stover is a good example of agricultural residues for biogas production. Therefore, the aim of these studies was to determine the influence of corn variety earliness FAO on the chemical compositions and energy value of morphological parts (fractions) of corn plants. The research material consisted of morphological parts of corn plants: stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs of selected corn cultivars, differing in terms of their FAO earliness: early (FAO 220), medium-early q(FAO 240) and late (FAO 300) varieties. The research included laboratory investigations, elemental analysis, methane fermentation and statistical analyses of results. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that the FAO earliness of a corn variety had a significant impact on the elemental composition, ash content, biogas, and methane yield in the corn morphological fractions. The highest methane yield of 267.4 m<sup>3</sup>·Mg<sup>−1</sup> TS was found for the cucurbit cover leaves of a variety with an FAO 240 earliness standard.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Efficiency of Corn Seed Separation and Calibration Process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper analyzes the existing theoretical research of corn seed separation and calibration processes. The machines, tools and equipment that implement the process were studied. An innovative sieve with openings in the Cassini oval shape was proposed for the economical separation and calibration of corn seeds. The results of operation of the proposed sieve in the operating conditions of Kharkiv Feed Mill on BSH-100 serial separators were considered. The study of the effectiveness of sifting corn seeds through the holes of the sieves was carried out in partnership with the State University “Ukrainian Research Institute of Forecasting and Testing of Agricultural Production Techniques and Technologies named after Leonid Pohorily” (Kharkiv Branch). The use of sieves with openings in the Cassini oval shape, instead of classic circular base openings, was found to result in an increase in throughput capacity of the sieve and open area of up to 20%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Probability of Failure in Manufacturing Equipment by Quantitative FTA Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method that directly focuses on the modes of failures. The FTA is a graphical representation of the major faults or critical failures associated with a product, as well as the causes for the faults and potential countermeasures. The aim of this research paper is to calculate the probability of the top event – the failure of the process using FTA and propose a technique to prioritize factors for action design and reduce the likelihood of a top event failure based on manufacturers' requirements. We have constructed a qualitative fault tree to produce office components packed and sealed in blister packs using a KOCH KBS-PL machine. We defined the top event G – the production of office components, packed and sealed in blister packs on the machinery KOCH KBS-PL. Then we defined events leading to top events down to individual failure factors. Based on the links between the fault tree and the probability of failure, we performed a quantitative analysis to determine the probability of failure of individual events. We found out that the probability of failure of G is 5.04%. Subsequently, we identified which factors most significantly reduce the resulting probability of failure of factor G. These are the factors: E – feed rate, F – cooling, AL – incorrect setting and D – break. It has been proven that by controlling these 4 factors, we can reduce the probability of failure of top event G to 2.36%, provided that effective measures are taken. The final proposal meets the requirements of several manufacturers for a fast, efficient, and cost-effective solution. We have created a proposal that saves time, has minimal software and hardware requirements, and is easy to use. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposal was that we identified the weakest points in the fault tree that most significantly cause the top event to fail. This prioritized the factors for the design of the measures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Planning For Tractor Turning Using The Trigonometric Transition Curve<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a method of utilizing a transition curve in planning the movement trajectory of agricultural machinery during the headland turns. The approach involves using the transition curve, whose curvature and tangent angle are described by the trigonometric function. For the designed course, the kinematic quantities, wheel turning angles, and their rates of change were determined for two models of agricultural tractors. The algorithm proposed in this study ensures continuity and smooth changes in the kinematic quantities and can be applied to the trajectory planning of agricultural implements and machines, autonomous vehicles, mobile robots, manipulators, and CNC machines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tools and Computer Image Analysis in Assessing the Quality of Maize Grain During Storage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study of qualitative characteristics is becoming increasingly important due to determination of the purchase price and further use of seeds. An important problem of the modern sustainable agriculture is the production of seeds and products with appropriate quality parameters. The research carried out so far proves that the technology of harvesting, transport, and drying conditions as well as storage have an impact on the quality of seeds, determining their usefulness for the industry. The smallest irregularities can cause irreversible changes and significantly reduce the technological value of seeds and their processing products. The use of tools in the field of supporting electrical engineering enables detection and highlighting of image elements so that it becomes readable to the human eye. The aim of the research was to develop technology for evaluating grain in storage using electrotechnical tools and computer techniques.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue