rss_2.0Acta Horticulturae et Regiotecturae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Horticulturae et Regiotecturae Horticulturae et Regiotecturae Feed new methodological approach for analysing river basins landscape changes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research indicates that the Jordan River Basin area is an area where serious environmental and cultural changes occur. This paper illustrates a new methodological approach to developing a structural framework to study river basins‘ cultural and landscape changes. The aim of the proposed framework is to elaborate and overlap the natural and cultural driving forces that influence the landscape and to understand the relationship between them. The study consists of four stages: 1. setting specific objectives coinciding with the study area conditions and specifications; 2. defining a specific technique to determine the selected time frame; 3. defining the factors of each driving force and evaluating their correspondence with the study objectives, and finally; 4. building matrixes of intersections combining the natural force, the cultural force, and the overlapping between both, and adopting specific methodological techniques and tools to measure the outcome of each intersection. The paper presents a case study of the application of the proposed framework in the Jordan River Basin. The research results demonstrate the usefulness of the developed framework in understanding the overlapping between the landscape driving forces (natural and cultural) as well as achieving the goals of the related research. This new approach can facilitate a better understanding of landscape change and help researchers and planners identify and address the key issues related to sustainable landscape management by developing more effective policies and management strategies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and provision of green infrastructure in the Ukrainian cities of Kharkiv and Chuguiv in the context of post-war reconstruction<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aspects forming the sustainability of cities in terms of provision of green infrastructure and carbon sequestration were considered. The key indicators are the part of green areas in the total area of the city (%), the coeffi cient of providing green infrastructure for population – СGI (m<sup>2</sup>.person<sup>−1</sup>) and the carbon sequestration of vegetation cover (t.ha<sup>−1</sup>). The results of calculations are presented for the cities of Kharkiv and Chuguiv as examples of two categories of Ukrainian cities – large and small-sized, which suffered significant destruction as a result of war. The obtained results will allow to balance the green infrastructure in the post-war restoration to perform its functions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue environment practices in Kashiwa-No-Ha (Japan) smart city<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The smart city is a modernization effort that enables cities to use their resources more effectively and to provide better services to their residents. In this study, the smart practices of Kashiwanoha City, Japan, one of the best smart city examples in the world, were examined. The study showed that smart environment applications are designed to improve the quality of life of the citizens and ensure the sustainability of the city. The smart environment applications in Kashiwa-no-ha Smart City include smart mobility, smart technology, smart governance, smart economy, smart living, and smart environment based on transport, energy, and environment. The integration of blockchain technology is a potential solution to address the challenges of urbanisation in smart sustainable city development. The development of Kashiwa-no-ha Smart City is an example of how cities are linking their technological policies and development plans to achieve development while linking the objectives and dimensions of sustainable development to provide the best possible benefit from the available technologies. The most important factor behind Kashiwa-no-ha‘s success is the cooperation of the public and private sectors and universities. For successful smart city practices, it has been proposed to establish an independent organisation similar to the Urban Design Centre Kashiwanoha (UDCK) with a separate budget and decision-making power.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the landscape by the method of visuality<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study focuses on the means of interpreting the landscape is a visually supported summary based on the experiences of surveying special landscape values in the Hungarian settlements belonging to the Mura-Drava-Danube Biosphere Reserve (MDDBR). This work is an attempt to define and provide a holistic landscape architectural perspective, which serves to present and comprehend the landscape consisting of elements, while by highlighting the details it reveals the values of landscape, their importance and the necessity of their preservation. Landscape environment is often hard to define for a person who desires to move out of the city and comes from urban conditions, however theoretic and legal definitions do not make it much more understandable either. Therefore the primary target audience of the study is the individual looking into the natural landscape either on purpose of investment or just pleasure or relaxation. After reviewing the building blocks of landscape in general, the research focuses on describing the natural vegetation of the Mura region and the graveyards in detail, eventually it ends with an abstract of a brief description of landscape values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue planning as a tool for preserving the landscape values of the Dinara Nature Park<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dinara Mountain massif is recognized as an area of exceptional value, which led to its recent protection as a nature park, the second largest one in Croatia. The protected area includes the territory of two counties with four cities and nine municipalities, five of which are included with over 50% of the territory. The paper explains how landscape planning methods establish potential spatial conflicts and propose a compromise between landscape conservation and spatial development. The basic method was the identification and analysis of the landscape value models in 3 categories: natural, visual-experiential, and cultural-historical values. The creation of the models is preceded by a detailed analysis of all environmental components and the collection and creation of spatial data with the help of GIS tools. By overlapping the basic models, a cumulative model of the overall landscape values of the space is produced, which clearly shows which parts of the landscape have a higher value, regarding the protection requirements. The final value model is overlapped with the planned interventions and a clear overview of the vulnerability and possible conflict zones in the area is obtained. The paper describes the impact of individual interventions on the landscape qualities that need to be preserved and suggests guidelines for spatial plan corrections for the purpose of minimal impact on existing values, thus helping to prevent unwanted changes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue green spaces: the role of greenery and natural elements in promoting visitors’ attachment and well-being<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines the relationship between the presence of greenery and natural elements in urban green spaces (UGSs), and visitors‘ attachment, and well-being. Four UGSs in Gaza City were selected based on criteria that ensured representation of various types, sizes, locations, and green features. A survey instrument was designed to assess visitors‘ perceptions of greenery and natural elements, attachment to UGSs, and well-being. The survey was validated by seven experts in landscape architecture and urban planning. Results show that visitors‘ perceptions of greenery and natural elements significantly affect their place attachment, happiness, health, and motivation to visit. The provision and maintenance of greenery and natural elements in UGSs should be a priority for urban planners and policymakers to create and maintain green spaces that are beneficial for visitors‘ well-being. These findings have important implications for urban planning and design in promoting sustainable and healthy urban environments. Further research is needed to investigate the potential causal relationships between visitors‘ perceptions, and their well-being, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving these perceptions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of landscape qualities with development guidelines of the Fužine municipality<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The landscape of the municipality of Fužine is characterized as a mountainous landscape of rural settlements. The area faces problems of depopulation and pressures of tourism development on the environment. Basic premise of this paper is derived from the assumption that the values of the landscape are not fully recognized and can become endangered due to implementation of development projects. The aim of the paper is to identify highly valuable areas of the municipality‘s landscape in order to create guidelines for the development of the area, along with the project program that will preserve important features. The analysis of spatial planning and strategic documentation provides an overview of developmental guidelines, the position of planned interventions, the goals and visions of the progress of the municipality. The landscape evaluation is carried out through analysing the factors of the landscape – natural, anthropogenic and structural – with the available literature and spatial data. The product of analysis and evaluation are models, created using the GIS tool of the QGIS application. Based on the analysis, landscape quality modelling was carried out with the ProVal2000 program, where the factors were grouped in order to evaluate the natural-ecological, social-cultural and visual-experiential qualities of the landscape, with combined quality model indicating where the most valuable spatial zones with high quality landscape features are.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue plants mentioned in the bible and their equivalents in Lithuanian churchyards<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>People‘s daily life is unimaginable without plants vegetations. Since ancient times, plants have provided human beings with some kinds of needs – they feed, train, heal, provide shelter, delight the eye, and decorate the environment. It is proposed to grow woody plants mentioned in the Bible and introduced in Lithuania in churchyards. Plants mentioned in the Bible that cannot be grown in Lithuania can be replaced with similar visual, ecological and biological properties. It is proposed to put information about the plant and a text from the Bible next to the plants. The most common small architectural structures in churchyards are crosses, chapels, shrines, chapel columns, decorative pools, sculptures of saints, stations of the cross, tombstones, fences, notice boards, lourdes, nativity scenes for Christmas. By using different environmental design tools, it is possible to create church churchyards as Bible gardens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of synanthropic plants in the design of green spaces in Warsaw (Poland)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to summarize the use of synanthropic vegetation in public green areas of selected Polish cities. The study included issues related to phytosociology and landscape architecture. For this purpose, a literature study was performed. Part 1 identified possible ways of using synanthropic vegetation in the design of public green areas, Part 2 showed examples of such areas from Warsaw. The authors suggested species that can help enrich urban lawns, part 3 contains proposition of plant species composition for more natural lawns in city parks, including synanthropic plants typical for Poland (prepared by the authors). The process of gradual introduction of synanthropic vegetation in Poland was summarized and compared to the trends in Western European countries. The urban policy of Warsaw regarding the mowing of lawns and the use of flower meadows was briefly described, which influences the presence of synanthropic species in the urban environment. A watershed moment for the use of synanthropic species in Poland was identified, as well as the authors‘ predictions for their future use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the potential for the application of digital storytelling to support Chinese industrial heritage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chinese industrial heritage is the materialized carrier and historical witness of the evolution of urban spatial structure and industrial development. As an inseparable part of cultural heritage, it has rich historical, social, economic, scientific, technological, and aesthetic value. However, industrial heritage as a value is not suffi ciently acknowledged in the Chinese society. The factories, their activity, and their historical evolution are often disconnected and isolated from the daily life of the cities, being quite an unknown aspect for most citizens. In addition, due to the acceleration of urbanization, many industrial heritages in cities have disappeared. China has spent two decades promoting sustainable development of its industrial heritage, but there is still a lack of knowledge on how to promote sustainable development of industrial heritage through digital education. Based on these findings the paper discusses our research that promotes sustainable development aspects of industrial heritage, and our subsequent work has particularly focussed on associated landscape recovery. It does so by focussing on the particular highly valued heritage case of the Anshan Steel production site in China, and the environmental consequences of the Dagushan Open mine on the landscape. The paper ends with a critical reflection on how a digital tool can help to shape industrial heritage education, appreciation and involvement, and hence foster sustainable development processes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of strategic design in sustainable landscape development<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper explores the implementation of strategic design in sustainable landscape development through a case study of the Neckar Landscape Park Student Competition. Drawing upon previous research on sustainable land use development, the study emphasizes the importance of integrated approaches and transdisciplinary thinking in managing landscapes. The strategic design process, characterized by analysis, synthesis and evaluation, is applied to address the socio-ecological and spatial challenges of the Neckar river valley. The findings highlight the potential of strategic design to create resilient and sustainable landscapes by combining scientific analysis and imaginative problem-solving. The case study exemplifies the value of strategic design in landscape architecture and offers insights for future landscape management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue composition and biological effects of var. essential oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Citrus aurantium</italic> var. <italic>dulce</italic> (sweet orange) belongs to one of the largest genera of the Rutaceae family. The species of this genus are consumed worldwide fresh or in form of beverages. They include well-known crops lemons, oranges, mandarins, grapefruits, and limes. Essential oils (EOs) obtained from this species have great economic value since they are mainly produced from the peel of the crops, which are considered waste during their industrial processing. Considering, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the peel of <italic>Citrus aurantium</italic> var. <italic>dulce</italic>, as well as to assess the biological effects by the means of antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Chemical composition analysis performed using GC and GC/MS analysis revealed that this EO is a rich source of limonene presented in this sample in the amount of 93.86% of the total. Obtained results of antioxidant testing indicate better inhibition of ABTS<sup>•+</sup> (68.32 ±3.54%) compared to the DPPH<sup>•</sup> (8.60 ±1.52%). Moreover, the results of the antimicrobial assessment using the disc diffusion method displayed almost no inhibition power of this essential oil towards G<sup>−</sup> bacteria and yeast strains, while towards G<sup>+</sup> bacterial strains weak inhibition was observed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, GC/MS analysis, and biological effects of essential oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Citrus aurantium amara</italic> (sour orange) belongs to one of the largest genera of the Rutaceae family. The species of this genus are consumed worldwide as fresh or in form of beverages. They include well-known crops lemons, oranges, mandarins, grapefruits, and limes. The industrial processing of these fruits produces high amounts of waste (around 50%) which is a valuable source of essential oils. Since they are produced mainly from peel, considered waste, these essential oils have great economic value. In that regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the peel of <italic>Citrus aurantium amara</italic>, as well as to assess the biological effects by the means of antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Results of GC and GC/MS analysis characterized this EO as a valuable source of limonene found in the amount of 90.4% of the total. Results of antioxidant activity indicate better inhibition of ABTS<sup>•+</sup> (44.93 ±1.45%) compared to the DPPH<sup>•</sup> (11.03 ±1.08%). Moreover, the results of the antimicrobial assessment using the disc diffusion method displayed low inhibition potency of this essential oil towards G<sup>+</sup> and G<sup>−</sup> bacteria and yeast strains.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue – genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analysis of winged bean for grain yield<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The winged bean is an underutilized legume that is adapted to the tropics. It has good prospects as a significant multi-purpose food crop including human nutrition, cattle feed, and environmental protection. However, little research attention has been given to the crop to address the identified constraints, especially low yield in Nigeria. To improve its yield potential, GGE biplot analysis was used to identify high-yielding and stable winged bean genotypes, previously collected from the continent of Asia, and Nigeria for yield improvement. Twenty winged bean genotypes were being evaluated under the rainfed condition at three locations (Ibadan, Ile-Ife, and Kishi) for two years, comprising six environments. The obtained results showed that the seed yield (SY) ranged from 805.61 kg.ha<sup>−1</sup> (Ibadan) to 1,096.35 kg.ha<sup>−1</sup> (Kishi), with SY of 988.42 kg.ha<sup>−1</sup> across the locations. The winged bean reached its first flowering, 50% flowering, 50% podding, and 70% physiological maturity in 74, 80, 93, and 137 days after being planted, respectively across the locations. The GGE biplot analysis showed that the principal component (PC) axes captured 71.5% of the total variation, where PC1 and PC2 were responsible for 36.6% and 34.9%, respectively. Genotype, environment, and their interaction had a significant effect on SY. Environments IB20 and IF20 were adjudged the most ideal environments to discriminate between the genotypes. Genotype Tpt-12 was identified as high-yielding and stable. Tpt-12 would be recommended for commercial farming in southwestern Nigeria. The selected high-yielding winged bean genotypes are hereby recommended as promising parental lines for the grain yield improvement in the winged bean improvement programs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of Rosemary essential oil with potential use in the preservation of fresh fruits and vegetables<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Different uses of <italic>Rosmarinus officinalis</italic> are known, and its volatile essential oil (EO) possess extensively investigated biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, antiulcer, and many others. The aim of our study was evaluating of antimicrobial activity of <italic>R. offi cinalis</italic> essential oil in vapor phase on apples, pears, kohlrabi, and potatoes. Fruits and vegetables models were tested with Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Together four bacterial strains (<italic>Salmonella enterica</italic> subsp. <italic>enterica</italic>, <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic>, <italic>Enterococcus faecalis</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> subsp. <italic>aureus</italic>) and four yeasts (<italic>Candida albicans</italic>, <italic>C. glabrata</italic>, <italic>C. krusei</italic>, and <italic>C. tropicalis</italic>) were tested <italic>in situ</italic> analyses. The most effective influence has ROEO has the most effective influence on on apples model against bacteria <italic>Enterococcus faecalis</italic>, and <italic>C. glabrata</italic>, on pears model <italic>Salmonella enterica</italic> and <italic>C. glabrata</italic>, on potatoes <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic>, and <italic>C. glabrata</italic>, and on kohlrabi model <italic>Y. enterocolitica</italic>, and <italic>C. albicans</italic>. The most effective in all food models was concentration 500 μL.L<sup>−1</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue activity of selected essential oils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present work aimed to determine the insecticidal effects of three selected essential oils (EOs) of <italic>Pogostemon cablin</italic>, <italic>Thymus vulgaris</italic>, and <italic>Citrus aurantifolia</italic> against three insect species <italic>Melolontha melolontha</italic>, <italic>Halyomorpha halys</italic>, and <italic>Pyrrhocoris apterus</italic>. EO <italic>P. cablin</italic> showed very strong insecticidal effects against <italic>M. melolontha</italic> when it inhibited the insect species by more than 50% at concentrations of 50–6.25%. Against <italic>H. halys</italic> it also showed strong insecticidal effects at concentrations of 50–12.5%. The insecticidal activity against <italic>P. apterus</italic> was significantly lower than against the other insect species tested. The insecticidal activity of at least 50% was only observed at a concentration of 50%. EO <italic>T. vulgaris</italic> showed very strong insecticidal activity against <italic>M. melolontha</italic> which reached at least 50% at concentrations of 50–6.25%. When tested for its effect against <italic>H. halys</italic>, high efficacy was observed at concentrations of 50–12.5%. Against <italic>P. apterus</italic>, the efficacy was the lowest as 50% insecticidal activity was observed only at concentrations of 50% and 25%. EO <italic>C. aurantifolia</italic> showed only weak insecticidal activity against <italic>M. melolontha</italic> where the highest concentration tested killed 50% of the individuals. The very weak insecticidal activity was observed against <italic>H. halys</italic> where none of the tested concentrations had efficacy higher than 50%. The most pronounced effect of EO <italic>C. aurantifolia</italic> was observed against <italic>P. apterus</italic> where concentrations of 50% and 25% killed more than 50% of individuals. All tested EOs showed insecticidal effects and could potentially represent a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue conservation of the neglected and underutilized Nigerian horticultural crops<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biodiversity is