rss_2.0Agricultural Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agricultural Engineering Engineering Feed Reduction with Rubber-Metal Cab Supports<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates the possibility of improving the vibration isolation of a tractor cab by changing the stiffness of its rubber-metal supports. A spectral analysis of the vibration isolation properties of these supports is presented. The research was conducted on a BELARUS 1221 tractor at idling, at the maximum engine speed, with no load. The cab was mounted on rubber-metal vibration absorbers of serial design with different rubber hardness. Measurements were made with a first class certified Oktava 101VM instrument with registration of RMS acceleration values, expressed in dB, in the frequency range of 8-1000 Hz. The instrument was set in “local vibration” mode. The AR2082M probe was attached to the respective measurement points using adhesive. Mathematical relationships are given to optimize the work on the development of a new and upgraded design of the rubber-metal supports in use. It is shown that varying the stiffness of the rubber-metal supports has different effects in the low and high frequencies of the spectrum. A stiff support is effective in damping low-frequency vibrations but degrades the support’s properties in damping high-frequency vibrations, and vice versa. A soft support is more effective at higher frequencies and reduces the effectiveness of the support at lower frequencies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Modes of Pre-Sowing Electrical Stimulation of Winter Rape Seeds Based on the Study of the Intensity of Single Photon Emission by Them<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results that can be a prerequisite for the introduction of a pre-sowing electrotreatment of winter rape seeds into the production process. The results of photon emission by rape seeds after electrical stimulation are highly correlated with the data obtained during determination of its sowing qualities and field germination. Absorption and transformation of the energy of the external electric field during the electrostimulation of winter rape seeds occurs non-linearly. It was established that the main transformations take place during the first 15 s, regardless of the electric field intensity. Relaxation processes were revealed, which become dominant after 15 s of electrical stimulation. The pre-sowing electrical stimulation improved the sowing properties of winter rapeseed. The highest values of germination energy and laboratory germination (87% and 96%), which exceeded the control by 9% and 8%, were obtained under the treatment mode E=2 kV·cm<sup>−1</sup>, t=30 s. Pre-sowing electrostimulation of winter rape seeds at optimal conditions helps to increase its field germination. Under the treatment mode E=2 kV·cm<sup>−1</sup>, t=30 s was 90%, and with E=3 kV·cm<sup>−1</sup>, t=30 s – 83% versus 79.7% in the control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Expert System Supporting Decision-Making in the Process of Vegetable Pests Extermination During Vegetation Period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a computer system supporting the identification of vegetable pests during the vegetation period and the way in which it works on the example of red beet. The objective was to develop an expert system to facilitate the identification of pests and suggest an appropriate method of controlling them. Filling the database with the knowledge applying to one narrow area of knowledge turns the expert system framework into an expert system in this area of knowledge. The system consists of the expert system and the database in the form of text files, which contain additional explanations. The user of the expert system - “DSS – pest control” needs to answer the following questions: in the first stage the user selects the diagnosed vegetable, in the second stage, the user selects the symptom or symptoms on the above-ground vegetable part, in the third stage, the user selects the symptom or symptoms on the below-ground vegetable part. The designed decision support system (“DSS – pest control”) may be used by individual vegetable growers. It may also serve as an educational program, e.g. for students who want to find out more about the specific areas of knowledge as well as for scientists and researchers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of the Spelt Dehulling Process in a Cylinder Separator<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spelt is one of unprofitable wheat types and requires an additional hulling process, in which the husks are removed from the grain. A device for dehulling spelt kernels was proposed. The described solution consists of a stainless-steel wire mesh cylinder with 4×20 mm and 4×30 mm longitudinal openings and a rotor with adjustable blade angles. Kernels were dehulled at the following angular speeds of the shaft: 16.76, 23.04, 29.32, 35.60, and 41.89 rad·s<sup>−1</sup>, and the following rotor blade angles: 50°, 60°, 70°, 80°, and 90°. The efficiency of glume and glumelle removal, the proportion of damaged kernels, and kernel and husk separation efficiency were evaluated during the experiment. The highest of kernel separation efficiency <italic>η</italic><sub>z</sub> was 81.86% using a wire mesh cylinder with 4×30 mm longitudinal openings and 81.60% for a wire mesh cylinder with 4×20 mm longitudinal openings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Carrot and Apple Pomace in the Production of Healthy Snack Bars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the increasing popularity of healthy eating brought about a significant increase in the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the form of juices, purees and cocktails. In the process of their production, the byproduct is pomace, which is treated by the food processing industry as waste. Assuming that pomace accounts for only 20% of the raw material used, annually up to 630 000 tonnes of pomace are obtained globally. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that fruit pomace is a valuable source of many nutritious substances. The objective of the study was to develop a compression-based production technology of apple pomace-based bars, and to assess their quality. Based on the analysis of the structure of produced bars, it can be concluded that their hardness and resistance to cutting does not differ significantly from that of commercial bars made with alternative technology and from different ingredients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Studies on the Operation of Agricultural Crops Mowing Unit with Simultaneous Chopping and Incorporation of Stubble Into the Soil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For harvesting crops, one-phase and two-phase methods are most often used. When implementing the second one, mounted and trailed units are used. The latter is becoming less and less used due to the problems with movement stability in the horizontal plane because of the asymmetric layout. A stubble background, which is susceptible to solar and wind influences, is formed as a consequence of application of the mounted harvesting unit, As a result, the field’s soil in the inter-swath space intensively loses moisture. A harvesting unit based on a tractor with rear steerable wheels has been designed to eliminate this shortcoming. A header is mounted on its front hitch linkage system, and a disc harrow is mounted on the rear one. During the working movement, such a harvesting unit mows the crop into swaths, chops the stubble in the inter-swath space, and simultaneously incorporates it into the soil. This article presents the operation results of such a unit for harvesting winter wheat, oats, and sudan grass. Research has established that oscillations in the deviations of the mowed crops’ swaths from a straight line are of low frequency. The variances spectra of this process, as follows from the Analysis of normalized spectral densities, are concentrated in the frequency range of 0-0.5 m<sup>−1</sup>. The mean value velocities of the harvesting unit are 2.13-2.61 m·s<sup>−1</sup>, which is 0.17-0.21 Hz. The variances of oscillations in the header operating width, the cut crop’s swath width, and the disc harrow’s width are concentrated in approximately the same low-frequency range, the maximum value of which is small and does not exceed 0.9 m<sup>−1</sup> or 0.37 Hz. The oscillation processes of the mowed crops’ stubble height have a higher frequency. The cutoff frequency of their normalized spectral densities is at the level of 3.0 m<sup>−1</sup>. In terms of time, considering the harvesting unit movement velocity of 2.13-2.61 m·s<sup>−1</sup>, this is 1.02-1.25 Hz. At the same time, oscillations in the stubble height of mowed crops are characterized by small variances, the maximum value of which does not exceed 11 cm<sup>2</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Metal Content in Substrates in Agricultural Biogas Plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The content of heavy metals in soil should be continuously monitored, especially in organic crops. Exceeding the permissible concentrations of these elements may lead not only to inhibition of plant growth but also to ingestion into the organisms of animals that feed on these plants.</p> <p>Heavy metals usually enter the soil via precipitation or manure. There is a noticeable increase in interest in digestate for fields fertilization. Therefore, the authors decided to test the heavy metal content in substrates (slurry and solid input) and digestate. The 15x3 samples tested showed that only trace amounts of heavy metals were present. The study shows that the content of these elements in the digestate is not the sum of the elements supplied to the digester with the substrates. In most of the samples tested, lead concentrations did not exceed 5 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>. The lowest amounts of cadmium (an average of 0.28 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>) were observed in the slurry, and the highest (an average of 0.34 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>) in the solid substrate fed to the digester. Slurry had the lowest mercury and cadmium contents (average 0.012 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>and 5.8 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>). The highest concentration of chromium was registered in the digestate (average 3 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup>) and this was on average 0.3 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup> higher than the feedstock and 0.5 mg‧kg<sup>−1</sup> than the slurry</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Energetical Properties in Methane Fermentation of Morphological Parts of Corn with Different Variety Earliness Standard FAO<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the last decades, the production of biomass biofuels for thermochemical conversion to replace fossil fuels has attracted increasing attention as it offers significant environmental benefits. A very common way to convert biomass to energy is methane fermentation. The importance of biogas as a source of energy is growing. The use of biomass to biogas production on a large, global scale may