rss_2.0Acta Horticulturae et Regiotecturae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Horticulturae et Regiotecturae Horticulturae et Regiotecturae Feed composition and biological effects of var. essential oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Citrus aurantium</italic> var. <italic>dulce</italic> (sweet orange) belongs to one of the largest genera of the Rutaceae family. The species of this genus are consumed worldwide fresh or in form of beverages. They include well-known crops lemons, oranges, mandarins, grapefruits, and limes. Essential oils (EOs) obtained from this species have great economic value since they are mainly produced from the peel of the crops, which are considered waste during their industrial processing. Considering, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the peel of <italic>Citrus aurantium</italic> var. <italic>dulce</italic>, as well as to assess the biological effects by the means of antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Chemical composition analysis performed using GC and GC/MS analysis revealed that this EO is a rich source of limonene presented in this sample in the amount of 93.86% of the total. Obtained results of antioxidant testing indicate better inhibition of ABTS<sup>•+</sup> (68.32 ±3.54%) compared to the DPPH<sup>•</sup> (8.60 ±1.52%). Moreover, the results of the antimicrobial assessment using the disc diffusion method displayed almost no inhibition power of this essential oil towards G<sup>−</sup> bacteria and yeast strains, while towards G<sup>+</sup> bacterial strains weak inhibition was observed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue activity of selected essential oils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present work aimed to determine the insecticidal effects of three selected essential oils (EOs) of <italic>Pogostemon cablin</italic>, <italic>Thymus vulgaris</italic>, and <italic>Citrus aurantifolia</italic> against three insect species <italic>Melolontha melolontha</italic>, <italic>Halyomorpha halys</italic>, and <italic>Pyrrhocoris apterus</italic>. EO <italic>P. cablin</italic> showed very strong insecticidal effects against <italic>M. melolontha</italic> when it inhibited the insect species by more than 50% at concentrations of 50–6.25%. Against <italic>H. halys</italic> it also showed strong insecticidal effects at concentrations of 50–12.5%. The insecticidal activity against <italic>P. apterus</italic> was significantly lower than against the other insect species tested. The insecticidal activity of at least 50% was only observed at a concentration of 50%. EO <italic>T. vulgaris</italic> showed very strong insecticidal activity against <italic>M. melolontha</italic> which reached at least 50% at concentrations of 50–6.25%. When tested for its effect against <italic>H. halys</italic>, high efficacy was observed at concentrations of 50–12.5%. Against <italic>P. apterus</italic>, the efficacy was the lowest as 50% insecticidal activity was observed only at concentrations of 50% and 25%. EO <italic>C. aurantifolia</italic> showed only weak insecticidal activity against <italic>M. melolontha</italic> where the highest concentration tested killed 50% of the individuals. The very weak insecticidal activity was observed against <italic>H. halys</italic> where none of the tested concentrations had efficacy higher than 50%. The most pronounced effect of EO <italic>C. aurantifolia</italic> was observed against <italic>P. apterus</italic> where concentrations of 50% and 25% killed more than 50% of individuals. All tested EOs showed insecticidal effects and could potentially represent a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and antimicrobial properties of<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aim of this study is to present microbiological quality, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the mangosteen fruit in two forms: freeze-dried powder and fresh fruit. During the identification of the mangosteen microbiota using a MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrophotometer, the presence of <italic>B. cereus</italic> and <italic>Saccharomyces</italic> spp. has been detected. The best antimicrobial activity was achieved against <italic>Micrococcus</italic> spp. Mangosteen fruit (<italic>Garcina mangostana</italic>) is characterized by a high content of polyphenols at the following levels: fresh fruit 3.22 ±0.68 mg GAE.g<sup>−1</sup>; powder form 2.17 ±0.64 mg GAE.g<sup>−1</sup>. Mangosteen shows a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit in the two forms presented in the work. It was 21.18% (fresh fruit) and 14.46% (freeze-dried fruit). Mangosteen also shows an antibacterial activity in relation to the strains of bacteria tested in our work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue – genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analysis of winged bean for grain yield<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The winged bean is an underutilized legume that is adapted to the tropics. It has good prospects as a significant multi-purpose food crop including human nutrition, cattle feed, and environmental protection. However, little research attention has been given to the crop to address the identified constraints, especially low yield in Nigeria. To improve its yield potential, GGE biplot analysis was used to identify high-yielding and stable winged bean genotypes, previously collected from the continent of Asia, and Nigeria for yield improvement. Twenty winged bean genotypes were being evaluated under the rainfed condition at three locations (Ibadan, Ile-Ife, and Kishi) for two years, comprising six environments. The obtained results showed that the seed yield (SY) ranged from 805.61 kg.ha<sup>−1</sup> (Ibadan) to 1,096.35 kg.ha<sup>−1</sup> (Kishi), with SY of 988.42 kg.ha<sup>−1</sup> across the locations. The winged bean reached its first flowering, 50% flowering, 50% podding, and 70% physiological maturity in 74, 80, 93, and 137 days after being planted, respectively across the locations. The GGE biplot analysis showed that the principal component (PC) axes captured 71.5% of the total variation, where PC1 and PC2 were responsible for 36.6% and 34.9%, respectively. Genotype, environment, and their interaction had a significant effect on SY. Environments IB20 and IF20 were adjudged the most ideal environments to discriminate between the genotypes. Genotype Tpt-12 was identified as high-yielding and stable. Tpt-12 would be recommended for commercial farming in southwestern Nigeria. The selected high-yielding winged bean genotypes are hereby recommended as promising parental lines for the grain yield improvement in the winged bean improvement programs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of sugar, titrated acids and biologically active substances in blackberries grown in the forest-steppe of Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For the first time was assessed the quality of fruits of four varieties of American blackberries and one of Swiss and Serbian selection, grown in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The limits of variation of fruit mass, content of dry soluble substances, sugars, titrated acids, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and anthocyanins were established. The mass of blackberries varied within a minimum of 6.6 g of Asterina variety and a maximum of 8.2 g – Chester Thornless, the amount of soluble dry substances varied in the range of 9.4 (Cacanska Bestrna) – 15.1% (Heaven Can Wait), and sugars from 7.82 to 12.72% Kiowa and Chester Thornless varieties. The highest content of bioactive substances, in particular ascorbic acid, was accumulated by fruits of Kiowa and Heaven Can Wait varieties, the last of these, among the studied varieties, had the highest amount of polyphenolic substances 845 mg.100 g<sup>−1</sup>, variability of which was very low, corresponding to 8%. According to the look of the fruit, and in particular its mass, as well as taste, ratio of sugar to acid, there were highlighted varieties that have the prospect of widespread cultivation in industrial plantations, such as Chester Thornless and Chief Joseph. In order to conduct the selection process for the creation of varieties, whose fruits will have excellent marketable, consumer and preventive qualities (apart from the above-mentioned varieties) should be also involved with others, namely Heaven Can Wait and Kiowa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue conservation of the neglected and underutilized Nigerian horticultural crops<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biodiversity is fundamental for ecosystem functioning, sustainable crop production, soil health, and attainment of food and nutrition security. Loss of biodiversity in Africa and across the globe, and its negative impacts on food security, climate, and health must be curbed. African indigenous and underutilized crops are not likely to cause diet-related diseases. In addition, some of them cannot be adversely affected by climate change, and they also require minimum agronomic input to yield optimally. Besides supplying appropriate proportions of essential minerals, underutilized horticultural crops can also reduce hunger and alleviate poverty. While abiotic stresses like low/high temperature, drought, light intensity, and sub-optimal relative humidity will have negative impacts on exotic plants growth and development, indigenous crops are seldom affected. It is of great importance that the neglected and underutilized plant species (NUS) also serve a dual purpose as food for man as well as animal feed. Despite these crucial roles that the NUS play, some are still threatened with neglect and potentials not maximized. This paper discusses strategies that can be adopted to conserve NUS for their optimum utilization, with the Nigerian rain forest species as prototypes. Deliberate identification and cultivation of the NUS, establishment of gene and field banks, recognition and promotion of the NUS through national and special research and development programmes, use of media, including social, extension agents and agencies, linking the NUS to relevant industries including food, feed, and pharmaceuticals, and biodiversity conservation through diversified farming systems etc. are major key strategies for Climate-smart and sustainable agriculture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of Rosemary essential oil with potential use in the preservation of fresh fruits and vegetables<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Different uses of <italic>Rosmarinus officinalis</italic> are known, and its volatile essential oil (EO) possess extensively investigated biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, antiulcer, and many others. The aim of our study was evaluating of antimicrobial activity of <italic>R. offi cinalis</italic> essential oil in vapor phase on apples, pears, kohlrabi, and potatoes. Fruits and vegetables models were tested with Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Together four bacterial strains (<italic>Salmonella enterica</italic> subsp. <italic>enterica</italic>, <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic>, <italic>Enterococcus faecalis</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> subsp. <italic>aureus</italic>) and four yeasts (<italic>Candida albicans</italic>, <italic>C. glabrata</italic>, <italic>C. krusei</italic>, and <italic>C. tropicalis</italic>) were tested <italic>in situ</italic> analyses. The most effective influence has ROEO has the most effective influence on on apples model against bacteria <italic>Enterococcus faecalis</italic>, and <italic>C. glabrata</italic>, on pears model <italic>Salmonella enterica</italic> and <italic>C. glabrata</italic>, on potatoes <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic>, and <italic>C. glabrata</italic>, and on kohlrabi model <italic>Y. enterocolitica</italic>, and <italic>C. albicans</italic>. The most effective in all food models was concentration 500 μL.L<sup>−1</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, GC/MS analysis, and biological effects of essential oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Citrus aurantium amara</italic> (sour orange) belongs to one of the largest genera of the Rutaceae family. The species of this genus are consumed worldwide as fresh or in form of beverages. They include well-known crops lemons, oranges, mandarins, grapefruits, and limes. The industrial processing of these fruits produces high amounts of waste (around 50%) which is a valuable source of essential oils. Since they are produced mainly from peel, considered waste, these essential oils have great economic value. In that regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the peel of <italic>Citrus aurantium amara</italic>, as well as to assess the biological effects by the means of antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Results of GC and GC/MS analysis characterized this EO as a valuable source of limonene found in the amount of 90.4% of the total. Results of antioxidant activity indicate better inhibition of ABTS<sup>•+</sup> (44.93 ±1.45%) compared to the DPPH<sup>•</sup> (11.03 ±1.08%). Moreover, the results of the antimicrobial assessment using the disc diffusion method displayed low inhibition potency of this essential oil towards G<sup>+</sup> and G<sup>−</sup> bacteria and yeast strains.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the microbiological composition of the domestic winery in Rzeszów<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aim of this study is to analyse the microbiological composition of grapes and soil from a home vineyard located in Rzeszów. During the research, the following tasks were undertaken: determination of the total number of microorganisms, isolation of the microbial cultures from grapes and soil, and identification of the bacterial strains and yeast using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrometry. Natural microbiota of grapes and soil are very diverse. Microbiological analysis showed that the total number of microorganisms is higher in the soil, compared to grapes. As the result of the analysis of the microbiota of the home vineyard using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrometry, five species of yeasts and eight species of bacteria were identified. Microbiological evaluation of the tested vineyard showed the presence of the yeast strains as <italic>Saccharomyces</italic> spp., <italic>Dekkera anomala</italic>, and <italic>Candida</italic> spp., and the strains of bacteria as <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> spp., <italic>Pantoea agglomerans</italic>, <italic>Lactococcus</italic> spp., <italic>Staphylococcus warneri</italic>, and <italic>Acetobacter</italic> spp.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of essential oil for prolonging postharvest life of fresh vegetables<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Mentha spicata</italic> L. (Lamiaceae), commonly called spearmint, is cultivated worldwide for its remarkable aroma and commercial value. Antimicrobial effectiveness of essential oils against many foodborne microorganisms when applied directly has been extensively demonstrated. The antimicrobial potential of <italic>Mentha spicata</italic> essential oil in the vapor phase against different microorganisms (<italic>Salmonella enterica</italic> subsp. <italic>enterica</italic> CCM 3807, <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic> CCM 5671, <italic>Enterococcus faecalis</italic> CCM 4224, <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> subsp. <italic>aureus</italic> CCM 2461, <italic>Candida albicans</italic> CCM 8186, <italic>C. glabrata</italic> CCM 8270, <italic>C. krusei</italic> CCM 8271, <italic>C. tropicalis</italic> CCM 8223) was determined by <italic>in situ</italic> method on vegetable model (carrot, radish, potatoes, and kohlrabi). The vapor phase was determined for seven days in Petri dishes with four concentrations (500, 250, 125, 62.5 μL.L<sup>−1</sup>) of <italic>M. spicata</italic> essential oil on the food models. <italic>M. spicata</italic> essential oil against <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic> on carrot, potato, and kohlrabi model in concentration of 500 μL.L<sup>−1</sup> was the most effective. <italic>M. spicata</italic> essential oil shows good potential as preservative and shelf-life prolongation of vegetables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of adsorbed film water and density of oxygen-containing functional groups on surface of ageing biochar in sandy spodosol<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Application of different types of feedstocks and conditions of their pyrolysis can result in different properties and sustainability of biochar during changes (aging) of its properties in soils. The aim of the studies was to assess the consequences of aging of biochar in soil for a content of adsorbed film water and a density of oxygen-containing functional groups on its surface. Sampling of soil and biochar was conducted in May and July of 2021 in a plot experiment with an applied rate of biochar of 20 t.ha<sup>−1</sup> in 2016. WP4-T dew point potentiometer was used for measurements of relationships of potentials of adsorbed film water and its content in soil and biochar. Infrared Fourier FSM 2201/2202 spectrometer was applied for determination of densities of oxygen-containing functional groups on surface of biochar in a mid-infrared spectrum. Results showed that retention capacity of adsorbed film water by soil increased from May to July, possibly because of increasing content of hydrophilic organic compounds of plant origin. Aging of biochar in soil also resulted in an increase of retention capacity of adsorbed film water on its surface. The results of infrared Fourier spectroscopy confirmed that densities of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of biochar increased from May to July at spectra of wavenumbers of 1,600–1,400 cm<sup>−1</sup> and 1,400–1,100 cm<sup>−1</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of leafy shoots and tea products of European mistletoe ( L.) with special focus on their antioxidant capacity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit combustion (oxidation) processes. Antioxidants are vital components of our body, which can be obtained in part through plant nutrition. Therefore, it is very important to study species that have significantly higher antioxidant capacity than other species. The aim of the study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of total polyphenols (TPC) of European mistletoe (<italic>Viscum album</italic> L.) leafy shoots collected from different species of trees (black locust, European ash, white poplar, field maple and black walnut) based on different methods; DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and TPC (total phenolic contents). The results proved that the antioxidant effect of leafy shoots from European ash (<italic>Fraxinus excelsior</italic>) against hydroxyl radicals (ROS) showed significantly higher values than those of the other four tree species. We found that the DPPH, FRAP and TPC methods show significant differences in antioxidant effect of European white mistletoe leafy shoots on the studied tree species and tea brands. However, the FRAP method shows higher sensitivity for trees but for tea brands, the DPPH method is more sensitive. The reason for the difference might be explained by the different methods of drying. In the future, we consider it feasible to plant ash groves at an altitude of at least 80 m above sea level in a closed area, where we can start growing European white mistletoe as an herb. Based on the results obtained European white mistletoe can be recommended as an herb to natural medicine for supplementary treatment of several cancer diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of precipitation in the Danube Lowland (Slovakia) in 1921–2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change is increasingly occurring not only in Slovakia and Europe, but worldwide. One of the consequences is frequent droughts alternating with extreme rainfall. Drought, especially in the spring months, causes water shortages in the soil and limited crop growth. Extreme rainfall causes frequent floods and destroys crops and property. The aim of this work was to statistically evaluate precipitation during January–December for the period 1921–2020 in the most fertile part of Slovakia – the Danube Lowland. The results show a statistically significant (<italic>p</italic> &lt;0.10) decrease in precipitation in April and an increase in September, with the annual total precipitation from 535 to 600 mm (except for extremes in some years). The work provides a statistical analysis of changes and rainfall distributions over 100 years, which can help identify and address drought problems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for carbon sequestration in intensive soft fruit production systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The historical contribution of agriculture to human-induced climate change is indisputable; the removal of natural vegetation and soil cultivation to feed the growing human population has resulted in a substantial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. While maintaining their food production capacity, soft fruit production systems now have an opportunity to utilise a recent technology change to enhance their carbon sequestration capacity. We use an example of a farm in South-East England to illustrate how the soft fruit crop production system can be optimised for carbon storage. We performed an audit of carbon stocks in the soil and tree biomass and show that it is imperative to plan crop rotation to establish (semi) permanent inter-row strips that will remain <italic>in situ</italic> even if the main crop is replaced. These strips should be covered with grassland vegetation, preferable with deeper rooting grass species mixed with species supporting nitrogen fixation. Finally, grassland mowing cuttings should be left <italic>in situ</italic> and hedgerows and tree windbreaks should be expanded across the farm. Modern soft fruit production systems can enhance their carbon storage while maintaining commercially relevant levels of productivity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the impact of natural conditions on the sprinkler irrigation system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Natural conditions highly predict further use of the locality. Current climate change, population growth and other crises open questions of better use and design of existing and new irrigation systems. Government of Uzbekistan currently highly invest in the water-saving irrigation systems which should correspond to natural conditions of the locality. Therefore, deep study of each area of interest is necessary. Based on the available information of natural conditions of Uzbekistan, the crop production localities overlap localities with low precipitation, high temperature rise in last years and middle groundwater level. Also, part of them lays on the soils with low water holding capacity and high salinity. Especially in those areas the proper design should be done.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue performance assessment of a multi-layered landfill cover system under constant water ponding<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The engineered multi-layered cover system (MLCS) is used to minimize rainwater infiltration into the wastes accommodated in near surface waste disposal facility (NSDF). It is important to assess the hydraulic performance of MLCS before deploying it in the field. For this purpose, an instrumented three-layered soil column representing MLCS was subjected to 1.5 m constant ponding head for 400 days. The variation of volumetric water content and soil water potential was monitored as a function of depth and time. The objective of the study is to understand the long-term hydraulic performance and rate of saturation of different layers of MLCS. Under constant water ponding, the time to saturation for 0.3 m in surface layer, 0.6 m in drainage layer and 1.0 m in hydraulic barrier layer was observed as 24, 223 and 262 days, respectively. The numerical analysis of the MLCS predicted comparable time duration of 25, 234 and 272 days, respectively. It was noted that the numerical simulation performed by using measured wetting hydraulic parameters matched well with the experimental observation. The importance of soil specific calibration of water content sensors to improve the accuracy of observations was demonstrated. Percentage error in the estimation of layer specific soil water storage, clearly indicates that the volumetric water content measurements using profile probe was marginally better than 5TM measurements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of biochar amendment and nitrogen fertilization on soil CO emission during spring period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biochar application to agriculture soil has been recommended as a strategy to reduce increasing CO<sub>2</sub> emission in the atmosphere and mitigate climate change. In this study, we evaluated the impact of two doses of biochar (10 and 20 t.ha<sup>−1</sup>) applied in 2014 and reapplied in 2018 combined with three fertilization levels (N0, N1, N2) on carbon dioxide emissions and selected physical and chemical soil properties in field conditions during spring season (April–June) in 2020. The field site is situated in the Nitra region of Slovakia (Malanta). The soil in the field was classified as a silt loam Haplic Luvisol. In this field research it was found that biochar application mostly in all treatments decreased cumulative CO<sub>2</sub> emissions in rage from 4.2% to 30.4% compared to controls (B0N0, B0N2), except treatments where biochar was applied with lower level of N-fertilizer (N1) and treatment B20N0. According to our study results, it was confirmed that biochar can be a promising material for improving soil physical and chemical properties. Mainly, it has very good impact on soil pH, even after seven years of field experiment established. However, the response of soil CO<sub>2</sub> fluxes to biochar application were regulated mainly by experiment length, biochar application rate, biochar properties, giving a new perspective for more comprehensive understanding on biochar.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue short review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are prevalent environmental pollutants produced by incomplete combustion of biomass including fossil fuels, wood, and coal. The majority of PAHs in the environment emits from anthropogenic activities, while some are released from naturally occurring phenomena, such as volcanic activities. Consequently, PAHs concentration is significantly higher in industrialized and urban areas than in rural areas. Human exposure to PAHs results in many health problems, depending on the PAH concentration type, time and method of exposure, and individual health status. The PAHs readily transport between soil, water, and the atmosphere. Four main processes involved in PAH transportation are volatilization, absorption, leaching, and erosion. However, many factors affect PAHs‘ transportation, including PAHs‘ molecular weight, vapor pressure, soil matrix, climate condition, and topography. Various remediation techniques have experimented in order to PAHs remove from the natural environment. Bioremediation, in particular, is an optimistic way that can be done by bacteria, fungi, and alga.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue microplastics – current research trends and challenges: preliminary results of the earthworm impact on glitters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper shortly introduces the topic of soil microplastics by presenting a comprehensive review of the current state of the art in this field. It focuses mainly on the role of primary microplastics, particularly glitters, due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. From conclusions about current challenges and research directions, after analysis of the crucial “knowledge gaps “, one can point out the lack of a detailed description of the influence of microplastics on biota. The earthworms are promising model organisms that may play in soil ecosystems a similar role to the bivalves in waters. Thus, this mainly review paper was enlarged by the preliminary results of studies on glitters and bioglitters naturally aged in milli-Q water and soil with <italic>Eisenia fetida</italic>. Fourier-transform Infrared (FTIR, microscopy in the reflectance mode) and Raman spectroscopy (780 nm) were used to identify the subsequent notable changes in studied materials. The presence of the polymer (PET) core in the standard glitter particles is confirmed. In addition, the leakage of dyes from bioglitters was observed within the 9-week experiment. Tested bioglitters decompose in a slightly different way. Blue and pink pigments had entirely different stability as only one disappeared without a trace under UV light (blu), and the other remained stable in solution, confirmed by UV-Vis spectra. The nephelometry shows sedimentation of glitters after turbulent agents in the environment. This paper presents the natural weathering of primary microplastics in the presence of <italic>Eisenia fetida</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue diversity, discriminant and trait association analyses of accessions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Celosia</italic> (<italic>Celosia argentea</italic>), is an important tropical vegetable for households in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the multifaceted usefulness, available genotypes are low-yielding, and the vegetable faces dangers of genetic erosion due to poor research attention. The magnitude and pattern of variability will guide the choice of breeding methods for improvement. Twenty-one celosia accessions were evaluated in 2018 and 2019 to determine study genetic variability and heterotic patterns among clusters. Accessions and clusters differed significantly (<italic>p</italic> ≤0.05/0.01) for plant height, number of leaves/plant, stem weight, harvest index and dry matter content. Genotypic coefficients of variation; ranging from 37.89 to 0.12, were lower than phenotypic coefficients of variation which ranged from 114.55 to 0.12, both for number of leaves/plant and harvest index respectively, indicating the importance of environment in the variability. Discriminant analysis indicated low (8.12%) classification error rate, indicating the possibility of heterotic patterns among clusters. Principal component (PC) analysis controlled 73% of the observed variability among accessions and identified all measured traits as important contributors with loadings ranging from 0.30 (in PC 1) to 0.63 (in PC 2) for harvest index and stem weight respectively. Useful levels of association were also observed among measured traits. The study concluded that there was sufficient genetic variability for effective selection. Discriminant and principal component analyses identified plant height, number of leaves/plant and dry matter content as major contributors to variation among accessions. Weight of edible parts of <italic>Celosia</italic> can be simultaneously improved with plant height and number of leaves/plants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue