rss_2.0Advancements of Microbiology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Advancements of Microbiology of Microbiology Feed Mellonella Larvae as an Model for Testing Microbial Pathogenicity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The larvae of the insect <italic>Galleria mellonella</italic> have gained wide acceptance as an <italic>in vivo</italic> model for the study of virulence in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Importantly, <italic>G. mellonella</italic> offers an alternative, low-cost, and ethically acceptable method of assessing pathogens. These insects have a number of advantages, including ease of breeding, a rapid developmental cycle, low maintenance costs, and ease of experimental manipulation. Most importantly, <italic>G. mellonella</italic> larvae have a complete immune system and a nonspecific immune response similar to that of humans, making them a valuable model for studying pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, using this model, it is possible to test the efficacy of various chemical compounds or natural substances that show antimicrobial activity. In this literature review, we provide a comprehensive overview of recent studies of the use of <italic>G. mellonella</italic> in virulence analyses and as a platform for testing the efficacy of new drugs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biosurfactant Screening: Diversity in Assessment Methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biosurfactants are a group of surface-active agents mainly produced by microorganisms and have a wide range of applications in industries as well as agriculture. Global usage of such biologically active compounds as detergents, bioremediation agents, cosmetic products is hugely dependent on their high production. New avenues of research have opened up due to this increased interest, most of which are focused on identifying specialized microorganisms capable of biosurfactant production. Screening methods for selection of biosurfactant producing bacteria are, therefore, of utmost importance in this endeavor. The aim of this review was to discuss various conventional and novel methods that can overcome the hurdles encountered in time effective, economical microbial biosurfactant screening. This review lists several important biosurfactant screening methods based on supernatant, biomass as well as culture media. New methods devised for biosurfactant screening in the last half decade such as surfactant dependent dye solubilization, metagenomic studies etc. are also explained in detail. A thorough grasp of both contemporary and anachronistic screening methodologies will not only lead to discoveries of novel native strains capable of biosurfactant production but also form the basis on which new screening methods can be devised.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Bacterial Diversity: How Far Have We Reached?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many methods have been developed for studying and comparing bacterial diversity. These methods suffer from a number of drawbacks. Culture-dependent methods have a drawback that only a small number of bacteria can be cultured. Although many modifications in the traditional cultivation approach have been made, such as the use of gellan instead of agar and high throughput dilution to extinction culturing, but a large fraction of microbes still remain uncultured. Culture-independent methods were developed to explore uncultured bacterial diversity but they have their own drawbacks. PCR-based methods have biases during DNA extraction and the removal of substances that may inhibit polymerase activity during PCR and digestion with restriction enzymes. “Omics” approach, i.e., metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics, aim to link bacterial community structure with function. Different combinations of methods can be used to know more precisely about the bacterial diversity. To date, no known method can reveal the exact bacterial diversity of different environments. This lacuna needs to be filled and newer methods must be developed that can help in exploring the immense bacterial diversity created by nature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue – Clinical Significance, Treatment of Infections<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</italic> is an important etiological factor of infections in patients with compromised immune systems, undergoing invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as in those suffering from cancer or cystic fibrosis. It poses a threat primarily to hospitalized patients. Due to its broad natural resistance and increasing acquired resistance, the therapy of infections caused by this pathogen is a challenge for modern medicine. The paper presents the current knowledge about the general characteristics, clinical significance and the most important pathogenicity factors of <italic>S. maltophilia</italic>. It also discusses therapeutic possibilities, including alternative ones, in infections caused by these microorganisms.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Selected Virulence Factors in Infections Caused by spp.<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Enterococcus</italic> spp. are a component of the microbiota of humans and animals and are commonly found in the natural environment. They are opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections of various locations. These bacteria rarely cause community-acquired infections. Although they were considered microorganisms with low pathogenic potential, they have become one of the important hospital pathogens recently. Their common occurrence and ability to survive in the hospital environment contribute to the recorded and still increasing frequency of their isolation, also from invasive infections. The species most frequently isolated from infection cases are <italic>E. faecalis</italic> and <italic>E. faecium</italic>, which pose therapeutic problems due to their increasing multidrug resistance. Due to the growing clinical importance, mechanisms of natural and acquired resistance to antibiotics, and potential virulence factors, <italic>Enterococcus</italic> spp. have become the subject of many studies. The aim of the study is to present the current knowledge on the most important virulence factors that may occur in bacteria of the genus <italic>Enterococcus</italic>, which include: SagA secretory antigen, EfaA protein, Esp surface protein, Ace collagen binding protein, cytolysin, hyaluronidase, hemagglutinin, lipase, serine protease, aggregating substance, extracellular peroxides and gelatinase.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Machine Learning Technology in Microbial Identification: A Critical Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Microorganisms are ubiquitous and have far-reaching effects on human life. Since their discovery in the 19th century, microorganisms have fascinated biologists. Microbes play a crucial role in the material and elemental cycles of the natural world. Growing own microbes for research purposes requires a significant time and financial investment. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing technology cannot advance at the same clip as the culture method. The area of microbiology has made substantial use of machine learning (ML) methods to tackle this problem.</p> <p>Classification and prediction have emerged as key avenues for advancing microbial community research in computational biology. This research compares the advantages and disadvantages of using different algorithmic approaches in four subfields of microbiology (pathogen and epidemiology; microbial ecology; drug development; microbiome and taxonomy).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Occurrence of Methicillin-Resistant (MRSA) Around the World and Antibiotic Therapy for Selected Infections Caused By MRSA<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> is a Gram-positive bacterium, which can cause serious bacterial infections in humans. It constitutes an important etiological factor of many diseases, for instance, soft tissue and skin infections (including skin boils and abscesses), as well as life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia or toxic shock syndrome. It is estimated that about 25–30% of people are carriers of <italic>S. aureus</italic> mainly in the anterior nostrils. A smaller percentage of people are carriers of methicillin-resistant <italic>S. aureus</italic> (MRSA). In accordance with its definition, methicillin-resistant <italic>S. aureus</italic> is resistant to almost all β-lactam antibiotics. This phenomenon is mainly caused by the presence of penicillin-binding protein in the cell wall – PBP2a, which is the product of the <italic>mecA</italic> gene, which is part of the complex called SCCmec (staphylococcal cassette chromosome <italic>mec</italic>). Methicillin-resistant <italic>S. aureus</italic> (MRSA) results in endemic in hospitals around the world and are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in society. Infections initiated by hospital strains of MRSA (health care-associated MRSA, HA-MRSA) concern mainly immunocompromised patients after surgery. In addition, there are populations of acommunity-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains and populations of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) strains. The treatment of infections with MRSA etiology, after exhausting the possibilities of standard antibiotic therapy with the use of i.e. vancomycin, is based on treatment with new-generation antibiotics, such as dalbavacin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue System: An Effective Tool Against Pathogenic Diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Viral pathogens are major concern nowadays. Bacterial CRISPR/Cas systems help in defending the host body against different pathogens including viruses too. This system contains restriction enzymes that introduce dsDNA breaks on target site to make the virus non-functional by damaging its genes. Coronavirus, HIV and Herpes viruses are causing mortality all around the world. To control the spread of disease, early detection and treatment is required. CRISPR system due to its high efficiency provides a platform to restrict the viral entry into host cell, viral genome editing and eliminate the latent infections. In this review, the CRISPR strategies against three major viral diseases are put under consideration: Coronavirus, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Herpesvirus associated diseases. Three CRISPR/Cas systems have been discussed including CRISPR/Cas12, CRISPR/Cas9 and CRISPR/Cas13 that are used against the above listed viruses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Resistance – Where are We Going?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice is considered as a turning point in medicine resulting in saving millions of lives and allowing for the development of new fields of medicine such as transplantology, neonatology, hematology and many others. From the very beginning, this success was accompanied by the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains with its continuous rise. Overuse and misuse of antibiotics in medicine, veterinary practice and animal and plant production are the main reasons the resistance has emerged. Presently, an increase in isolation of multidrug resistant (MDR), excessively resistant (XDR) and pandrug resistant (PDR) bacteria is being observed worldwide in the most common human etiologic bacterial agents . As examples of rapid evolution of resistance, <italic>S. aureus</italic> and Enterobacterales producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are presented. Some initiatives of WHO and EU aiming to tackle antibiotic resistance are also discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (AHFV): Current Status and Future Prospects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this review to summarize the current status of information about the Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever caused by Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus an Arboviral infection. This virus was identified in Alkhumra district of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 1995 from a butcher patient. The infected individual develops symptoms febrile flu-like illness, hemorrhagic manifestations and less like encephalitis. Several cases have been reported from various locations of Saudi Arabia and a few from Egypt and is further expanding in tropical and subtropical regions of Western Asia. The virus is transmitted to human by direct contact to animal, raw meat, and biproducts as well as either tick or mosquito bites. Based on the recent status, a great concern of public health was raised with the AHFV epidemics and infection. Currently, there is no effective vaccine and antiviral therapeutics against AHFV. So, there is an urgent need to design and develop an effective preventive measure using interdisciplinary approach. This review will provide the status of research work based on the latest published information about AHFV. The provided information will be highly useful to design the effective preventive measures to control the disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Efflux Pumps in Bacteria and Efflux Pump Inhibitors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a paramount health concern nowadays. The increasing drug resistance in microbes is due to improper medications or over usage of drugs. Bacteria develop many mechanisms to extrude the antibiotics entering the cell. The most prominent are the efflux pumps (EPs). EPs play a significant role in intrinsic and acquired bacterial resistance, mainly in Gram-negative bacteria. EPs may be unique to one substrate or transport several structurally different compounds (including multi-class antibiotics). These pumps are generally associated with multiple drug resistance (MDR). EPs are energized by a proton motive force and can pump a vast range of detergents, drugs, antibiotics and also β-lactams, which are impermeable to the cytoplasmic membrane. There are five leading efflux transporter families in the prokaryotic kingdom: MF (Major Facilitator), MATE (Multidrug And Toxic Efflux), RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Division), SMR (Small Multidrug Resistance) and ABC (ATP Binding Cassette). Apart from the ABC family, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to drive the export of substrates, all other systems use the proton motive force as an energy source. Some molecules known as Efflux Pump Inhibitors (EPI) can inhibit EPs in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. EPIs can interfere with the efflux of antimicrobial agents, leading to an increase in the concentration of antibiotics inside the bacterium, thus killing it. Therefore, identifying new EPIs appears to be a promising strategy for countering antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR). This mini-review focuses on the major efflux transporters of the bacteria and the progress in identifying Efflux Pump Inhibitors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue ENDOFITYCZNE W ROLI POTENCJALNYCH PRODUCENTÓW ZWIĄZKÓW PRZECIWNOWOTWOROWYCH<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Medicines derived mostly from natural sources have played a major role in cancer chemotherapy for over 50 years. Against numerous ailments, plants have served as a source of bioactive compounds for centuries. However, it is not the plants themselves, but the microorganisms associated with them that offer material and products with high therapeutic potential. Endophytes are organisms that colonize internal plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. They constitute an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms which are the source of innovative natural products for use in modern industry, agriculture and medicine, indicating potential therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer and antimicrobial, as well as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Endophytic fungi are a rich source of bioactive metabolites that can be manipulated to obtain to produce desirable the desired new analogs used in chemotherapy, including: taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, vincristine, cytochalasin and many others. This review gives provides examples of anti-cancer compound production by endophytic fungi published since 2015.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue ZOONOZY BAKTERYJNE PRZENOSZONE PRZEZ MLEKO SUROWE<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Raw milk, that has not been heat-treated, can be an important source of pathogenic microorganisms transmitted via the food route, mainly such as: pathogenic strains of <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>, bacteria of the genus <italic>Salmonella</italic>, some fecal streptococci or <italic>Listeria monocyto­genes</italic>. The most dangerous of the pathogens associated with raw milk is VTEC <italic>E. coli</italic>, which produces verocytotoxins – especially the O157:H7 strain. <italic>Enterococcus</italic> spp. is a frequent factor of bovine mastitis and therefore is often found in raw milk, thus posing a risk to consumers. Consuming raw milk is a good choice as long as we have a guarantee of a high level of hygienic sourcing.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue High Penetrability of Nanoparticles into Bacterial Membranes: A Key of a Potential Application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, nanoparticles have gained considerable attention for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. The possibility for using this technology as an alternative therapeutic strategy for controlling microbial biofilms, colonizations and infections has been the subject of intense investigations. Even though, the potential toxicity and disadvantage of using nanoparticles, researchers focused on their high penetrability into bacterial membranes, capabilities to disrupt biofilm formation and the role of chemotaxis in this interaction. Face to this significant debate, we discuss the link between metal resistance, bacterial chemotaxis and the promising use of nanoparticles (NP). <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> has emerged as a model organism for biofilm studies, the aim of this review is to provide a concise and comprehensive survey of certain relevant aspects related to the research on nanoparticles and these bacteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue B – Pantropic Viruses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coxsackieviruses (CV), as all enteroviruses, are small, non-enveloped, icosahedral-shaped capsid viruses. They belong to the family <italic>Picornaviridae</italic>. This group was named after the town of Coxsackie in New York State (USA) where was recognized the first human case of coxsackievirus infection in the 40s of the XX century. Coxsackie B (CVB) are distinguished from other enteroviruses by ability to infect many types of tissues and organs. This wide tropism reason that these viruses are etiologic agents of large number of different diseases. CVB cause infection of the heart, pleura, pancreas, lungs and liver, causing myocarditis, pleurodynia, pericarditis, pneumonia and hepatitis. They can invade the central nervous system and induce meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. They also cause systemic neonatal disease and chronic infections such as type 1 diabetes and chronic myocarditis. This pantropic character of CVB can be determinate by specific virus – receptor interaction, which initiate the infection and viral spread. CVB attach at least two receptor proteins: the coxsackievirus – adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the decay – accelerating factor (DAF). Moreover, other anonymous determinant may play a role in tissue permissiveness and disease severity. This article summarizes the main aspects of Coxsackieviruses B infection: replication, virus-receptor interaction, genetic variability, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue What do We Know about the Most Enigmatic Pathogen of the 21 Century?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Candida auris</italic> is a new fungal pathogen whose clinical significance has dramatically increased within recent years. Major issues related to this species include its rapid global spread and high epidemic potential, resilience and persistence in the hospital environment favoured by its resistance against certain disinfectants, horizontal transmission; possibility of persistent colonization, challenging laboratory identification based on conventional biochemical methods, multidrug resistance as well as the need for implementation of restrictive and expensive prevention and control measures. This review raises the above mentioned issues and compiles recent findings regarding this microorganism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Atopic Dermatitis, Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Wound Healing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is found in most Gram-negative bacteria and induces innate responses by binding to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). LPS isolated from <italic>Pantoea agglomerans</italic> species is an interesting issue. On the one hand, it is a risk factor for diseases such as wounds, abscess, bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and peritonitis. On the other, its health-promoting properties in atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and osteoporosis are increasingly observed. Studies in humans and animal models show that LPS from <italic>P. agglomerans</italic> may have beneficial effects in the treatment of certain diseases. A huge challenge today is the prevention and treatment of skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), and hard-to-heal wounds. Reports show that LPS from <italic>P. agglomerans</italic> may be useful in the treatment of skin diseases through its effects on the immune response. Studies show that LPS acts on Langerhans cells and leads to suppression of the allergic response.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Culture Collections and Microbiological Biobanks in the Context of New ISO Standards<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to meet the growing needs of the world economy for biotechnology, culture collections must transform the way they operate from passive storage of microbial resources to active microbial resource centers whose services should go beyond the provision of microbes. The protection and conscious use of microorganisms aims to co-create a strategy for responsible and sustainable development, based on expert knowledge. This article deals with the subject of the recently developed panel of biobank-specific standards and the requirements that must be met by culture collections to transform into modern microbial biobanks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue OF: Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Mariusz Dyląg: Molekularne metody diagnostyki dermatomykoz – przegląd dostępnych technik oraz ocena ich zalet i wad w implementacji do rutynowego stosowania. OF: Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Mariusz Dyląg, Aneta Nowakiewicz: Ludzki mykobiom w stanach normobiozy i dysbiozy– charakterystyka i metody analizy.