lead to controversial competition for arable land, water, and consequently, food. Therefore, only waste materials and agricultural by-products and residues should be used for biogas production. Corn stover is a good example of agricultural residues for biogas production. Therefore, the aim of these studies was to determine the influence of corn variety earliness FAO on the chemical compositions and energy value of morphological parts (fractions) of corn plants. The research material consisted of morphological parts of corn plants: stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs of selected corn cultivars, differing in terms of their FAO earliness: early (FAO 220), medium-early q(FAO 240) and late (FAO 300) varieties. The research included laboratory investigations, elemental analysis, methane fermentation and statistical analyses of results. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that the FAO earliness of a corn variety had a significant impact on the elemental composition, ash content, biogas, and methane yield in the corn morphological fractions. The highest methane yield of 267.4 m<sup>3</sup>·Mg<sup>−1</sup> TS was found for the cucurbit cover leaves of a variety with an FAO 240 earliness standard.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Efficiency of Corn Seed Separation and Calibration Process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper analyzes the existing theoretical research of corn seed separation and calibration processes. The machines, tools and equipment that implement the process were studied. An innovative sieve with openings in the Cassini oval shape was proposed for the economical separation and calibration of corn seeds. The results of operation of the proposed sieve in the operating conditions of Kharkiv Feed Mill on BSH-100 serial separators were considered. The study of the effectiveness of sifting corn seeds through the holes of the sieves was carried out in partnership with the State University “Ukrainian Research Institute of Forecasting and Testing of Agricultural Production Techniques and Technologies named after Leonid Pohorily” (Kharkiv Branch). The use of sieves with openings in the Cassini oval shape, instead of classic circular base openings, was found to result in an increase in throughput capacity of the sieve and open area of up to 20%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Probability of Failure in Manufacturing Equipment by Quantitative FTA Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method that directly focuses on the modes of failures. The FTA is a graphical representation of the major faults or critical failures associated with a product, as well as the causes for the faults and potential countermeasures. The aim of this research paper is to calculate the probability of the top event – the failure of the process using FTA and propose a technique to prioritize factors for action design and reduce the likelihood of a top event failure based on manufacturers' requirements. We have constructed a qualitative fault tree to produce office components packed and sealed in blister packs using a KOCH KBS-PL machine. We defined the top event G – the production of office components, packed and sealed in blister packs on the machinery KOCH KBS-PL. Then we defined events leading to top events down to individual failure factors. Based on the links between the fault tree and the probability of failure, we performed a quantitative analysis to determine the probability of failure of individual events. We found out that the probability of failure of G is 5.04%. Subsequently, we identified which factors most significantly reduce the resulting probability of failure of factor G. These are the factors: E – feed rate, F – cooling, AL – incorrect setting and D – break. It has been proven that by controlling these 4 factors, we can reduce the probability of failure of top event G to 2.36%, provided that effective measures are taken. The final proposal meets the requirements of several manufacturers for a fast, efficient, and cost-effective solution. We have created a proposal that saves time, has minimal software and hardware requirements, and is easy to use. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposal was that we identified the weakest points in the fault tree that most significantly cause the top event to fail. This prioritized the factors for the design of the measures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Planning For Tractor Turning Using The Trigonometric Transition Curve<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a method of utilizing a transition curve in planning the movement trajectory of agricultural machinery during the headland turns. The approach involves using the transition curve, whose curvature and tangent angle are described by the trigonometric function. For the designed course, the kinematic quantities, wheel turning angles, and their rates of change were determined for two models of agricultural tractors. The algorithm proposed in this study ensures continuity and smooth changes in the kinematic quantities and can be applied to the trajectory planning of agricultural implements and machines, autonomous vehicles, mobile robots, manipulators, and CNC machines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tools and Computer Image Analysis in Assessing the Quality of Maize Grain During Storage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study of qualitative characteristics is becoming increasingly important due to determination of the purchase price and further use of seeds. An important problem of the modern sustainable agriculture is the production of seeds and products with appropriate quality parameters. The research carried out so far proves that the technology of harvesting, transport, and drying conditions as well as storage have an impact on the quality of seeds, determining their usefulness for the industry. The smallest irregularities can cause irreversible changes and significantly reduce the technological value of seeds and their processing products. The use of tools in the field of supporting electrical engineering enables detection and highlighting of image elements so that it becomes readable to the human eye. The aim of the research was to develop technology for evaluating grain in storage using electrotechnical tools and computer techniques.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Operating Parameters of Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters During Maize Silage Harvest<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to determine and evaluate the operating parameters of three modern self-propelled forage harvesters during maize silage harvest. The machines were equipped with operator assistance systems. Field tests were conducted for three self-propelled forage harvesters: Claas Jaguar 870, Claas Jaguar 950, KroneBiG X 650. The tests were conducted in large-scale farms located in Wielkopolskie and Pomorskie voivodeships. Maize was harvested at the beginning of the full-grain maturity stage. A complete time study covering four control shifts in accordance with BN-76/9195-01 was performed to determine operating ratios and indicators. Fuel consumption was determined using the full tank method. The Claas Jaguar 950 forage harvester had the highest effective mass performance: 141.3 Mg·h<sup>-1</sup>. The same machine also achieved the lowest fuel consumption per tonne of fresh matter (FM) harvested: 0.51 kg·Mg<sup>-1</sup>. Labour expenditure for the self-propelled forage harvesters tested during the total time of change ranged from 0.38 to 0.62 labour hour per hectare. The tested machines also had very high technical and technological reliability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Digestion and Composting as Methods of Bio-Waste Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The management of biodegradable waste from various sectors of economy is an essential element in terms of environmental protection. The paper discusses issues related to the possibility of bio-waste treatment using anaerobic digestion technologies and composting processes, highlighting the conditions for the processes and their advantages and disadvantages. The challenges of overproduction of bio-waste faced by highly developed countries around the world are also presented. Research showed that the anaerobic digestion of this waste combines both biofuel production and a circular economy. The popularity of this method is linked, among others to a low cost of raw materials and wide range of possible uses for biogas (i.e. electricity, heat, or biomethane). In addition, an alternative bio-waste management option, compost production, was discussed. The study aimed to compare anaerobic and aerobic bio-waste management processes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Shape of Wheat Kernels with the Use of Solids of Revolution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Numerical models approximating a kernel shape in wheat cv. Eta were developed with the use of a 3D scanner and applied to analyze selected geometric properties of wheat kernels. Geometric models were built in ScanStudio HD PRO, FreeCAD, and MeshLab programs. Ten geometric models describing the shape of wheat kernels were generated with the use of basic geometric figures and drawing tools in FreeCAD. The geometry of numerical models and geometric models was compared in GOM Inspect. The surface area, volume, and accurate geometric dimensions of the developed models were determined. Deviations in the dimensions of geometric models were mapped. The relative error of surface area measurements was the lowest in solid of revolution obtained by rotating a polygonal chain around an axis at 0.36%. The relative error of measurement reached 4.44% in sphere and around 5% in solid of revolution obtained by rotating two curves around an axis and solid of revolution obtained by rotating three curves around an axis. The relative error of volume measurements was the lowest in rotational ellipsoid (spheroid) and ellipsoid at 3.58% and 4.48%, respectively. The developed geometric models can be used in research and design.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Latest Innovations in Wheat Flour Milling: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The milling process has evolved over time, employing various techniques to produce flour with different particle sizes and applications. This paper discusses the advancements in the wheat flour milling process and examines their impact on flour quality. The concept of wheat milling value is also introduced, which refers to the ability of wheat to produce flour with desirable properties and high yield. The importance of wheat cleaning in the milling process is highlighted, along with technological advancements such as color sorting machines and debranning of wheat grains before grinding, which facilitate efficient cleaning and increase flour yield. The progress of wheat conditioning in preparing wheat for milling is also discussed, along with current trends in grinding the wheat kernel. These advancements collectively contribute to enhancing flour quality, production efficiency, and overall milling performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Kenaf Fibre Spinning and Reeling Machine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A developed small scale kenaf spinning and reeling machine was evaluated in this study. The machine uses the principle of the ring spinning technique to produce spun kenaf-yarn (single or double-ply). The machine component includes two 0.5 kW electric motors positioned on a 640×433×10 mm mild steel frame (with speeds of the electric motors controlled by 0.5 kW variable frequency drives), twisting spindle, inlet frustum, feed roller shaft, reeling and spinning shafts, bearings, and a bevel gear. The machine was evaluated using different spinning speeds (90, 100 and 110 rpm), reeling speeds (60, 70 and 80 rpm) and a kenaf sample (Ifeken DI 400). At the spinning and reeling speeds combination of 90 and 80 rev·min<sup>−1</sup>, the developed machine was able to produce a continuous length of kenaf yarn twisted at 95.5 turns per minute with a production speed of 0.94 m·min<sup>−1</sup> at the highest efficiency (88.9%) of the machine. The level of twist of the spun yarn spun provides information on the required twist level for kenaf fibre as deviation from this value was discovered to cause deformation on the spun yarn. This machine was able to reduce the drudgery involved in the production of spun kenaf-yarn and the technology is expected to positively influence kenaf’s growth and utilization in Nigeria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Safety in the Mill - Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In many cases, old working mills, use machines that are several dozen years old, which are not adapted to the safety requirements. Their use may result in an accident at work. The article presents a case study of the work safety assessment in an old mill. The analysis was carried out with the use of a proprietary checklist, taking into account the current safety requirements. Non-conformities that were identified as the results of the analysis, had an impact on the level of security. The greatest number of non-conformities concerned the fulfillment of technical requirements. Actions aimed at improving work safety were proposed. The prepared checklist is a universal tool for assessing work safety in mills in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Technologies in Horticulture: Analysis and Implementation Prospects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article contains an analytical review and perspectives of robotic technologies in horticulture. Trends in the growth of production, implementation, and sales of robots in various regions of the world are revealed. The analysis showed a lag in the introduction of agricultural robots compared to other sectors of the economy, as well as a significant gap between the countries of the Asian region and other continents. A review of technical means of three main components of ground agricultural robots is considered: navigation systems, sensors, and platform design. Examples of constructing a tree trajectory using the A* algorithm and using the Rviz visualization tools and the Github PathFindings graphical web service are given. As a result of the conducted research, the use of Lidar sensors is recommended, which will make it possible to design the route of robotic platforms, build maps by scanning a previously unknown surrounding space and updating the resulting map at each step of the algorithm in real time. The use of existing modern sensors with an optical rangefinder with a resolution of 4.5 million pixels, a frame rate of 25 frames per second and the ability to automatically adapt to the light level in combination with stereo cameras and GPS/GLONASS navigation will improve the positioning accuracy of robotic platforms and ensure autonomous operation. To perform basic technological operations for the care of plantings with row spacing of 2.5-4 m, a tree crown height up to 3-3.5 m with intensive technologies, the following design parameters of a robotic platform are required: agro-treatment of at least 1200 mm, adjustable track width of 1840-2080 mm, weight not more than 400 kg, load capacity not less than 1000 kg, the power of the power plant is not less than 5 kW.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Structured Plant Oils in Selected Food Products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The joint statutory recommendations developed by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the greater consumer awareness, and environmental considerations confirm the need to reduce the consumption of saturated fatty acids in the human diet. This has contributed to the development of innovative methods for replacement of saturated fats in food products. Oleogels obtained with various methods are such an alternative. Therefore, the study was focused on the analysis of the current applications of oleogels in selected food products and elucidation of the mechanisms of oleogel formation. As indicated by many researchers, oleogels (structured oils) can replace <italic>trans</italic> and saturated fats in food products and can be used in the production of spreads as well as bakery, confectionery, and dairy products. However, there are still many challenges and technological problems preventing commercial application of oleogels in the industry. It is also important to develop oleogels with higher physical and antioxidant stability, which will be used in a wide range of food products manufactured in varying production conditions and give the final products the desired sensory properties. Nevertheless, given its nutritional and environmental values, oleogelation has great potential for future industrial use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue