rss_2.0Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiologyhttps://sciendo.com/journal/AMhttps://www.sciendo.comPostępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/62a1c2b84cb62227f39b92b3/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220811T032055Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604799&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220811%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=0c313597c4b3cb0a175a662cb7e20e1ad4dae0e4f6f53c4fdc0c7c0a61677d2d200300Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Bacteria and Efflux Pump Inhibitorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/am-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a paramount health concern nowadays. The increasing drug resistance in microbes is due to improper medications or over usage of drugs. Bacteria develop many mechanisms to extrude the antibiotics entering the cell. The most prominent are the efflux pumps (EPs). EPs play a significant role in intrinsic and acquired bacterial resistance, mainly in Gram-negative bacteria. EPs may be unique to one substrate or transport several structurally different compounds (including multi-class antibiotics). These pumps are generally associated with multiple drug resistance (MDR). EPs are energized by a proton motive force and can pump a vast range of detergents, drugs, antibiotics and also β-lactams, which are impermeable to the cytoplasmic membrane. There are five leading efflux transporter families in the prokaryotic kingdom: MF (Major Facilitator), MATE (Multidrug And Toxic Efflux), RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Division), SMR (Small Multidrug Resistance) and ABC (ATP Binding Cassette). Apart from the ABC family, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to drive the export of substrates, all other systems use the proton motive force as an energy source. Some molecules known as Efflux Pump Inhibitors (EPI) can inhibit EPs in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. EPIs can interfere with the efflux of antimicrobial agents, leading to an increase in the concentration of antibiotics inside the bacterium, thus killing it. Therefore, identifying new EPIs appears to be a promising strategy for countering antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR). This mini-review focuses on the major efflux transporters of the bacteria and the progress in identifying Efflux Pump Inhibitors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Wybrane Zoonozy Bakteryjne Przenoszone przez Mleko Surowehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/am-2022-0007<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Raw milk, that has not been heat-treated, can be an important source of pathogenic microorganisms transmitted via the food route, mainly such as: pathogenic strains of <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>, bacteria of the genus <italic>Salmonella</italic>, some fecal streptococci or <italic>Listeria monocyto­genes</italic>. The most dangerous of the pathogens associated with raw milk is VTEC <italic>E. coli</italic>, which produces verocytotoxins – especially the O157:H7 strain. <italic>Enterococcus</italic> spp. is a frequent factor of bovine mastitis and therefore is often found in raw milk, thus posing a risk to consumers. Consuming raw milk is a good choice as long as we have a guarantee of a high level of hygienic sourcing.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Grzyby Endofityczne w Roli Potencjalnych Producentów Związków Przeciwnowotworowychhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/am-2022-0006<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Medicines derived mostly from natural sources have played a major role in cancer chemotherapy for over 50 years. Against numerous ailments, plants have served as a source of bioactive compounds for centuries. However, it is not the plants themselves, but the microorganisms associated with them that offer material and products with high therapeutic potential. Endophytes are organisms that colonize internal plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. They constitute an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms which are the source of innovative natural products for use in modern industry, agriculture and medicine, indicating potential therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer and antimicrobial, as well as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Endophytic fungi are a rich source of bioactive metabolites that can be manipulated to obtain to produce desirable the desired new analogs used in chemotherapy, including: taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, vincristine, cytochalasin and many others. This review gives provides examples of anti-cancer compound production by endophytic fungi published since 2015.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Response during Nitrosative Stress in https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/am-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nitrosative stress is an adverse physiological condition mediated by an excessive level of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). RNS react with the different macromolecules <italic>in vivo</italic> and result in the inactivation of these molecules. But the mechanism to counteract the effect of nitrosative stress is poorly understood. <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> is one of the best understood and well-studied microorganism. Although several studies have been reported on <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> to characterize the effect of various stress response but fewer works are there to see the effect of nitrosative stress. <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> encounter numerous stresses during its growth, survival, and infection. They respond to various stress conditions by activating common regulator proteins and thiols. These stress conditions result in the accumulation of these regulator proteins and thiols that allow cells to adjust to specific stress situations, conferring stress tolerance and survival. In this review, different enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms to counteract the effect of nitrosative stress in <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> have been discussed and a hypothesis for the working mechanism of hybrid cluster protein that helps to combat nitrosative stress has been proposed. Here, we have tried to give a clear scenario about the mode of action of stress-responsive elements present in <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-25T00:00:00.000+00:00GRZYBY ENDOFITYCZNE W ROLI POTENCJALNYCH PRODUCENTÓW ZWIĄZKÓW PRZECIWNOWOTWOROWYCHhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/am-2022.0006<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Medicines derived mostly from natural sources have played a major role in cancer chemotherapy for over 50 years. Against numerous ailments, plants have served as a source of bioactive compounds for centuries. However, it is not the plants themselves, but the microorganisms associated with them that offer material and products with high therapeutic potential. Endophytes are organisms that colonize internal plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. They constitute an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms which are the source of innovative natural products for use in modern industry, agriculture and medicine, indicating potential therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer and antimicrobial, as well as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Endophytic fungi are a rich source of bioactive metabolites that can be manipulated to obtain to produce desirable the desired new analogs used in chemotherapy, including: taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, vincristine, cytochalasin and many others. This review gives provides examples of anti-cancer compound production by endophytic fungi published since 2015.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-09T00:00:00.000+00:00WYBRANE ZOONOZY BAKTERYJNE PRZENOSZONE PRZEZ MLEKO SUROWEhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/am-2022.0007<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Raw milk, that has not been heat-treated, can be an important source of pathogenic microorganisms transmitted via the food route, mainly such as: pathogenic strains of <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>, bacteria of the genus <italic>Salmonella</italic>, some fecal streptococci or <italic>Listeria monocyto­genes</italic>. The most dangerous of the pathogens associated with raw milk is VTEC <italic>E. coli</italic>, which produces verocytotoxins – especially the O157:H7 strain. <italic>Enterococcus</italic> spp. is a frequent factor of bovine mastitis and therefore is often found in raw milk, thus posing a risk to consumers. Consuming raw milk is a good choice as long as we have a guarantee of a high level of hygienic sourcing.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-09T00:00:00.000+00:00THE RISK OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY INSECT VECTORS IN ANIMALS IN EUROPEhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.385<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Currently, the emergence of exotic diseases in areas where they have not previously occurred is reported more frequently. For these reasons, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and individual countries are introducing regulations aimed at preventing and combating these diseases. Globalization and intensification of trade of animals and food products of animal origin contributes to the transmission of infectious animal diseases throughout the world. Global warming and human interference in nature affect the occurrence of diseases. The increase in temperature creates the right conditions for the growth and spread of vectors such as mosquitoes. Climate change may become a serious threat to the spread of infectious diseases in the future.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. Diseases transmitted by insect vectors in Europe. 2.1. Vectors. 2.2. Participation of insects in mechanical transmission. 2.3. Primary and secondary vectors. 2.4. Transmission factor. 2.5. Emerging infectious diseases 3. Viral diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 3.1. Flaviviruses. 3.2. Buniaviruses. 3.3. Reoviruses. 3.4. Poxviruses. 3.5. Asfarviruses. 4. Bacterial diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 5. Protozoan diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 6. Nematode diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 7. Endosymbiotes. 8. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00DANGER THEORY AND DAMAGE-ASSOCIATED MOLECULAR PATTERNhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.328<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The immune system (IS) of mammals has developed many mechanisms to effectively ravage foreign factors, including pathogens. In 1994, Polly Matzinger published a theory of danger, a new view in immunology, describing the response of the immune system to danger, caused by trauma and/or presence of pathogens. This theory brings a different view on the current theory, that the IS distinguishes between own (self) and foreign (non-self) structures and reacts only to non-self factors. According to the danger theory, the IS has the ability to verify “safe” and “dangerous” factors, thus explaining immune reactions caused by tissue damage, referred to as “sterile inflammation”, but also occurring during the infection. It is believed that the fundamental elements in danger theory are dangerous molecules-damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), which are released from damaged or dead tissue and cells, but they are also present in physiological conditions and give analogous immune response to this induced by self/ non-self factors.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. The danger theory. 3. Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). 3.1. Characteristics of selected damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). 4. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00NON-ANTIBIOTIC USE OF ANTIBIOTICShttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.301<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Antibiotics are widely used medicines in the treatment of infectious diseases. However, some of them show also non-antibiotic properties, which are increasingly used in the treatment of non-infectious diseases. The authors of this publication believe that this is one of the reasons behind antibiotic dissemination in the environment and, <italic>ipso facto</italic>, behind the increasing risk of bacterial resistance. It is worth remembering that, along with the progress in science and better knowledge of the new properties of antibiotics, every extension of indications for antimicrobial agents may restrict their primary indications. Progress in science does not always mean progress in therapy. In fact, it may sometimes have an opposite effect and we should be able to assess the benefit/risk ratio. The aim of this study was to present other than antibacterial properties of antibiotics which currently are or may be used in the future in the treatment of non-infectious diseases, as well as to assess the long-term effects of extending the indications for medicines commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such attempt has not been made so far, therefore authors decided to review the most important, useful or promising reports on non-antibiotic use of antibiotics. The article summarizes the latest data on prokinetic action of erythromycin, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action of azithromycine, potential use of doxycycline as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent, and also anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties of minocycline. Futhermore, the basics of demeclocycline application in the treatment of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypesecretion syndrome and rifaximin use as an anti-inflammatory and eubiotic agent are presented. Neuroprotective action of ceftriaxone and anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory action of fusafungine were also described.</p><p>1. Introduction – antibiotics as potentially effective agents in the therapy of non-infectious diseases. 2. Erythromycine – prokinetic action. 3. Azithromycine – anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action. 4. Doxycycline – anticancer and anti-inflammatory action. 5. Minocycline – anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant and antiapoptotic action. 6. Demeclocycline – inhibition of the antiantidiuretic hormone action. 7. Rifaximin – anti-inflammatory action / eubiotic. 8. Ceftriaxone – neuroprotective action. 9. Fusafungine – anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory action. 10. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF WILD AND GENETICALLY-MODIFIED STRAINS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIAhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.398<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) have been known for many years, since humans first used them to produce vinegar. AAB serve as biocatalysts in industrial production of, inter alia, acetic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid, bacterial cellulose or levan. Apart from the traditional industrial applications of wild strains of AAB, scientists strive to develop novel methods for the production of selected compounds using genetically-modified AAB. The application of such mutants in the industry entails both positive and negative aspects. Modifications of the bacterial genome have a significant effect upon the functioning of the entire cell. This review presents industrial applications of metabolites produced by both wild and genetically-modified strains of AAB.</p><p>1. Application of wild strains of AAB in the industry. 2. Application of genetically-modified strains of AAB in the industry. 3. Opinion on GMOs used in industry. 4. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00FROM A COMMENSAL TO A PATHOGEN – TWO FACES OF https://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.338<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Staphylococcus epidermidis</italic> is a commensal organism and the most abundant constituent of the healthy human skin and mucous membranes micrbiota. It is well adapted to colonize and evade human antimicrobial barriers. <italic>Staphylococcus epidermidis</italic> not only competes with potentially harmful pathogens, but also produces a plethora of proteins supporting host natural defenses. At the same time, <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> is an opportunistic pathogen recognised as one of the leading causes of healthcare-associated infections. <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> is mainly responsible for bloodstream infections and other biomedical device-related infections. Hospital strains of <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> form protective biofilm and are characterised with antibiotic resistance.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. <italic>Staphylococcus epidermidis</italic> as a commensal organism. 2.1. Origin of <italic>S. epidermidis</italic>. 2.2. Human skin as <italic>S. epidermidis</italic>environment. 2.3. Adaptation mechanisms of <italic>S. epidermidis</italic>. 2.4. Mechanisms of supporting skin’s antimicrobial defences. 2.5. Influence on activity of host cells. 3. <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> as a pathogen. 3.1. Biofilm and virulence factors. 4. Summary </p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00 AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONShttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.348<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance are two of the most important threats in contemporary medicine and represent a serious burden for the public health system. Whereas previously only regarded as an innocuous commensal microorganism of human skin, <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> is nowadays seen as an important opportunistic pathogen and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> is the most genotypically diverse species within the genus <italic>Staphylococcus</italic>. Strains belonging to ST2, the most frequently found sequence type of hospital-associated invasive <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> are characterised by bacterial biofilm formation and resistance to methicillin amongst other antibiotics. <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> is mainly responsible for bloodstream infections and other biomedical device-related infections. Treating infections characterized with biofilm formation is problematic, additional challenge, is differentiation between actual <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> bloodstream infections versus blood samples contamination.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> characteristics. 2.1. Genome structure. 2.2. Genotypic diversity 3. Bacterial biofilm and strategies combating. 4. Antibiotic resistance. 5. Epidemiology and environmental transmission. 5.1. Genotyping methods. 6. <italic>S. epidermidis</italic> as infectious agent. 6.1. Bloodstream infections. 6.2. Neonatal sepsis. 6.3. Infective endocarditis. 6.4. Orthopedic infections. 6.5. Ophthalmic infections. 6.6. Urinary tract infections. 7. Genetic markers for virulent hospital strains detection. 8. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00VACCINES AGAINST ROTAVIRUS INFECTIONhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.313<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Before introduction of vaccination for rotavirus 100–150 million cases of the infections were recorded globally with 500 000 of deaths. The first rotavirus vaccines were designed in 1980s. In 2007 two oral rotavirus vaccines containing live attenuated strains were registered in Europe: the monovalent vaccine Rotarix (RV1) and the pentavalent vaccine Rotateq (RV5). The vaccines are available all over the world.</p><p>After introduction of rotavirus vaccination the number of infections decreased significantly and the number of deaths due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children decreased over 50% globally. However, despite of confirmed safety and effectiveness of the RV1 and RV5 vaccines fear of vaccination against rotavirus infection still exists. It can be related to a bad reputation of the previous rotavirus vaccines that were withdrawn from the market or were never introduced to the market due to unsatisfied clinical tests.</p><p>1. Molecular characteristic of rotaviruses. 2. Pathogenesis of rotavirus infection. 3. Studies on rotavirus vaccines. 4. Epidemiology of rotavirus infection. 5. Herd immunity. 6. Fear of vaccination against rotavirus infection 7. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS OF HYDROPHOBINS AND THEIR USE IN MANIFOLD INDUSTRIEShttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.374<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Hydrophobins are surface active proteins produced by filamentous fungi. They have a role in fungal growth and their life cycle. Although proteins with similar properties are being found in prokaryotic organisms as well. Hydrophobins are characterized by a specific arrangement of cysteine residues, which form four disulfide bridges in the amino acid sequence. This construction gives hydrophobins hydrophobic properties. These proteins are able to assemble spontaneously into amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces. The unique properties of hydrophobins make them more and more popular with regard to their potential application in industry. New ways of use hydrophobins in various branches of the economy are being developed. Hydrophobins are already widely used in the food industry, pharmaceutical industry, but also in molecular biology.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. Classification of hydrophobins. 3. Structure of hydrophobin genes and proteins. 4. Formation of hydrophobin film. 5. Production, secretion and formation of hydrophobins in the natural environment. 6. Properties of hydrophobins. 7. The use of hydrophobins in various fields. 8. Manufacturing of hydrophobins. 9. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00TYPE VB AND VI SECRETION SYSTEMS AS COMPETITION AGENTS OF GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIAhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.4.360<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Bacterial competition, defined as a local neighbour interactions, can lead to competitors coexistence, bacterial community self-organization or as travelling waves of species dominance in ecological niches. Bacteria have developed many mechanisms to communicate and compete. Kin discrimination mechanisms in bacterial populations allow species to distinguish a friend from a foe in bacterial environment. Type Vb and VI secretion systems (TVIbSS and TVISS) play crucial role in this phenomenon. A contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI), primarily found in <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> strains, utilities CdiB/CdiA protein of type Vb secretion system, described also as two-partner secretion (TPS) system, to inhibit growth of non-kin strains, where cell contact is required. Presence of an intracellular small immunity protein (CdiI) protects <italic>E. coli</italic> cells from autoinhibition. Other bacterial competition system, primarily found in nodulation process of <italic>Rhizobium leguminosarum</italic> bv. <italic>Trifolii</italic> strain, engages type VI secretion system. The structure of TVISS is more complicated and comprises the series of proteins with structural homology to bacteriophage tail proteins and membrane proteins which builds the core of the system (Tss proteins). Meanwhile, other proteins of the TVISS was described as associated proteins (Tag proteins). Important proteins for TVISS are haemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) which has hexameric, tubular structure and VgrG protein (valine-glycine repeat G) which play a dual role in the process: as a chaperone protein in secretion of effector toxin or/and as a secreted toxin itself. Despite the structural differences of both secretion systems they show functional homology in competition phenomenon and govern the social life of bacterial community.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. Contact-dependent growth inhibition. 2.1. Structure o CDI machinery. 2.2. Effectors of CDI system. 3. Type VI secretion system. 3.1. Structure of type VI secretion system. 3.2. Effectors of type VI secretion system. 4. Membership to polymorphic toxins system. 5. Role of the systems in bacterial biology. 6. Conclusions </p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00TICK-BORNE PATHOGENS IN INDIVIDUALS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 1 (HIV-1) INFECTIONhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.3.251<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The studies on the occurrence and diversity of tick-borne infections in HIV-infected individuals have been few, and the subject has been relatively neglected when compared with other infections associated with HIV. Non-specific symptoms of tick-borne diseases pose a challenge in clinical care and may lead to misdiagnosis, especially in HIV-positive patients, who often experience many non-specific clinical symptoms. Additionally, in immunocompromised patients, a significant delay of antibody production may occur, and the results of a serological test may be misinterpreted. This review focuses on the most common tick-borne infections in HIV-positive patients in Europe.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. Ticks as vectors. 3. Babesiosis. 3.1. Diagnostics and treatment. 4. Lyme borreliosis. 4.1. Diagnostics and treatment. 5. Rickettsiosis. 5.1. Diagnostics and treatment. 6. Conclusions</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00THE ROLE OF INFECTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROMEhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.3.260<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Campylobacter</italic> spp<italic/>. are Gram-negative, spiral, thermophilic, motile bacteria, which require microaerophilic environment for growth. They have restricted carbohydrate catabolism, but have well-developed mechanism of acquiring micronutrients instead. A common problem, especially in developing countries, is campylobacteriosis, mostly caused by <italic>Campylobacter jejuni</italic>. The major reason of this disease is the increasing resistance of these bacteria to commonly used antibiotics. The most frequent source of infection is poorly cooked poultry meat. Despite numerous cases of campylobacteriosis, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. However, the role of bacterial motility, adhesion, ability to invade hosts intestinal epithelial cells and secretion of toxins have been found significant. In addition to developing gastrointestinal infections, <italic>C. jejuni</italic> is firmly established as a causative agent of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, which is an autoimmune-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy of peripheral nerves. Molecular mimicry between bacterial surface structures and hosts gangliosides is responsible for the development of this disease. The serious local and systemic consequences of <italic>C. jejuni</italic> infections are the reason for monitoring the microbial purity of food, especially meat and drinking water, for <italic>C. jejuni</italic> contamination necessitating also new approaches to contamination prevention or minimization.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. Colonization and transmission pathways for <italic>Campylobacter</italic> spp<italic/>. 3. The pathogenesis of <italic>Campylobacter</italic> spp<italic/>. 3.1. Virulence factors. 4. Systemic consequences of <italic>Campylobacter</italic> spp<italic/>. infections in humans. 4.1. Role of <italic>C. jejuni</italic> infection in demyelination of peripheral nerves. 4.2. Antigenic mimicry between host gangliozydes and <italic>C. jejuni</italic>. 4.3. Role of cytokines in the development of GBS. 4.4. The strategy in Guillain-Barré Syndrome therapy. 5. Summary </p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00DRUG RESISTANCE IN THE GENUS – CURRENT PROBLEM IN HUMANS AND ANIMALShttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.3.244<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Drug-resistant bacteria from the genus <italic>Enterococcus</italic> are currently among the most important pathogens behind healthcare-associated infections. The drug resistance of these bacteria has been on the increase since the 1980s, leeding to their multi-drug resistance. Selective pressure, present mainly in the hospital environment, contributed to this phenomenon. However, also outside the hospital environment selective pressure comes into play, namely the use of antibiotics as promoters of growth in animal husbandry and in food production. Household pets form a reservoir of drug-resistant enterococcal strains, too. The exchange of resistance genes between enterococcal strains from different niches poses a threat to public health.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. Hospital environment. 3. Farm animals. 4. Food. 5. Household pets. 6. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00PREDICTIVE MICROBIOLOGY OF FOODhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.3.229<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The beginnings of predictive microbiology date back to 1920 when Bigelow developed a logarithmic-linear dependence of kinetics on the death of microorganisms. Predictive microbiology is a sub-discipline of food microbiology, whose task is to predict the behavior of microorganisms in food using mathematical models. The predictive model for microbiology is usually a simplified description of the correlation between the observed reactions and the factors responsible for the occurrence of these reactions. There are several main conceptual models (empirical vs. mechanistic, stochastic vs. deterministic, dynamic vs. static), in which there are model divisions depending on the type of examined microorganism or the nature of the problems caused by microbes (kinetic vs. probabilistic), described variables (first, secondary and tertiary) or the influence of environmental factors on microbial populations (growth, survival, inactivation). The new generations of models include molecular and genomic models, transfer models, Artificial Neural Network, interactions between species, and single cell models.</p><p>The process of creating a mathematical model requires coordination of work and the knowledge of: microbiology, statistics, mathematics, chemistry, process engineering and computer and web science. It also requires appropriate hardware and software. There are four stages in the construction of a mathematical model: planning; data collection and analysis; mathematical description; validation and storage of data.</p><p>In recent years, numerous computer software programs have been developed: FISHMAP, FSSP, Dairy Product Safety Predictor, Symbiosis, GroPIN, Listeria Meat FDA-iRISK, TRiMiCri, Microbial Responses, GlnaFiT, FILTREX, PMM-Lab. ComBase database, on the other hand, is a pioneering achievement as an on-line tool. Some programs meet the requirements for creating Food Safety Model Repositories (FSMR).</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. The idea of predictive microbiology. 3. Historical background of predictive microbiology. 4. The concept of a model and modeling concepts in food microbiology. 4.1. Concept 1: empirical vs. mechanistic models. 4.2. Concept 2: static vs. dynamic models. 4.3. Concept 3: stochastic vs. deterministic models. 5. Breakdowns of prognostic models. 5.1. Neural networks. 5.2. A new generation of predictive models. 6. The construction of the predictive model. 6.1. Planning the experiment. 6.2. Collection of data. 6.3. Data analysis. 6.4. Model validation. 7. Predictive microbiology in risk analysis. 8. Summary</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LIPOPEPTIDEShttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21307/PM-2018.57.3.213<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The constantly growing number of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains prompts the search for alternative treatments. Synthetic peptides based on natural antimicrobial peptides, also known as antimicrobial lipopeptides, can become a promising group of “drugs” to fight multi-resistant bacteria. The present paper discusses the origins of synthetic lipopeptides, their classification and antimicrobial properties.</p><p>1. Introduction. 2. Antimicrobial peptides. 3. Classification of antimicrobial peptides. 4. Lipopeptide antibiotics. 5. Synthetic lipopeptides. 5.1. Ultrashort lipopeptides. 5.2. Peptidomimetics. 5.3. Multivalent lipopeptides. 5.4. Hydrocarbon-stapled lipopeptides. 5.5. Antimicrobial lipopeptides in laboratory researches. 6. Summary </p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1