rss_2.0Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnejhttps://sciendo.com/journal/AHEMhttps://www.sciendo.comPostępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6214ae202f65ed584609fe12/cover-image.png?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220811T031334Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220811%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=5eca32ac08228c0fb279b4429810ea3e1a77033816180b959a041283b17fe107200300Assessment of dietary intake by self-report in adult patients with type 1 diabetes treated with a personal insulin pumphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0040<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Appropriate nutrition is an element affecting the metabolic control of patients with diabetes. There are only a few studies assessing the implementation of dietary recommendations in adult patients with type 1 diabetes; none of them assessed the implementation of nutritional standards. Our study aimed to assess the implementation of dietary recommendations and their relation to metabolic control in adults with T1DM treated with personal insulin pumps.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>The study included 48 adult patients who were divided into two subgroups and compared, based on HbA1c above and below 6.5%. Each patient's nutrient, vitamin, and mineral intake was assessed on self-reported 3-day 24-hour surveys of food consumption. Records were introduced into the dietetic software DietaPro, (source: <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://www.dietapro.eu/">http://www.dietapro.eu/</ext-link>) which revealed nutrient content. We evaluated the percentage of patients with nutrient consumption below recommended values based on current recommendations.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The studied population was characterized by insufficient consumption of most nutrients and vitamins: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine, manganese, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C. Patients’ diet did supply correct amounts of phosphorus, and too much fatty acid and cholesterol. There were no statistically significant differences in most of the nutrient intakes across the two groups. Nevertheless, we observed a significant difference in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, sodium, niacin, and calcium intakes.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The studied patients consumed too much saturated fatty acid and dietary cholesterol. The consumption amounts of most nutrients and vitamins were associated with the risk of deficiency. The obtained results indicate the need for further dietary education for patients with T1DM.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Ketamine used in the therapy of depressive disorders impacts protein profile, proliferation rate, and phagocytosis resistance of enterococcihttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0047<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>A low concentration of ketamine is used to cause an anti-depressive effect. The mechanism of ketamine's action in depression is believed to result, among others, from its anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the fact that only high concentrations of ketamine inhibit bacterial growth, it is clear that even a sub-inhibitory concentration of chemicals may change bacterial properties. Considering the above, in the current study we aimed to evaluate the in vitro influence of ketamine on proliferation of enterococci and their interactions with monocytes.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>The studied strains were isolated as etiological agents of infection at Medical University of Gdansk. The proliferation and metabolic activity were determined using the FACSVerse flow cytometer after addition of CFDA-SE to bacterial suspension. For the determination of phagocytosis resistance, THP-1 human monocytes cell line was used. Suspension of monocytes which engulfed CFDA-SE–stained bacteria was then stained with propidium iodide to evaluate cytotoxicity of enterococci.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The result of the study showed unexpected response of bacterial cells to ketamine at an early stage of culture. In 57.7% of strains, both proliferation rate and metabolic activity were boosted. This group of strains was also less susceptible to phagocytosis than in culture without ketamine. Different response of isolates to ketamine was also visible in changes of proteins’ profile determined by MALDI-TOF.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The analysis of bacteria at an early stage in the growth curve demonstrated the bacterial diversity in response to ketamine and let us set the hypothesis that microbiome susceptibility to ketamine may be one of the elements which should be taken into consideration when planning the successful pharmacotherapy of depression</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic basis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): The most common molecular changes in patients with normal karyotypehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0034<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disorder that results from errors in proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells from myeloid lineage. According to the Gilliland “two-hit” model, genes of both groups related to proliferation (e.g., <italic>FLT3</italic>) and differentiation (e.g., <italic>CEBPA</italic>) must be mutated for full development of AML. The genetic background of AML is very complicated and varied, from single nucleotide mutations or changes in gene expression to cytogenetic aberrations. The DNA sequencing results enable identification of important gene alterations that occur first and may lead the whole leukemogenesis (driver mutations). Some of them have prognostic significance – that is, they are related to the overall survival (OS), complete remission rate, and event-free survival (EFS). The most common molecular changes in AML are mutations in <italic>NPM1</italic>, <italic>CEBPA</italic>, <italic>FLT3,</italic> and <italic>DNMT3A</italic>. Alterations in <italic>NPM1</italic> gene are associated with a good prognosis but simultaneous mutation in <italic>FLT3</italic> may change this prognosis. <italic>DNMT3A</italic> mutations are very often correlated with <italic>NPM1</italic> mutations and are associated with short OS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of antitumoral effect of mistletoe fruit extract on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with muse cell analyzer and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining methodhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Mistletoe has been used alone or as a complementary therapy in the treatment of different diseases for years. In this study, the antitumoral effect of mistletoe fruit extract on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells was evaluated.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title><p>EAT cells from preformed stock mice were transferred to culture dishes containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mistletoe extracts at different doses (100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/ml). These cells were incubated at 37 °C in an environment with 95% humidity and 5% CO2. At the end of the incubations, the apoptosis status of the cells, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, and proliferation status with the argyrophilic (Ag) nucleolar organizer region staining (NORs) method were evaluated.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>As a result, it was observed that the mistletoe fruit extract and 5-FU induce apoptosis of EAT cells. It was concluded that the 5-FU substance arrests the cell cycle at the G0/G1 stage, while the mistletoe arrests the cell cycle at the S and G2/M stages. The depolarization rate of the mistletoe treated cells was higher. As a result of the evaluation made with the AgNORs method, it was seen that mistletoe and 5-FU could be effective in reducing the proliferation of EAT cells.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>It was seen that mistletoe fruit extract could be effective in stimulating the apoptosis and depolarization of cancer cells. The results of other studies in the literature and our study support each other. It was concluded that the mistletoe plant may be useful in cancer treatment.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Atopic dermatitis: Current standards of diagnosis and treatment, including the latest methods of managementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0033<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing disease which causes characteristic eczematous skin lesions. The most common symptoms of atopic dermatitis are persistent pruritus, xerosis, and skin lesions with a typical location and appearance that changes with the patient’s age. The prevalence of the disease in the pediatric population is estimated at 10% to 30%, while in adults it ranges from 1% to 3%. The number of people who suffer from AD is rising every year. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and multifactorial. It involves elements of epidermal barrier dysfunction, alterations in cellular immune response, IgE hypersensitivity, and environmental factors. AD significantly reduces the quality of life of both patients and their families. Patients with AD are at higher risk for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and headaches. The decreased quality of life of AD patients and their families is associated with the discomfort of recurrent and chronic inflammatory skin lesions, persistent pruritus, and the inconvenience of long-term therapy. It also affects the psychological development of children, contributes to behavioral disorders (hyperactivity, hypersensitivity) and impacts many areas of family life such as sleep, leisure activities, and relationships between family members. The basic treatment of AD is avoidance of potential harmful factors, proper care in the treatment of exacerbations, topical corticosteroids, and calcineurin inhibitors in proactive therapy. In some patients who meet age criteria, phototherapy and cyclosporine should be considered. In individuals with severe AD who do not respond to topical treatment and who will not benefit from general therapy, dupilumab, a biologic drug, is the treatment of choice. Biologic treatment has an increasingly important place in the effective and modern therapy of AD. Currently, new biologic drugs are being researched, which may bring a therapeutic revolution in AD in the future. Allergen immunotherapy in patients with AD should be carefully evaluated on an individual basis, as proper selection of patients with documented IgE-dependent sensitization is important for the success of this therapy. Close collaboration with the patient and their caregivers, education, and psychological support as appropriate are integral to the treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of advancement of otitis media with effusion on vestibular organ condition in childrenhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0041<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the most common otorhinolaryngological (ENT) disorders in childhood. This study aimed to investigate the vestibular organ condition in children with OME and whether the presence of vestibular disturbances depends on the advancement of OME.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title><p>Subjects were 53 children between 4 and 14 years old with bilateral OME and treated with middle ear drainage. The study group was divided into two subgroups according to the advancement of the disease. The participants were submitted to an evaluation consisting of anamnesis, ENT evaluation, static posturography, and electronystagmography (ENG). Examination was performed before surgery and one month after drainage.