rss_2.0Architecture Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU Feed forms of performative space: Impact of temporary architecture on audience diversification<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The term <italic>temporary forms of performative space</italic> was coined out of the need to define the group of objects under study that use temporality and the architectural input into a non-theatrical space, and serve as boundaries for performative content. One such space was designed and built in the previous part of the research. By analysing the space during its functioning, supported by examples from abroad, we offer an example of one of the possible solutions to the problem of theatre attendance. In the conducted study, we aim to support by a practical experiment the premise that temporary architectural forms intended for performance art can diversify and broaden the audience, thus making the theatre more inclusive. The method at hand involves the analysis of two performances. In the Jera show, we analyse the impact of an object located in a public space on the composition of the audience. The object adopts characteristics taken from examples from abroad. The Elektra performance serves as a reference example, where the object is present but not necessary for the relevance of the data obtained. The gathering of information – monitoring the influence of the architectural form on the composition of the audience – takes the form of questionnaires distributed before the performance. The individual questionnaires were processed into a spreadsheet from which research questions with follow-up responses were abstracted. Due to the insufficient number of comparable performances delivered, we can currently confirm the premise of the functioning of the temporary architecture as an attractor of the wider theatre audience only on the basis of the number of spectators who learned about the performance from the QR code, posted in a public space a week before the performance together with the installation of the object itself. This group of visitors surpassed 17%, which we consider a positive result that encourages us to create more testing events in various environments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and preliminary assessment of a baroque vault for refurbishment planning<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Designing the modification of buildings for a new use is a costly and time-consuming process, before which it is often necessary to conduct a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of the intended project. The article discusses the procedure for such a preliminary cost-effective assessment using the example of a historic building with vaulted ceilings. For older historical buildings, archival documents specifying their geometry, construction details and material characteristics are typically not available. For the preliminary design, it is possible to obtain information about the dimensions of the load-bearing elements non-destructively. However, the knowledge of the exact material properties of the masonry exceeds the possibilities of an inexpensive assessment, which must take advantage of the data available in the literature for similar structures. This article presents a methodology and an example of the measurement and assessment of the mechanical response of the Baroque vault to static loading. It shows the process of obtaining data on the geometric shape of the structure by means of geodetic surveying and geometric radar measurements of the thickness of vaults whose upper faces are not accessible. Two models are used to calculate the internal forces in the structure. The first planar model considers a simplified barrel vault strip according to the focused geometry with respect to geometric nonlinearity and without tension, the second model is a linear spatial model of the entire vault. The calculation was performed in ANSYS 17.2, the input parameters of the material are taken from the literature. The calculated stresses in the vault are compared with the values of the design strength of brick masonry, taking into account the characteristic compressive strength of the masonry based on published known data obtained during tests of similar historical materials. The results are then used to decide on the feasibility of the intention to adapt the building for a new use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Moorish architectural identity in Tlemcen, Algeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Algeria, the city of Tlemcen is home to 60% of the country’s Arab-Islamic architectural heritage, also known as Moorish. During the French colonization, the rich Moorish historical and architectural heritage was largely diminished. The architecture of Tlemcen’s historic old town was gradually replaced by classical architecture in the early days of colonization, and then by modern architecture from 1940 onwards. After the independence in 1962, the city has carried out huge programs of facilities and new housing, based on modern architectural principles. In 2011, Tlemcen was designated a “Capital of Islamic Culture” and, in preparation for this international cultural event, new cultural facilities and hotels have been built, inspired by Moorish heritage. Given the heterogeneity of references and in particular the identity crisis ensuing in architecture in Tlemcen, this event was the key moment for validating a stylistic choice, which directly recounts the history of the city. The question is: what authenticity is expressed by the current use of the Moorish referent? Is it technical and material authenticity, or merely symbolic and cultural genuineness? This study delves into the question of identity in architecture. It analyses the new Moorish-style buildings in Tlemcen and highlights their contribution to the quest for a local identity and the ambition to produce local architecture. The article supports the hypothesis that architecture is an effective means of expressing identity and that it has always had, and continues to have, a close relationship with memory. The methodology is based on a combination of several investigative tools: surveys, photographs and archive consultation. These tools helped develop a building analysis grid, which serves as a repertory for describing the buildings, according to two levels of reading of the architectural work. We have chosen three Moorish and four contemporary buildings to which the different criteria of the analysis grid are applied. The results of the analysis of the new buildings show that, in a way, they enabled to establish continuity and dialogue with the Moorish heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the historical impact of neglected, modernised small-scale architectural objects by Rudolf Frič<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The context of interwar period Czechoslovakia lacks a formal on both the personality and built artefacts on the often overlooked Bratislava builder, Rudolf Frič. Small-scale architecture tends to be undervalued because of its size, utility, multiplicity, or related momentariness, and because of the automatic consideration of its banality. This paper aims to analyse their architectural qualities presented in concrete typologies and realisations. Tram shelters, gas stations, mausoleums, and small detached houses are thus researched. Their architectural values, both in construction and in form, are identified and clarified. On the other hand, it is noted that the scale and ephemerality conditioned by the utility character are the crucial reasons for their undervaluation. This is especially the case of traffic buildings, where the same dynamic that initiated their origin also resulted in their end, as they become obsolete rather soon. Some of these projects by Frič such as: Rybáček House, Polák Tram stop, the Zikmund Brothers’ gas station, as well as the Frič family tomb, are confronted with other relevant realisations, prove that small-scale architectural objects and peripheral typologies have the architectural qualities for which they would deserve the public and professional interest. Moreover, these objects reflect their variety, being situated in diverse urban situations, from the architecturally and historically intact city centre, through to newly urbanised dwelling area, urban periphery up to a provincial town. Additionally, they illustrate the asymmetric position of the Slovak situation compared to the Czech one, particularly in transport architecture. The presented works characterise the style of Frič based on the high-quality craftsmanship details rather than explicit architectural forms. This transfer of new typologies and structural forms with partial urban impacts, underscores the neglected and crucial contribution to architecture by Frič.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of older layers and findings on historical architecture using the method of analytical presentation: Example of the Old Town Hall in Bratislava, Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Analytical presentation is one of the methods used in the process of monument restoration. The method displays certain valuable older layers in the form of a cutout in the dominant layer of the facade´s surface. This article seeks to illustrate the method on the example of the facades of the Old Town Hall in Bratislava, Slovakia, and its restorations that were performed in several phases. The floor is presented in the Renaissance style – a part of the wall in medieval style over the arch of the underpass is exposed. The largest areas of analytical presentations are realized on the northern facade in the courtyard. The areas of arcades are restored in light beige colour, respecting the Renaissance colour palette. On the wall, research uncovered important medieval style findings and fragments of the chopped pillars of continuous balconies. A large-scale analytical probe encompassing two floors was realized. A system of various medieval windows, richly decorated and formed by a curved arch or triangular gable, is preserved here with some more recent openings in the Renaissance style. The main facade facing the town square could also be classified as a system of analytical presentations. The tower shows plaster in an Early Baroque style with various windows (Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque) on both facades (Main Square and Kostolná Street). Interesting are Late Gothic double windows with wimpergs. The rest of the facade facing the Main Square is prevailingly designed in the Renaissance style. But in the middle, there is a part reconstructed in the Gothic style with a rich curved decoration. Next to the tower, there is a Gothic portal with an arc and oriel above it. In the part of the Kostolná Street, there is a Gothic plaster reconstructed by applying two methods. One contains a grained plaster in sandy colour, the second has a surface with networking. Various windows and niches (medieval, Renaissance, Baroque) are present here. The complicated analytical presentations contained in the facades of the Old Town Hall raise many questions in the expert discussion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of container structures along the Danube River in Bratislava: Transformation of the embankment after the river regulation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper traces the particular moments of historical development of the Bratislava (now the capital of Slovakia) embankment along the Danube River during the 20th century until present. The observed territory is understood as a relatively newly formed terrain that resulted as a by-product of river regulation at the end of the 19th century. The emerged space offered attractive and spacious building plots for various new typologies and rather than a compact city block, these were mostly hosted in the container-like structures. Referencing the theoretical work of De Solà-Morales, the containers are understood as self-standing, large-volume envelopes creating a controlled platform for order and consumption. Research was focused on the study of visual archival materials and contributions in architectural journals of the period. The selected aspects were subsequently displayed in the form of author’s schemes, which combine map data with an axonometric representation of the described objects. The paper distinguishes three different periods of embankment development that correspond to the political and economic historical framework and highlights the specific characteristics of each of them. While the interwar era brought the concept of free-standing palaces on the waterfront, the period of socialism was generally characterised by failed ambitious plans. Finally, the period of the neoliberal transformation of the city set the new condition for real estate market and resulted in the construction boom on the waterfront. The long-awaited construction on the waterfront is now in the hands of the private sector, while containers-like residence complexes and shopping malls are ultimately raising the questions about their generic nature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue art as an integral part of architecture: Political and social aspects of the formation of this synthesis in the 20th century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The theme of the connection of visual arts with architecture, or the cooperation of visual artists with architects in post-war Europe, basically follows two lines: a theoretical line and a political-institutional line. Just as knowledge of the history of art and the history of architecture is necessary in the analysis of this period, knowledge of the political-economic circumstances is necessary in the field of realisations in architecture, because by definition, this public art is a political affair and is not an independent creation. Art in architecture was promoted not only in communist countries (for ideological reasons), but also in Western Europe as an aesthetic cultivation of contemporary architecture. From the mid-1950s onwards, visual art in architectural space appeared more and more frequently, which led to the adoption of legislative measures that regulated and supported this practice. A gradual transformation in the understanding of the task can be observed over the period under review, or the position of public art, presented as part of architecture or public space. This is naturally due to social development. If at the beginning of the 1950s it was a mission to convey ideology and indoctrinate it, in the next stage the focus shifts more towards design with the task of cultivating the environment and creating a certain atmosphere. The study also peripherally explores forms of arts support in the context of other European countries. The idea of integration between art and architecture dates back to the very origins of both disciplines. During the avant-garde movement at the beginning of the twentieth century, it acquired a new meaning and social purpose and became one of the most defining characteristics of modernism. Modernism arose from the expectation of moral and material reconstruction of the world devastated by war, which served as a tool to strengthen collective identity and, consequently, to forge the bond between the city and its inhabitants. Our study traces the development and contexts of the relationship and funding of visual arts in architecture in the Slovak and European context in the 20th century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the environment for older adults<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Demographic changes, the growing number of people with disabilities, and the demands on architecture and design are posing new challenges for designers. The space in which older adults live should be safe, not only from a legal point of view but especially to facilitate their daily activities. Modern society prioritizes the integration of older adults into everyday life so that as people grow older, they are not forced to abandon their daily routines because of obstacles in the space. It is said that a person is not handicapped because of their illness, but because society fails to prepare conditions for them to be able to move and live without restrictions. Moving in space is a multisensory experience. People use most of their senses such as sight, hearing, smell, and touch in addition to moving their bodies. How we feel indoors depends on the indoor climate, lighting, surface colours, air quality, floor plan, and furniture layout. Studies show that the materials and colour of products have an impact on how we navigate a space, how we feel and, in some cases, they can even have healing effects. The aim of our study is to investigate the association between colours in the environment and the orientation of people, especially older adults, in the space they live in. Several studies, experiments, and observations of foreign researchers serve as the basis of the paper. The analysis of case studies proved that colours in the environment have a significant impact on orientation in space and can be an effective tool for spatial orientation and drawing attention to a particular place. In surveys that have been conducted with older adults, warm colour tones such as yellow, orange, and red are preferred over cold ones. Red tones are some of the most easily recognizable for older adults who suffer from loss of colour recognition. They have lower cognitive abilities as a result of aging. Therefore, the achromatic environment does not sufficiently stimulate their brain function, leading to longer reaction times. Colour and contrast indoors play a big role in the perception of space and can help in drawing attention to a particular place.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue alchemy: Leveraging Artificial Intelligence for inspired design – a comprehensive study of creativity, control, and collaboration<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research paper contends that Artificial Intelligence (AI) serves as a collaborative partner in architectural design, rather than merely a utility tool. To substantiate this argument, a three-phase, nine-test investigation evaluating the strengths and limitations of two prominent AI platforms: Midjourney AI and Stable Diffusion was undertaken. These platforms synergize human creativity and AI capabilities through features like text prompts and image references, thereby fostering innovative avenues in architecture. Our analysis indicates that Midjourney AI is proficient in generating initial design concepts, largely thanks to its extensive data libraries, but is deficient in design refinement and user control. Conversely, Stable Diffusion empowers designers with greater control via features like ControlNet but sacrifices visual clarity due to its smaller generative models. Both platforms share a common flaw: an overemphasis on aesthetics and shape at the expense of functional understanding. Building upon these empirical observations, the paper outlines strategies for designers to reasonably leverage AI in optimising workflows. It confirms two key hypotheses concerning the interplay of creativity, control, and collaboration, emphasising that both human architects and AI systems benefit from iterative feedback and continuous adaptation. In summary, the study posits that AI is not just an adjunct technology but a transformative force with the capacity to fundamentally alter architectural design processes, paving the way for a new paradigm where human expertise and machine capabilities converge for enriched design outcomes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue health as determining factor of urban district’s character: Case study Bratislava – the Pentagon<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drug use and drug addiction have a high prevalence in the population, which has been widely documented since the 1980s. According to the United Nations, the physical environment in which we live is one of the strongest determinants of our health. In the case of drug abuse concentration in a particular urban space, one of the points to consider is the architectural and urban form of the location. In the Slovak context, a significant representative of concentrated drug activity is a part of the Medzi Jarkami housing estate, nicknamed the “Pentagon”. In an effort to eradicate drug activity, local residents fortified the Pentagon, changing its urban landscape and furthering its ghettoisation. Although drug abuse is a criminal act, it is imperative to acknowledge that drug addiction is a mental illness. Therefore, it is not sufficient to look at spaces such as the Pentagon from a criminal perspective but also from that of mental health. Our study aims to explore the connection between the residents’ mental health and the quality of the urban structure they live in. We performed a urban design analysis, utilizing on-site participant observation and structural interviews supplemented by desktop research. The case study analysis proved that the mental status of the local residents has an essential impact on the development of urban neighbourhoods. A number of environmental stressors were detected as present in the built structure. Furthermore, there is the stigmatization of whole urban districts caused by a high incidence of drug addiction as a mental disorder that, in the bigger terms, influences the “image” of the area. The drug problem in the Pentagon left its marks on the whole urban district of Vrakuňa, reducing the residents’ quality of life significantly over the years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue design and social care: Assistive robots as other users of the built environment?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of designing architecture and physical environment using the Universal Design method so that all people have the opportunity to reside and participate in the environment has long been recognised. This design approach is even more important in housing for older adults and people with disabilities. However, even in environments designed according to universal design principles, the assistance of human staff is often necessary. We consider some of the routine and physically demanding activities of caregivers could be possibly replaced by robots. This would offer people who require care a greater degree of independence and relieve the burden on staff to give them more time for activities that robots cannot yet do. Robotics is a discipline covering various aspects of robot design and use. Apparently, numerous robots and robotic devices being developed for the social or healthcare sector, called Assistive Robots, are still in the concept, design or testing phase. However, this may change with the increasing investment in robotics and there is a need to be realistic about their possible use in the near future. Another considered robot type is a Butler or Service Robot which helps with delivering various objects including food or medicine. These types of robots require a barrier-free, accessible space to move around, similar to what people in wheelchairs or bedridden persons need for their movement and transfer. This paper publishes the results of a simulation of Assistive and Butler Robots in an extra-care housing facility, where social services with the help of robots are to be provided in the future. Manoeuvring of people and robots is simulated in a floorplan of the chosen model project of a family type house. Research aims to investigate the robots’ spatial requirements in a building project designed in accordance with universal design principles. The paper concludes with several answers to the questions posed and recommendations for the creation of residential buildings that support the symbiosis of humans and robots.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of wood in Vorarlberg’s (Austria) timber kindergartens<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The application of sustainable materials and their integration into newly constructed, valuable, and cultural architecture is a topic currently often mentioned in connection with the new initiative called the New European Bauhaus. The aim of this paper is to highlight the impact of wood material in the interiors of preschool institutions, its positive influence on the development of children and its inclusivity in education. The use of wooden furniture and wooden structural elements in kindergarten interiors opens a new area of research and interest in the context of promoting diversity and access for every child, regardless of their abilities or limitations. The article analyses the architecture of kindergartens in Vorarlberg, which serves as an excellent reference example for the development of new school projects. The authors raise questions as to how such architectural and design thinking can support the promotion of inclusive education of children and whether it can positively influence their cognitive abilities, ultimately affecting their overall quality of life. The findings presented in the article can inspire new ideas and solutions for the creation of preschool architecture that aims to provide an inclusive environment for children where they can expand their knowledge and gain new experiences, while applying innovative design thinking. The selected analyses and comparisons focused on whether the presence of wood material can positively impact the well-being of children in the physical environment of kindergartens. The paper aims to prove that interiors with exposed wood can improve the quality of teaching and support social interaction and playful learning of children. The results of this study can serve as a strong argument for the New European Bauhaus initiative advocating for the implementation of renewable materials such as wood in accordance with the principles of biophilic, restorative environmental, and salutogenic design in practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue a digital participatory approach to facilitate inclusivity in Jordanian heritage sites: Stakeholders’ requirements and a proposed system<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The combination of social engagement engines and immersive technologies, such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and digital twins holds great potential for the development of tourism industry during the designing and planning stages. When introduced to experts, this innovative approach allows us to advance creative solutions while keeping the community engaged and enhancing the decision-making process. Virtual designing and planning processes can significantly transform the workflows of professionals and promote inclusive practices in all Jordanian archaeological and heritage sites, particularly those involved in the “Accessible Tourism” project. This article presents an exploratory quantitative study conducted through a comprehensive literature review and participatory interviews. The study involved 23 participants from the “Accessible Tourism” project. It focused on identifying professionals’ barriers affecting the application of inclusivity in historical sites. Additionally, the study defined challenges and requirements to determine digitally inclusive applications. The study results highlighted the challenges faced by stakeholders and experts in developing inclusivity in built heritage sites in Jordan, such as interdepartmental communication, historic preservation constraints, and comprehension of accessibility codes. It also addressed the difficulties in engaging users with disabilities or marginalized communities in developing inclusive facilities. Based on these findings, a unique framework for remotely analysing target users within an immersive environment is proposed. This framework has been developed in collaboration with key stakeholders and set the stage for further research and collaboration. Future research should emphasize the importance of inclusive practices and user involvement in designing accessible and enriching tourism experiences at Jordan’s heritage sites.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of healthcare and social inclusion in interwar Czechoslovakia: Pezinok Psychiatric Institute and the Masaryk Institute for Young People with Intellectual and Physical Disabilities in Bratislava<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The formation of an independent Czechoslovak Republic created a space for the institutionalisation of health and social care as a reflection of the government’s social policy. It became crucial to modernise and expand the network of health and social facilities. Although there were medical advances in institutional care for people with mental and physical disabilities, attempts at social inclusion were rare. Few innovative institutions existed that pioneered social inclusion of clients through proper education and adaptable architecture. This topic, as reflected in the architecture of the Institute for People with Nervous and Mental Health Disorders in Pezinok and the Masaryk Institute for Young People with Intellectual and Physical Disabilities in Bratislava, is the focus of this paper. The Pezinok Institute was the first clinic in central Europe to offer treatment of children with epilepsy. It was believed that elementary education and practical skills would socialise clients, adapt them to general society, and decrease their dependence on the government and their relatives. So, in addition to effective work therapy and hippotherapy, the institute also planned to educate clients in the envisaged school. The Masaryk Institute, as the first of its kind in Slovakia, aimed not only to establish institutional health and social care of people with both intellectual and physical disabilities, but also to integrate them into the society. Its initiator, Karol Koch, was convinced that it was indispensable to adapt the architecture to the needs of the people with disabilities, while not allowing the people with disabilities to feel that their environment differs from that of the others. The innovative nature of the institute’s programme was imprinted in its progressive functionalist design. This paper aims to identify crucial problems, confront visions and reality, and to prove that, despite difficulties and minor results, even at that time, there were innovative architectural and medical reflections on the needs of people with disabilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue collaboration in architecture: Integrating microalgae biotechnologies for human and non-human perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article investigates the role of architectural research in addressing the current ecological, geopolitical, and socioeconomic challenges by exploring the potential of symbiotic ecosystems, particularly microorganisms such as microalgae, in architectural and design applications. Microalgae biotechnologies have the potential to offer a wide range of applications in architecture and design, encompassing small-scale objects, living systems on building exteriors, as well as urban and rural scenarios, thereby allowing for systematic research. When using these biotechnologies in architectural designs, it is crucial to consider maintenance requirements, environmental impacts, and the potential for enhancing public spaces and society across various dimensions in both short-term and long-term perspectives, and potential environmental impacts before implementing microalgae-based systems in real-life scenarios. This study describes a collection of interdisciplinary projects and research that involve microbiology, architecture, and design and proposes various experimental scenarios concerning the integration of both human and non-human perspectives. Through collaborative academic efforts, these projects demonstrate the potential for combining microalgae cultivation with architectural applications. The projects include Photosynthetic Landscape, a modular photobioreactor system, Synthesizing/Distancing which addresses coexistence in global epidemics, Biotopia, a permanent interior installation incorporating microalgae, Exchange Instruments, a semi-closed cultivation system, and Cultivated Environment, a small-scale microalgae cultivation apparatus. The article highlights the implication of controlled environments, maintenance, and interdisciplinary cooperation while showcasing the potential for these systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Rudolf Frič to the social architecture of interwar Czechoslovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Social policy in the interwar Czechoslovakia focused on the development of social housing. In Bratislava the establishment of new institutions and the related arrival of the Czech middle class of civil servants induced social change in the city population and its housing conditions. This necessitated the construction of modern residential blocks, which stabilised the internal urban structure and urbanised the outer city. A significant contribution to that field would be attributed to construction entrepreneur Rudolf Frič. Although the Slovak historiography exclusively presents him as a builder of civil engineering structures, his portfolio was more complex. The aim of the paper is to identify and critically evaluate Frič’s both architectural and construction work in the field of social housing in interwar Bratislava. The study focuses on projects of housing cooperatives, private rental blocks and partly on examples of city social housing. Cooperatives with the highest socio-economic relevance were set by the Bank of Czechoslovak Legions, for which Frič designed or constructed several buildings, such as the residential urban structure “Legiodomy”, housing colony in Koliba or the polyfunctional buildings of Legiopojišťovna and LUXOR. Frič's construction portfolio also includes individual projects of rental houses for smaller cooperatives, both in the compact city centre and at the then urbanising outer city peripheries. A specific case was housing for members of the army, like the residential blocks for military veterans in Bratislava. A critical category was social housing for the poorest and unemployed represented by the City rental house with habitable kitchens and the smallest-size flats. Finally, the paper examines private houses, the rental residential block of Irma Hanke and Helena Hudečková and the Trojan &amp; Švarc polyfunctional department. Frič, as a construction entrepreneur, designed rental houses for his own employees, which all reflect the influence of private investors on the social and urban changes of the then modernising Bratislava metropolis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue occupancies: Non-linear approach to adaptable architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>When dealing with the daily demands of a sustainable approach in architecture and the rapid development of society, we must accept change and time as an integral part of a building system. An adaptable approach understands architecture as a non-linear process which enables a dynamic response to changing environmental and contextual conditions with the aim to extend the life of a building. The application of adaptability is as ambivalent as the term itself. Therefore, the paper opens a discussion on different perceptions of adaptability in architecture. Adaptability cannot be only understood as moving partitions or vast open spaces. There is a variety of different principles leading to adaptability that can prove the versatility of use - from the basic understanding of flexibility to comprehensive polyvalence. The paper discusses the relationship between capacity and tendency of an architectural space and its components. The discussed relationship is based on actual and virtual properties of an object and their finiteness of interpretation. The paper focuses on non-linear strategies such as a narrative, feed-back and interpretation that could be applied to design to achieve adaptability as part of the proposed strategy called ephemeral occupancies. The manifold of strategies is discussed, and the result of the conceptual analysis is a framework distinguishing non-linear strategy supporting the divergence of capacity and tendency in the context of adaptability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue