rss_2.0Architecture Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU 's Cover impacts of climate change on urban structures in Slovak cities: Identifying vulnerable urban structures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the coming decades, our cities will face extreme weather caused by climate change, which they will have to adopt. Adaptation of the urban environment is attracting the growing attention of planners, researchers, and policy makers in Slovakia and around the world. As essential for urban environment, the National Adaptation Strategy identified the adaptation at local level, which represents the participation of municipalities, supports the development of local adaptation strategies and subsequent implementation of actions that provide the cities with stronger sustainability and resilience. Within the last 8 years since the adoption of the national strategy, only 8 out of 141 Slovak cities in total elaborated an adaptation strategy that could be considered for further investigation. Consequently, this paper aims to broaden our knowledge of the two most significant impacts of climate change–heatwaves and floods–on urban structures in Slovak cities and validate the importance of spatial vulnerability analyses as a considerable tool for the expected unified national methodology for developing local adaptation strategies. The study examines analyses of spatial vulnerability to heat-waves in Hlohovec, Košice – Západ, and Trnava, and analyses of spatial vulnerability to floods in Hlohovec and Kežmarok, developed as part of vulnerability assessment within the framework of adaptation strategies of these cities. The analyses selected for comparison allow us to identify vulnerable urban structures and provide a deeper understanding of the causes of vulnerability in Slovakia, which is crucial for the development of adaptation strategies in the future and the building of resilience in Slovak cities. The article provides an exploratory spatial analysis of vulnerability hotspots. Based on the findings, it outlines the principles of spatial planning and urban structures that are resilient to the impacts of heatwaves and floods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Alpine huts: Architectural innovations and development in the High Tatras until the first half of the 20th century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For man, the mountain environment was a source of raw materials and a place of economic activity until the end of the 18th century. This paper examines how the exploration of mountain valleys lead from the first ascents to the peaks to today’s exploitation of the mountain environment. We are currently following efforts to protect the unique environment of the mountains and to preserve the architectural heritage of the 20th century. In the paper, we look at the architecture of the High Tatras of the first half of the 20th century, which is lost under the coatings of today. The article traces the line of innovation in the 20th century and examines the causes and consequences of the origin and development of architecture in the alpine environment, with a focus on changes in the paradigm of social thinking in the relationship between architecture and the original landscape. The subject of the paper is mapping of the architectural heritage embedded in the unique environment of the world natural heritage of alpine terrains in the High Tatras and the study of the settlement process with innovative technologies and materials that have enabled architecture to enter difficult terrains. As industrialization, mechanization and electrification have greatly simplified and streamlined the construction process, the work identifies not only the development of new design, technological and material solutions, but also the resilience of the environment to innovation. It focuses on the analysis of innovative progress and monitors its development in contact with the mountain architecture from the moment of planning, work implementation and possible construction changes. The work focuses on the typology of mountain huts and the process of their architectural design.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Microclimatic factors in urban development: The setup of an environmental observatory at the FAD STU<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented research focuses on energy (im)balance on both global and local scale. The main emphasis is placed on microclimatic factors directly affecting public urban spaces and related physical processes regarding the city that are closely linked to energy flows and result in the formation of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs). As they are one of the main adverse effects of human activities, the paper introduces the classification of UHIs by types, describes the basic differences between the surface energy balance of rural and urban areas, and introduces climate-sensitive urban design as one of the possible ways of mitigating the undesirable anthropogenic impact on the climate change. The authors of the article present their own research, which predominantly focuses on the development of an environmental observatory situated on the rooftop of the building of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU in Bratislava (hereafter referred to as the FAD STU). They interpret the experimental operation of sensing probe 1 and the first results and measurement data on Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation (GHSI) and their post-processing. In addition, they describe the construction of sensing probe 2, which will provide more data on the total atmospheric precipitation, wind speed and its direction, presence of dust particles and carbon dioxide in the air, or spectral characteristics of incident and reflected solar radiation. Finally, the experimental operation of a thermal and micro- camera with fisheye lenses is described. These cameras are essential for measuring the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as one of the parameters used for the assessment of vegetation vitality, which also plays a key role in the formation of the UHI effect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Pop-up architecture as a tool for popularizing theatre: Prototype No. 1<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article builds on previous research dealing with temporary theatres in the context of Europe and Slovakia, discusses the topic of pop-up pavilions in terms of architecture, their use in marketing and as a potential tool for reviving the theatre scene. Just as temporary architecture can activate neglected areas in the city and bring stimuli for a permanent change, we believe that it can be equally stimulating in the area of theatre. The Shed by Haworth Tompkins is one of the examples to demonstrate a possible positive contribution of such designs to a permanent theatre and its surroundings. Based on the analysis of similar examples and statistical data on the attendance of theatre performances, we decided to design and implement a prototype of a minimal theatre scene, which also provides wide variability and can be used beyond the time dedicated to theatre activities. In the design phase, we examine the limits of variability and explore the basics of kinetic architecture. In the second phase after the object is assembled and implemented, the subject of research will be its impact on the environment, the extent of user interaction with the object and the overall functionality of the object. The ambitions of our project do not reach as high as presented in <italic>The Shed.</italic> The aim was to test the possibilities and viability of a much smaller object, to document the cultural, educational, and even economic benefits, in domestic conditions of Slovakia. Thanks to <italic>The Program for the Support of Young Researchers</italic> of the Slovak University of Technology and <italic>The PUN (Universal Design Support) Project No. 321041APA3</italic> financed by the European Social Fund, the object is currently in production, and later will be moved to the faculty premises, surface-threated and then assembled for the very first time. The prototype should be fully available by the end of the year 2022.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Route options in inclusive museums: Case studies from Central Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Museums are complex architectural works with many distinctive elements. One of the most significant museum features are routes or paths on which visitors circulate museums and perceive exhibitions. Children and people with special needs often have specific demands on physical accessibility of the surrounding environment, chronological arrangement of spaces and amount of information presented at a time. The arrangement of functional units in museum layouts affects wayfinding in space, understanding of the exhibition, as well as visitor guidance. The order in which people visit particular segments in a museum can also be described as one of the most important architectural and operational characteristics of this type of cultural buildings and areas. The article examines ways of arranging spaces in a museum building and the suitability of their application. These forms are evaluated based on various aspects; some of the created effects are studied, e.g. creation of a desired atmosphere. Existing concepts are compared and supplemented with other theoretical knowledge. The article aims to present variant suitable ways of composing routes that would meet the needs of different people, and bring them a quality leisure and educational experience from a museum tour. Various types of museum layout organisation and arrangement of exhibition spaces are illustrated with abstract schemes, as well as with specific case studies of five selected museums. The selection consists of architecturally exceptional and high-quality museums in Central Europe, which are able to attract a whole range of various groups of people including a younger audience. They are examples of both modern museums in this area and route planning options. The case studies highlight interesting local ideas, space concepts, routing methods, and also solutions for increasing inclusion of all visitors and children in particular.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Iranian innovations in mosque lighting techniques: A historical survey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From the viewpoint of preserving the values of sustainable architecture, daylight in the interiors of mosques in hot and dry climates has always faced limitations. The need to use daylight to provide the required lighting and, in contrast, to prevent the scorching desert sun from entering the spaces led to innovative techniques in Iranian architecture. These techniques have gradually evolved along with the development of semantic concepts of space in different periods of Islamic architecture, which has resulted in slight differences in their application in mosque buildings. In this article, while analysing the place of light in mosque architecture, the standard techniques in lighting mosques located in Iran’s hot and dry climate are studied. The employed research method is a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. As the current historic-architectural research cannot be based solely on perception-based definitions, authors had to convert the conceptual features into a measurable index. To achieve this, a numerical index with the scale from 0 to 3 has been defined. The scoring was based on documents such as plans, images, etc. Although most case study objects were built over the centuries, they have general characteristics that distinguish them from a specific historical era. The authors studied the application of these techniques in some examples of selected mosques from four periods of Islamic architecture and present the results in the form of trend charts. Furthermore, they observed the principle of continuity in Iranian architecture from the historical period from the beginning of the Islamic period to the Qajar period, and, in accordance with the theoretical foundations of research, analysed the reasons for the ups and downs of each of the techniques.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-17T00:00:00.000+00:00River as a flow of commodities: The reasoning behind the third Danube regulation in Bratislava by Enea Grazioso Lanfranconi<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The channel of most of the rivers is the result of long-term human endeavour to modify their shape. This paper focuses on the flow of commodities juxtaposed with the physical water flow of the river that has served over centuries as one of the main means of goods transport. The topic is closely observed on the example of the Danube regulation in Bratislava at the end of the nineteenth century and the transformation of the river into a canal. The reasons for the individual interventions in the natural riverbed differed. The third regulation (1886 - 1896) was meant to add the missing part of the canal on the route between the North and Black Seas, which would be fully adapted for freight transport by steamer. The 19th century has introduced a new paradigm to city planning. In the belief in technical innovation, the planning process was undertaken by engineers. The paper places in confrontation the oeuvre of two engineers, Charles-Joseph Minard and Enea Grazioso Lanfranconi. While the former, a French civil engineer, brought a unique way of visualizing the flow of goods between territories based on statistical data, the latter, a Hungarian hydraulic engineer, is the author of the third regulation of the Danube in the section between Devín <italic>(Theben)</italic> and Gönyű <italic>(Gönyö)</italic>. For the purpose of the paper, the original theoretical work of Enea Grazioso Lanfranconi was translated and analysed. Selected data from Lanfranconi’s work was interpreted visually.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Overview of past and present discourse on VAL<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is an introduction to my thesis entitled “Author’s Conceptions in the European Architecture of the 20th Century”. Specifically, the objective of my study is monographic research into VAL, a Slovak artistic-architectural group, which was active from the 1970s to the 1990s. The group consists of the artist Alex Mlynárčik, and architects Viera Mecková and Ľudovít Kupkovič, who gradually began to develop their visions together. During the years 1968 (1970) – 1994 they produced eight projects illustrating possibilities for our environment of tomorrow.</p> <p>The 1960s were accompanied by a discussion critically thematizing the main ideas of modernism. Visionary, utopian or dystopian trends, which presented various scenarios for the near future, were an integral part of this discussion. Their subject was the relationship between man and the environment, man and the society, architecture and landscape, or man and the cosmos. These visionaries have generated a whole series of architectural concepts, which even today are an inspiration for thinking about architecture and the environment. VAL was a valuable part of this global movement, and thus an important phenomenon from the point of view of local architectural discourse.</p> <p>This paper deals with the current state of research on the topic. It is a summary of formative moments and theories for the group’s work, a summary of the critical reflection and public presentations of their work throughout their active period up to the present day.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Restorations in post-war period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The choice of the monument care methodology depends not only on the preference of the author of the restoration or the opinion of a professional monument commission, but also on the state in which the historic building is and historical stages it developed through. After the Second World War, much of the architectural historical heritage in the territory of the former Czechoslovakia was devastated, and the then professional society faced challenges of how to restore and preserve these destroyed buildings. The following article explains the starting points and selected methods of post-war monument care on the example of three churches in the former Czechoslovakia. Buildings selected for comparison originated in approximately the same epoch, underwent a rather complex building developments, and the extent of their damage was also similar. Specifically, we focus on the Church of St. Catherine of Alexandria in Handlová, the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Bíňa and the Church of the Virgin Mary and the Holy Slavic Patrons in Prague. Although the three compared cases show similarities, different restoration methodologies were used. The majority opinion of the then professional public tended towards reconstructing historic buildings to the state before their destruction, as is also evident in the cases being compared. Nevertheless, each of the churches is restored with some deviations from the original condition. In the case of the church in Bíňa, we follow traces of a purist reconstruction, in Prague we witness a restoration by indicative reconstruction, also applied in Handlová, where, moreover, the methodology of reconstruction to the state before destruction was completely abandoned. Our ambition is to point out the diversity of opinion in the care of monuments, which at that time saw a change in paradigm and began to accept authors’ new inputs while preserving the historical essence of the building.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Challenges in sustaining resilience in the coastal settlements of south-eastern Bangladesh: Achieving self-sustenance through architectural synthesis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coastal settlements in Bangladesh experienced recurring tropical cyclones and tidal surges in recent history because of geographical influences and global climate change. Despite improved evacuation management and adequate cyclone shelters patronized by donors, lately resulting in a reduced mortality rate, the property and economic losses were still substantial due to vulnerability of the settlements. As the short-term adaptative approaches such as migrating to the closest cyclone shelters have failed to sustain resilience, comprehensive and inclusive mitigation planning should be implemented to achieve more resilience in the long term. The research aimed to revise the conventional culturally-void concept and propose a prolonged solution by planning a self-sustained model of the cyclone-resilient village for the south-western coastal communities of Bangladesh. Initially, it searched for the identification and analysis of socio-cultural, economic, and environmental challenges in sustaining community resilience and later synthesizing architectural interventions to achieve self-sustenance. The synthesis focused on reducing the vulnerability of the coastal communities by enhancing their preparedness, resistance, and recovery from the prolonged impacts of coastal disasters through designing structurally and environmentally resilient homesteads, defensive landscape plans, and socioeconomic-communal development. The ultimate proposal offers more flexibility in selecting homesteads according to suitable materials, affordability, and profession.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial use of abandoned buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Temporary architecture is a way to produce an instant experience. It concentrates on a specific location and develops unique tactics to activate it. It adapts to the site, which is often abandoned and backward. Temporary use focuses on a single purpose and its influence at a given moment. It reflects the current economic state and situation in adjacent neighbourhood and community. It aims at becoming a catalyst for a permanent change. Empty buildings represent a valuable resource for urban development of an area. They belong to the category of areas suitable for reconstruction. Their activation contributes to the recycling of areas within the urban structure increasing the efficiency of land use and contributing to the sustainable development of the territory. A removal of abandoned buildings from a functioning urban organism has a negative impact on the integrity of the urban structure.</p> <p>Archipop is the author’s newly established database focusing on the topic of temporariness in architecture. Its aim is to map successful activations of abandoned buildings by the means of temporary interventions in Europe. Archipop deals with the subject of ‘pop–up’ in architecture. Its prime objective is to attract a target group of users over the shortest period of time possible by exclusivity of a presented activity, concentrating on temporary uses located in abandoned buildings in Europe. It examines successful projects of activation of unused objects by using temporary activity profile. Targeting at interested public, potential investors, and last but not least government and municipalities, Archipop was created to provide inspiration and opportunities of temporary use. Its ambition is to promote revitalisation of unused areas with the use of temporary architecture and to save historic heritage from its terminal destruction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Scale of community centre: Clarification of the relation between scale and multifunctionality of community buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Community architecture is becoming a contributing tool for community development. In recent years it has gained popularity for its potential to encourage interaction and strengthen community ties. Community architecture represents not only the final product of architectural design but also the design process. It covers many kinds of community interventions and efforts of different extent; from tiny public space interventions to a complex design of community centres or comprehensive urbanistic structures focused on community well-being. Irrespective of the scale, their goal is the same; to provide space for leisure activities, networking, and reinforcing a sense of community. The most apparent design concept representing community architecture is the community centre, which provides space for meetings and interaction, and its program derives from the needs of a specific community. Furthermore, the design considers urbanistic relationships, architectural appearance, materials, spatial and functional requirements, interior design, equipment, and furniture solutions.</p> <p>The community architecture theory is an under-explored phenomenon in Slovakia. Thus, there is a lack of methodical design recommendations or guidelines for designing community centres as individual typological forms. The article focuses on the examination of 100 selected community facilities, identifying their prevalent features and their interrelationships. Presented research aims to examine fundamental characteristics of community centres, particularly their multifunctionality related to the character of the space, and the scale related to size in square meters. In conclusion, research suggests new size categories considering the relationship between the two factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Pandemic as an impulse for the development of sustainable tourism along the Danube river<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge to the world – primarily from the medical and economic point of view – but also to the search for new forms of tourism and the urban environment. Prior to mass vaccination, the main strategy to manage a pandemic were non-pharmaceutical interventions. Global travel restrictions and "home" regulations have caused the most serious disruption to the global economy since World War II. International travel bans affecting more than 90% of the world's population, widespread restrictions on public gatherings and community mobility have severely curtailed tourism since March 2020. Evidence of impacts on air transport, shipping and accommodation has been devastating. World tourism fell by 35-90% in 2020 compared to 2019. Yet, there are differences between countries. Tourism is particularly sensitive to measures against pandemics due to limited mobility and social distances. The paper compares the effects of COVID-19 with previous epidemics, pandemics or other types of global crises. It examines how a pandemic can change the society, economy, tourism and its projection into the territory. It discusses why COVID-19 is analogous to the ongoing climate crisis and why the mass growth tourism model needs to be questioned. The method to improve responsible access to our planet and ensure safe recreation for its population is sustainable tourism. The Danube Region has a great potential for the development of sustainable tourism in Slovakia with its transport accessibility, connection to the Danube River and through it to the surrounding areas. However, the potential of the region lies mainly in its hitherto underused cultural and natural conditions, as well as in the exploitation of the abilities of its inhabitants. The presented study analyzes the mentioned conditions and points out the possibilities of their development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of colour in ecological approach to product and material design<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this research paper is to map, document and classify new, progressive and perspective approaches to colour in product and material design. The purpose is to identify the impact and importance of colour in the creation of new materials and products from an ecological point of view. The majority of current progressive approaches to design creation and research is set in an ecological framework, taking into account their impact on the environment. The question is not whether colour is present in this process, but rather where it stands in this process, whether it can help it and how much it affects it. One of the objectives of this article is to raise awareness in this area and to arouse interest in and discussion on this topic. The theme of colours in design is often overlooked and relegated to the background. The results of several scientific studies on the impact of colour on product evaluation and consumer shopping behaviour suggest the potential of this topic and open up space for further research. In this research paper, we consider the approach of product and material designers and researchers to colour in an ecological context, as a stand-alone design and material creation group. Within this main group, individual approaches can be classified into four basic principles, which the paper defines and describes. They are analysed and researched in more depth through specific examples of the work of various designers. The principles have no fixed boundaries, they are not isolated. They influence or follow each other. This classification of the approach to colour in an ecological context allows us primarily to talk about it more professionally and attempt to define its importance and role in individual approach. Ultimately, it helps us answer the question of whether and how colour can affect the process of changing human interaction with the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Architectural design quality and social sustainability in building certification systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of the study is to examine to what extent the architectural design quality and social sustainability are taken into account in building certification systems. The following most commonly used building assessments in Europe (focus on Germany, Slovakia and Czech Republic) have been investigated: BREEAM, LEED, CESBA, LEVEL(s), DGNB, BNB, BNK, NaWoh, SBToolCZ and WELL. After extensive research of chosen certification systems and various sources on topics such as conditions of well-being, sociocultural indicators, assessment of social performance of sustainable buildings and design quality assessment, the main social and architectural design quality aspects were determined and used for further analysis and final evaluation. Studied aspects are divided into the following categories: user satisfaction and quality of life (building-related), sustainable and healthy lifestyle (building-related), architecture – design quality (building-related), innovation and social responsibility (external). The article contains a summary of results with overall evaluation and comparison of certification systems including weighting of studied categories in selected building assessments. Furthermore, indicators used in building certifications associated with the quality of life and the quality of architectural expression and their weighting are described and presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Overlooked Heritage: Interiors in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The creation of interior spaces is the main cognitive characteristic of architectural creation. Architecture creates a basic spatial framework for the interior. Interior design is a complex type of architectural activity that forms both the space (basically the interior) and the individual elements of the interior space. The professional interior design of architects or designers intentionally creates an environment specifically intended for human life. It is where people are in the most personal contact with the environment surrounding them. Just as an artificially created environment has a strong influence on a person’s life and feelings, it has also been proven that it works the other way round as well, i.e. that human needs and demands are a decisive factor in creating space for a person. The case studies demonstrate the development of the interior design in the second half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, its current state and level of care given to these works. Architecture from this period has often lost its struggle for survival. As regards the style, these are works in international style, late modern and postmodern, and the local element makes them a unique and attractive testimony to the era. Despite the natural properties of interiors which seldom survive as long as the architecture itself, some contemporary statements about the interior design of the period under review have been preserved. The research focused on the public interiors of both well-known and less-known buildings by Slovak architects from various parts of Slovakia. The research calls attention to the fact that architects worked here even then and their works were of certain quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The DIY Principle in Home Improvement: Background, Motivation and Benefits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Producing objects for one’s own consumption is a major strand in the historical development of material culture. Making things with one’s own hands can be considered a natural means to satisfy human needs. In the present time, this form of production is covered by the term “do-it-yourself” (DIY). DIY has become a global social phenomenon, especially thanks to the opportunities enabled by the Internet. Websites provide a lively forum for discussion, sharing ideas, how-to guides, and galleries of the results of DIY projects. The present work addresses home improvement DIY projects carried out by individuals in Slovakia. The aim is to outline the background, motivation and inspiration of so called do-it-yourselfers, the DIY process and participants’ evaluation of their work. DIY is generally considered to be an activity for amateurs, which is to say people who engage in the activity in their free time, as opposed to professionals, who perform such activity as their job or to earn a living. Moreover, the paper also partly focuses on the relationship between amateurs and professionals which has shown to be the basic principle of current DIY home improvements. One of significant findings of the research showed that the individual experience of craftsmanship or craftwork and the individual need for self-expression appear to be important parts of the DIY experience. Research findings contribute to a better understanding of DIY production in the context of design as an academic discipline. The main research method used was a questionnaire titled “DIY home improvement”, which was drawn up on the model of prior research abroad.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1