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The posturography revealed the presence of disturbances before and after ME drainage. After drainage, the assessed parameters improved; they still, however, remained elevated. Disturbances in posturography, both before and after drainage, were expressed more fully in the subgroup with stage II compared to the stage I subgroup, especially before drainage. The analysis of the ENG confirmed that the stage of clinical advancement affects the severity of vestibular disorders in children with OME. Greater vestibular disorders in the form of the presence of spontaneous nystagmus and position were more frequent in the subgroup with stage II.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>ME effusion affects the vestibular organ in children with OME. The degree of vestibular disturbances depends on the clinical advancement of the disease. The assessment of the vestibular organ condition is beneficial and should be included in the OME diagnostic and for qualification for surgical treatment.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Cardiac fibrosis and atrial fibrillationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0035<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by the imbalance of production and degradation of the extracellular matrix. The result of this process is an accumulation of scar tissue, which is associated with many pathological processes such as excessive mechanical stress on the heart, inflammation, ischemia, oxidative stress, or excessive neurohormonal activation. Fibrotic response results in damaged heart architecture and dysfunction of the heart. Cardiac fibrosis leads to increased stiffness of the left ventricle and arteries, promotes disorders of contraction and relaxation of the heart, disrupts electrophysiology of heart cells, and induces arrhythmias.</p> <p>Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias. It is associated with a deterioration in the quality of life and more frequent use of medical assistance. It is also an instantaneous risk factor for many diseases, including stroke. The underlying cause of this arrhythmia is electrical and structural remodeling induced by cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, much attention is paid to the search for biochemical markers that would allow non-invasive determination of the degree of this fibrosis.</p> <p>The promising markers include galectin-3, human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), serum soluble ST2, and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Studies have shown that plasma concentrations of these substances reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis and are indirectly associated with AF.</p> <p>There are high hopes for the use of these markers in patients undergoing arrhythmia ablation. More research is needed to confirm that these markers can be used to estimate the chance of maintaining sinus rhythm in patients after ablation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Epidemiology of infections and colonization caused by NDM in the Mazovian Voivodeship in 2016–2017https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Klebsiella pneumoniae</italic> is a common cause of antimicrobial-resistant opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients. Due to acquired resistance to multiple antimicrobials, <italic>K. pneumoniae</italic> is a particular threat in health care. The aim of this study was the assessment of the epidemiological situation related to the spread of symptomatic infections and colonization caused by <italic>K. pneumoniae</italic> New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) in the Mazovian Voivodeship in 2016–2017.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>The study included data collected between 2016 and 2017 from 168 hospitals located in and outside of Warsaw but limited to the Mazovian Voivodeship. Data was extracted from reports on suspected epidemic outbreaks and the elimination of outbreaks as well as annual reports on nosocomial infections and alarm pathogens.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The incidence of infections caused by <italic>K. pneumoniae</italic> NDM (symptomatic and asymptomatic) was 0.96/1,000 hospitalizations in 2016 and 2.04/1,000 hospitalizations in 2017. In 2016, hospitals in the Mazovian Voivodeship reported 50 transmissions of <italic>K. pneumoniae</italic> NDM. In 2017, this value increased to 74. The risk of symptomatic infection was higher in hospitals outside of Warsaw than in hospitals in Warsaw, while risk of colonization was higher in hospitals in Warsaw.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The epidemiological situation related to infections and colonization caused by <italic>K. pneumoniae</italic> NDM in the Mazovian Voivodeship is disadvantageous, which implies the necessity to monitor anti-epidemic measures. The epidemic situation in hospitals outside of Warsaw seems to be worse compared to hospitals in Warsaw, which have higher risks of symptomatic infection caused by <italic>K. pneumoniae</italic> NDM.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Methods for sentinel lymph node mapping in oral cancer: a literature reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Oral cancers, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, are the most common cancers of the head and neck. Of these, 90% are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Surgery, which consists of dissection of the primary tumor and lymphadenectomy, is considered a radical method of treatment. There are several ranges of cervical lymphadenectomy: selective neck dissection (SND), modified radical neck dissection (MRND), and radical neck dissection (RND). The extension of surgery depends on the stage of clinical advancement, which can be determined by TNM classification, among other methods. The greatest controversy is related to SND in patients with cN0 (no evidence of regional lymph node metastasis), which is currently standard procedure. This approach is dictated by the possibility of hidden or subclinical metastases. The use of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept in patients with early stage of oral cancer and appropriate methods of its mapping may lead to a reduction in the extent of the lymphadenectomy procedure, thus reducing postoperative mortality and maintaining the patient’s function and quality of life, with correct oncological results. So far, available methods for SLN mapping are based on use of markers: methylene blue dye (MBD), metastable radioactive isotope Technetium (99mTc), or the fluorescent substance indocyanine green (ICG).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00A review of natural foods consumed during the COVID-19 pandemic lifehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that has brought life to a standstill around the world. Until a vaccine was found to combat COVID-19, the world conducted research and made recommendations for nutritional natural foods. Considering the risks incurred by contracting the disease, even though the production of various vaccines and vaccination of healthy people has started in some countries, individuals need useful foods to be ready for the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, nutrient contents such as antioxidant compounds, vitamins, minerals, and probiotics that contribute to the immune system have been investigated. This paper attempts to determine the role of these dietary supplements in reducing the risk of COVID-19 and/or changing the course of the disease in COVID-19 patients and their effects on mortality. Supplements used and recommended for the COVID-19 pandemic life were investigated. In conclusion, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, probiotics, prebiotics, and antioxidants used during the COVID-19 pandemic to inhibit the effect of SARS-CoV-2. In order to overcome the new global crisis, nutritional cures and treatments should be upgraded. However, additional research on the subject is needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The association of air pollutants (CO, MTBE) on and drug resistancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Therapeutic methods are very important in the prevalence of opportunistic fungal infections, which are an important cause of human diseases. In this study, air pollution agents that are in direct contact with microorganisms, and the effects of carbon sources using CO<sub>2</sub> and MTBE on growth of fungi, and particularly the evaluation of changes in the expression of interfering genes in susceptibility and drug resistance in these fungi, were investigated.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>Collecting samples and isolating <italic>Candida glabrata</italic> and <italic>Candida albicans</italic> with phenotypic methods were accomplished. We then evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the M27A4 protocol of CLSI. We adjusted 20 strains of <italic>C. albican</italic>s and 10 strains of <italic>C. glabrata</italic> whose sensitivity was evaluated in the MIC test with 5% CO<sub>2</sub> and 5mg/ml methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) considered as air pollutants, and followed by re-evaluating MIC testing to separate azole-resistant strains. Interfering agents were also considered.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Upregulation of some genes on the two mentioned yeasts had led to drug resistance in them; they were previously sensitive to both drugs. Correspondingly, 41% of <italic>C. glabrata</italic> samples in sputum showed sensitivity to these drugs. Upregulation of <italic>ERG11</italic> (71%) and <italic>EPA1</italic> (90%) were observed in resistant strains. Upregulation of genes associated with aspartate proteins and downregulation of <italic>SAP3</italic> genes were recognized in <italic>C. glabrata</italic> in sputum and a 15% downregulation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) isolate and 50% upregulation of <italic>SAP1</italic> gene in <italic>C. albican</italic>s sensitive samples were observed and compared to fluconazole and itraconazole with the oral and joint sources. Remarkably, decreased <italic>SAP2</italic> expression in oral sources and a 60% increase in resistant strains in <italic>C. albican</italic>s were observed. The downregulation of <italic>SAP3</italic> expression showed in the joint samples. An increase in <italic>HWP1</italic> expression (30%) was noted in isolated and drug-sensitive samples at the sputum and BAL source. <italic>CDR1</italic> expression was increased in MTBE-affected species; however, it decreased in the vicinity of CT.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Air pollutants such as CO<sub>2</sub> and MTBE eventually caused drug resistance in <italic>Candida</italic>, which can be one of the causes of drug resistance in candidiasis infections.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The functional role of miRNAs in inflammatory pathways associated with intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier regulation in IBDhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0038<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Inflammatory bowel disease – Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis – is an immune-mediated chronic disorder with still not fully elucidated complex mechanisms of pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysregulation is one of the major underlying mechanisms of inflammatory process induction in IBD. Proper IEB integrity is maintained to a large extent by intercellular tight junctions, the function of which can be modified by many molecules, including miRNAs. MiRNAs belong to noncoding and non-messenger RNAs, which can modulate gene expression by binding predicted mRNAs.</p> <p>In this review, we summarize and discuss the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways affecting the function of the intestinal epithelial barrier in IBD, with particular emphasis on therapeutic potentials. The aim of the review is also to determine the further development directions of the studies on miRNA in the modulation of the intestinal epithelial barrier in IBD.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of pasteurization on melatonin concentration in human breast milkhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Women who have problems with lactation can use human milk banks. Mainly this human milk is provided to premature babies and sick newborns. Human milk is the most suitable food for newborns and infants, recommended by WHO (World Health Organization). Human milk has anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, and anti-allergic properties, and also works for immunomodulation. Melatonin has a special, underestimated importance in the composition of breast milk. It is a hormone that has many body functions and, for several decades, its antioxidant potential has been increasingly talked about.</p> <p>The aim of the study was to examine the effect of Holder pasteurization on melatonin concentration in human milk.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>18 samples of human milk from donors from the human milk bank were used for the analysis. Melatonin concentration before and after pasteurization was determined by ELISA. In addition, the nutritional content composition of milk was analyzed using MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer and correlations examined.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Melatonin concentration in human milk before pasteurization was 0.65–26.24 pg/mL (Me=9.58, IQR=12.72), while after pasteurization 0.80–29.58 pg/mL (Me=9.98, IQR=11.26). There was a positive correlation between melatonin concentration before and after pasteurization (r=0.797, p&lt;0.001).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The Holder pasteurization process does not affect the concentration of melatonin in milk samples, which may be a recommendation for human milk banks.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of external factors on psoriasishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, constituting a significant health and socioeconomic problem. Despite numerous therapeutic options, the results of treatment very often remain insufficient. It is extremely important to remember that many external factors impact the effectiveness of therapy. This article discusses the importance of emollients in therapy and the influence of infectious agents and injuries on the course of psoriasis. Understanding the above-mentioned factors in the treatment of psoriasis is critical to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The potential impact of the ketogenic diet on gut microbiota in the context of neurological disordershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most important functional parts of a human intestinal tract is the microscopic intestinal barrier. Its function is to ensure the correct nutrient absorption and to protect against multiple pathogens, xenobiotics, and environmental toxins. Intestinal microbiota is an integral part of the intestinal epithelium. Human microbiota and their host interact with each other, both directly and indirectly, via multiple intermediates and metabolites. Some dietary fat that is not fully digested reaches the distal parts of the intestinal tract, where an interaction with gut microbiota takes place. Studies have shown that an animal-product based diet that provides a greater supply of saturated fat increases the number of bile-resistant microorganisms, including <italic>Bilophila</italic>. The total amount of <italic>Alistipes</italic> and <italic>Bacteroides</italic> is also increased. Long-term consumption of animal-based foods contributes to the formation of the enterotype described as the <italic>Bacteroides</italic> type. The ketogenic diet is mainly based on animal fats. The changes induced by this higher consumption of animal fats are associated with unfavorable metabolic changes. However, more and more research has shown evidence of the therapeutic properties of a ketogenic diet as far as neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases are concerned. Recent reports suggest that the protective effect of a ketogenic diet is highly dependent on the gut microbiota. This review focuses on the correlation between the influence of ketogenic diet on the intestinal microbiota changes observed while analyzing patients with diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple sclerosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of a recently discovered peptide—irisin—in physiological and pathological processeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0031<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Irisin, a cleaved fragment of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), was originally described as a factor stimulating browning of white adipose tissue, produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscles. However, irisin is not only a new and promising biomarker of metabolism; its expression has been found in a wide variety of tissues and organs such as the peripheral nerves, stomach, pancreas, and skin, and recent data also indicate its role in cancer. Numerous studies focus on the protective role of this protein, which could become an important factor in predicting disease risk, disease prognosis, or possible metastases in cancer patients. Possible use of irisin in therapy is also worth considering. The aim of this paper is to systematize knowledge on the role of irisin in patients and to draw attention to its role in skin diseases including acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, and hidradenitis suppurativa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Is combined physical therapy more effective than topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of venous leg ulcers? Preliminary studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Recently, increased frequency of chronic leg ulcers has been observed. The aim of the study was to compare therapeutic efficacy of combined physical therapy to topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>Participants included 36 patients (14 females and 22 males) between 18 and 80 years of age with chronic venous leg ulcers. They were randomly divided into two study groups. Group I underwent topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy; group II underwent combined physical therapy. Before and after the therapeutic cycle (15 procedures) measurement of ulceration size by planimetry and analysis of laboratory parameters of blood was performed.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In both groups, a statistically significant reduction of ulcer surface area was obtained (25.11±17.8cm<sup>2</sup> to 16.93±13.89cm<sup>2</sup>, p=0.000196) vs. (34.17±14.82cm<sup>2</sup> to 23.99±15.15cm<sup>2</sup>, p=0.004337). Blood morphology revealed a statistically significant reduction in patients from group II who underwent combined physical therapy (p=0.01). In both groups, statistically significant reduction of fibrinogen level (p=0.01 and p&lt;0.001), and total protein level (p=0.01) was achieved. In group II reduction of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) was noted.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy and combined physical therapy had statistically significant effects on the reduction of surface area of treated venous leg ulcers. The changes in morphological and biochemical parameters may indicate the anti-inflammatory and anti-clotting action effects of combined physical therapy.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Electrocardiographic markers of ventricular repolarization in the obese population: A descriptive reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0046<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Obesity is a global epidemiological problem that significantly contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. It is a proven factor for an increased risk of overall mortality and the occurrence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The disease is accompanied by a structural and functional myocardium remodeling, which often results in ventricular repolarization abnormalities and contributes to the triggering of life-threatening arrhythmias. This heightened state of readiness for proarrhythmia is the cause of the sudden cardiac deaths which are recorded in this group of patients and which often constitute the first manifestation of ongoing cardiac pathology. One of the reasons for these arrhythmias may be abnormalities of ventricular muscle repolarization. In this descriptive review, we demonstrate electrocardiographic markers of ventricular repolarization (J point, QT/QTc/QTc-d, JT/JTc/JTc-d, ST segment, T wave and Tp-e/Tp-ed/Tp-e/QT), analyze their abnormalities in the obese population, and discuss their changes after weight loss.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00 spp. as a potential human pathogenhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Encephalitzoon</italic> spp. are microsporidia, and intracellular opportunistic pathogens. The hosts of these pathogens include vertebrates, invertebrates, and certain protozoa. In people microsporidia may be opportunistic pathogens for immunocompromised patients (with AIDS or after organ transplantation). Infection with these microorganisms was also described in persons with diarrhea and corneal diseases.</p> <p>The species causing rare infections in humans, <italic>Encephalitozooncuniculi</italic>, had previously been described from animal hosts. However, several new microsporidial species, including <italic>E. intestinalis</italic> and <italic>E. hellem</italic>, have been discovered in humans, raising the question of their natural origin. Vertebrate animals are now identified as hosts for all three microsporidial species infecting humans, implying a zoonotic nature of these microorganisms. Molecular studies have identified phenotypic and/or genetic variability within these species, indicating that they are not uniform, and have allowed the question of their zoonotic potential to be addressed. The focus of this review is to present the zoonotic potential of <italic>E. intestinalis, E. cuniculi,</italic> and <italic>E. hellem</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Salivary HPV infection in healthy peoplehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ahem-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>In recent years, interest in human papillomavirus infections as a causative factor in epithelial cancer development has grown. Literature indicates that HPV involvement in malignant transformations in oral mucosa can vary significantly, from 0 up to 87%. The aim of our study was to detect the prevalence of salivary HPV infection among generally healthy adults.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>The examination involved 139 patients, from whom 139 whole, 1.5ml saliva samples were obtained. HPV DNA was detected by the nested PCR technique. To visualize the PCR products electrophoresis reactions were carried out.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Sample analysis showed that DNA for HPV was detected in 14 patients: 11 positive results were obtained from men, and 3 from women. This yields a high infection rate: 10.07%.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The HPV prevalence in the male group was more than twice as high as in the female group. Also, subclinical oral HPV infection was detected more frequently in young (19–39 years old) and older (=&gt;60 years old) adults.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1