fundamental for ecosystem functioning, sustainable crop production, soil health, and attainment of food and nutrition security. Loss of biodiversity in Africa and across the globe, and its negative impacts on food security, climate, and health must be curbed. African indigenous and underutilized crops are not likely to cause diet-related diseases. In addition, some of them cannot be adversely affected by climate change, and they also require minimum agronomic input to yield optimally. Besides supplying appropriate proportions of essential minerals, underutilized horticultural crops can also reduce hunger and alleviate poverty. While abiotic stresses like low/high temperature, drought, light intensity, and sub-optimal relative humidity will have negative impacts on exotic plants growth and development, indigenous crops are seldom affected. It is of great importance that the neglected and underutilized plant species (NUS) also serve a dual purpose as food for man as well as animal feed. Despite these crucial roles that the NUS play, some are still threatened with neglect and potentials not maximized. This paper discusses strategies that can be adopted to conserve NUS for their optimum utilization, with the Nigerian rain forest species as prototypes. Deliberate identification and cultivation of the NUS, establishment of gene and field banks, recognition and promotion of the NUS through national and special research and development programmes, use of media, including social, extension agents and agencies, linking the NUS to relevant industries including food, feed, and pharmaceuticals, and biodiversity conservation through diversified farming systems etc. are major key strategies for Climate-smart and sustainable agriculture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of sugar, titrated acids and biologically active substances in blackberries grown in the forest-steppe of Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For the first time was assessed the quality of fruits of four varieties of American blackberries and one of Swiss and Serbian selection, grown in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The limits of variation of fruit mass, content of dry soluble substances, sugars, titrated acids, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and anthocyanins were established. The mass of blackberries varied within a minimum of 6.6 g of Asterina variety and a maximum of 8.2 g – Chester Thornless, the amount of soluble dry substances varied in the range of 9.4 (Cacanska Bestrna) – 15.1% (Heaven Can Wait), and sugars from 7.82 to 12.72% Kiowa and Chester Thornless varieties. The highest content of bioactive substances, in particular ascorbic acid, was accumulated by fruits of Kiowa and Heaven Can Wait varieties, the last of these, among the studied varieties, had the highest amount of polyphenolic substances 845 mg.100 g<sup>−1</sup>, variability of which was very low, corresponding to 8%. According to the look of the fruit, and in particular its mass, as well as taste, ratio of sugar to acid, there were highlighted varieties that have the prospect of widespread cultivation in industrial plantations, such as Chester Thornless and Chief Joseph. In order to conduct the selection process for the creation of varieties, whose fruits will have excellent marketable, consumer and preventive qualities (apart from the above-mentioned varieties) should be also involved with others, namely Heaven Can Wait and Kiowa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the microbiological composition of the domestic winery in Rzeszów<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aim of this study is to analyse the microbiological composition of grapes and soil from a home vineyard located in Rzeszów. During the research, the following tasks were undertaken: determination of the total number of microorganisms, isolation of the microbial cultures from grapes and soil, and identification of the bacterial strains and yeast using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrometry. Natural microbiota of grapes and soil are very diverse. Microbiological analysis showed that the total number of microorganisms is higher in the soil, compared to grapes. As the result of the analysis of the microbiota of the home vineyard using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrometry, five species of yeasts and eight species of bacteria were identified. Microbiological evaluation of the tested vineyard showed the presence of the yeast strains as <italic>Saccharomyces</italic> spp., <italic>Dekkera anomala</italic>, and <italic>Candida</italic> spp., and the strains of bacteria as <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> spp., <italic>Pantoea agglomerans</italic>, <italic>Lactococcus</italic> spp., <italic>Staphylococcus warneri</italic>, and <italic>Acetobacter</italic> spp.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and antimicrobial properties of<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aim of this study is to present microbiological quality, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the mangosteen fruit in two forms: freeze-dried powder and fresh fruit. During the identification of the mangosteen microbiota using a MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrophotometer, the presence of <italic>B. cereus</italic> and <italic>Saccharomyces</italic> spp. has been detected. The best antimicrobial activity was achieved against <italic>Micrococcus</italic> spp. Mangosteen fruit (<italic>Garcina mangostana</italic>) is characterized by a high content of polyphenols at the following levels: fresh fruit 3.22 ±0.68 mg GAE.g<sup>−1</sup>; powder form 2.17 ±0.64 mg GAE.g<sup>−1</sup>. Mangosteen shows a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit in the two forms presented in the work. It was 21.18% (fresh fruit) and 14.46% (freeze-dried fruit). Mangosteen also shows an antibacterial activity in relation to the strains of bacteria tested in our work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue