rss_2.0Anthropological Review FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Anthropological Review Review 's Cover years of the Polish Anthropological Society and Anthropological Review: a success story optimization of female combat sports athletes as seen by the anthropologists<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Body build and proportions are key determinants of athletic success. The effects of the athlete selection process and discipline-specific training are differentiated body dimensions. The aim of the study was to examine the physical characteristics of female combat athletes. The results of anthropometric measurements of 154 females aged 21.2±1.79 years competing in judo, jiu-jitsu, karate, taekwondo, and fencing for 7.5±3.43 years.</p><p>Significant differences were observed between the judo and karate, taekwondo and fencing practitioners in chest, hip, arm and forearm girths. More variance was observed in body proportions. Fencers had the slimmest body shape, a more massive body size in the judokas. Longer upper extremities relative to lower extremity length were found in the jiu-jitsu group. Relative to body height, a larger torso and greater girths were observed in the judokas compared with the fencing, karate, and taekwondo practitioners. The groups did not differ in the level of endomorphy. Mesomorphy was highest in judokas and the lowest in fencers, although ectomorphy was most dominant in the latter group.</p><p>Females practitioners of combat sports exhibit differences in physical characteristics as an effect of optimizing body type and build via the training and athlete selection process of a given discipline. The anthropometric measures could play a role in talent identification programmes for martial arts and help the trainers to optimize the motoric effectiveness of athletes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Discriminative grandparental investment – the impact of grandchild’s gender and sociodemographic parameters<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Homo sapiens is a typical cooperative breeder and grandparents are among the most important caregivers besides the mothers. Grandparental investment however differs markedly between maternal and paternal grandparents but also between grandmothers and grandfathers. From an evolutionary viewpoint this differential grandparental investment is mainly explained as a result of paternity uncertainty. On the other hand emotional support and child care help from grandparents may also be associated with sociocultural factors. The present study focused on the impact of grandchild’s gender, but also grandparental age and occupation on discriminative grandparental investment, i.e. solicitude, contact frequency and quality of relationship. 272 adults persons between the age 18 and 35 years (x= 23.5yrs; ±3.7) were enrolled in the study. Patterns of grandparental investment during childhood as well as quality of the grandparent- grandchild relationship were collected retrospectively using a 57 item questionnaire. As to be expected maternal grandmothers showed the highest contact frequency and the highest solicitude while -as to be expected - the paternal grandfather exhibited the lowest degree of investment. Grandparental investment was independent of grandparent category mainly influenced by residential distance. Grandchild’s gender and sociodemographic characteristics of the grandparents in contrast had a minor impact on grandparental caregiving and contact frequency. Contrary, grandchild’s gender was related significantly with the quality of relationship and emotional closeness.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Body composition of Slovak midlife women with cardiovascular complications<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of this study was to analyse differences in body composition of women with and without cardiovascular complications. Bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioimpedance monofrequency analyser (BIA 101) and tissue electric properties were analysed by bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA). The clinical sample (with CVD) consisted of 254 women ranging in age between 39 and 65 years. The sample of women without CVD consisted of 318 women in the same age range and was created from database of our previous studies. Statistical analysis adjusted for age showed significant differences in body composition characteristics of the studied samples. The results of vector analysis showed significantly different tissue electric properties of women in studied groups, what was confirmed by the Hotelling T2- test (p=0.0000). More women with CVD attained risky mean values of obesity indices of BMI and WHR than their “healthy” counterparts. Among women with CVD 80.2% had higher value of the BMI index than optimal one (&gt;24.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and 74.4% of women had higher value of the WHR index than optimal (&gt;0.80). From the BIA parameters strong correlation coefficient was found between BMI and FM in both groups (r=0.962 for women with CVD; r=0.968 for relatively healthy women). Our data confirmed that cardiovascular disease complications are strongly linked in body composition changes. The cross-sectional nature of our study makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding causal pathways, though variables of obesity are in line with unhealthy conditions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The Invaders. How Humans and Their Dogs Drove Neanderthals to Extinction relationship between latitudinal light variation and orbit and cranial size in humans<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Increased orbit size is suggested to be an adaptation for enhanced visual acuity and sensitivity in conditions of reduced light quality. Whilst light ambience has a well established correlation with eye size in birds and primates, evidence in humans is very limited. The aim of this study was to analyse the anatomical compensations of the eye and visual cortex as a result of varying levels of light exposure. It was hypothesized that humans of higher latitudes will have an increased orbit size to improve visual sensitivity and acuity in conditions of decreased light, and thus greater cranium size due to enlarged visual cortices. Craniometric measurements of 1,209 male and 1,021 female individuals from 27 series coming from different latitudes were sourced from William W. Howells Craniometric Data Set. Mean cranial and orbit size was calculated by combining linear craniometric measurements of length, width and height for individual males and females at each latitude. Linear regressions of orbit and cranial size on latitude were created and significance was measured using Pearson’s r and P value. Partial correlations were calculated to test whether orbit size correlates with latitude independent of cranial size. Significant positive correlations were found between i) orbit and cranial size and ii) orbit size and latitude and iii) cranial size and latitude in males and females. Additionally, partial correlation values for latitude and orbit size were significant in both males and females. The relationship between visual system size and increasing latitude among humans is currently understudied. Significant relationships between visual system size and increasing latitude suggest that enlarged eyes were an evolutionary mechanism for individuals with compromised light availability. Other factors related to varying geographic location may also play a role</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00No effect of birth month or season on height in a large international sample of adults<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Although several studies in recent years have provided evidence of a relationship between month of birth and height during childhood, the association remains less clear for adult (final) height. Here, I investigated this relationship using a large international sample of adult actors. Analyses considered both the sample as a whole, as well as subsamples based on nationality, and treated men and women separately. In all instances, I found no relationship between birth month or season and height, even after controlling for year of birth. This may be due to the particular nature of samples of actors, who are taller than the general population, or could suggest more broadly that birth month effects are minimal or absent in adults.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The relationship between facial morphology, body measurements and socio-economic factors<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Background and aim: The effect of socio-economic factors (living conditions) and parental smoking habits on development of facial morphology and body measurements was studied on a longitudinal Czech sample of 25 girls and 25 boys.</p><p>Subjects and methods: A set of studied digitalized photographs taken from 0.5 to 18 years in intervals of 6 months originated in the Brno Longitudinal Study. Facial shape changes of sub-adult participants were described using a configuration of 27 landmarks and further studied by using methods of geometric morphometric and multivariate statistics. In order to localize growth-related shape changes within the face, the studied region was divided into upper, middle and lower facial units and analyzed separately.</p><p>Results and conclusion: The results show that in the course of ontogenesis there is a strong correlation between facial shape change and body measurements, height included (r=0.10 and r=0.24 in boys and in girls, respectively). The pubertal spurt of the facial shape change rate was revealed at 10.5 years in girls and at 11.5 years in boys. The earlier onset of the pubertal rate increase in facial shape changes in boys was associated with records of poor living conditions. In addition, the mother’s smoking habits were linked to a noticeable facial shape change.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Association patterns between 2D:4D ratio and age at menarche: the impact of methodology<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The ratio of index finger to ring finger length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic feature and widely used as an indicator of prenatal androgen-estrogen exposure. Several studies have investigated the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and the onset of the first menstrual period (menarche) in women.</p><p>The present study tested the association patterns between 2D:4D ratio and age at menarche. Furthermore, the impact of methods of measuring finger lengths was considered.</p><p>Two samples were used to conduct the study. One sample consisted of 110 women who self-measured their finger lengths. The finger length measurements in the second sample (88 women) were taken from one trained observer using the caliper-based technique. Age at menarche was determined using a retrospective method.</p><p>Women from the first sample reported an average age for the onset of the first menstrual bleeding at 12.9 (SD = 1.4) years of age. There was no significant association between the left and right 2D:4D ratio and the age at menarche. The second sample showed a mean age at menarche at 12.8 (SD = 1.3) years of age. Here, the right hand 2D:4D ratio and age at menarche were significantly correlated (<italic>p</italic>&lt;0.001).</p><p>A more feminine 2D:4D ratio was significantly associated with an earlier menarcheal age only in the sample with direct finger length measurements by a trained investigator. The sample using self-measurements yielded no significant associations between menarcheal age and 2D:4D. The use of a reliable and well-founded methodology is essential for obtaining meaningful results.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Dread in Academia – how COVID-19 affects science and scientists<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In order to gain an insight into scholars’ concerns emerging from the COVID-19 crisis, we asked scientists from all over the world about their attitudes and predictions regarding the repercussions of this current crisis on academia. Our data showed that the academic world was placed in an unprecedented situation. Results further showed that everybody worked on-line, conducting studies was impossible or highly impeded, and lab work was difficult. Almost a quarter of all scientists participating in our survey were anxious about their scientific employment, and over 25% expected serious financial losses as a consequence of the pandemic. Moreover, we identified sex differences regarding the severity of the COVID-19 impact in the majority of questions. We inferred from this that women perceived to be in a worse situation than men.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Identification of sex using discriminant function analysis of fingerprint ridge density at three topological areas among North Indian population<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present study attempted to identify sex of an individual using a fingerprint ridge density at three topological areas in the North Indian population. The study population consisted of 134 males and 136 females aged 17 to 25 years (mean age 19.34±2.12). Ridge density (RD) at radial, ulnar and proximal topological areas of the distal phalanges were determined on the surface area of 25mm<sup>2</sup>. Fingerprint ridge density in a defined area was significantly higher among females as compared to their male counterparts at radial, ulnar and proximal topological areas for both hands. Sexual dimorphic ratio also supported this trend for all three counting areas in right and left hands. Univariate discriminant function analysis explained that the left 2 radial (L2R) (88.1%) had the highest percentage of accuracy for sex identification, followed by the left 3 ulnar (L3U) (82.1%) and the right 2 ulnar (R2U) (81.6%). Multivariate discriminant function analysis showed that the radial topological area of the left hand was the best predictor of sex with the overall accuracy of 84.4%with following discriminant function equation −8.263 − 0.236(L1R) + + 0.321(L2R) + 0.269(L3R) + 0.268(L4R) − 0.067(L5R).</p><p>It can be inferred that ridge density in the radial topological area of left hand is the most reliable tool for identifying the sex of an individual.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Social position in a peer group of school-aged boys and selected biological parameters<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The period of adolescence includes biological, psychological and social maturation. All these processes complement and affect each other. The ultimate goal is the transition from childhood to adulthood which enables individuals to become socialized beings, who are psychologically mature and able to pass on their genetic inheritance. In the process of reaching full maturity, adolescents are exposed to both positive and negative stimuli the socio-cultural environment. In the process of socialization, the influence of peers, and the maturing into social roles is important. At the same time, adolescents mature biologically. A holistic understanding of the sequence of changes that occur during adolescence foregrounds the significance of biology in informing emotions and cognition. Research conducted on adolescents from Wrocław, Poland, showed the impact that physical development plays on social development within a school peer group. Adolescents with a slower pace of maturity, lower BMI, and lower body height achieved the lowest social status in the group’s hierarchy. These adolescents also became victims of peer rejection. The role of scapegoat assigned to them highlighted and completed the symptomatic rejection process, which highlighted negative social group behaviours. In contrast, their peers from the same classes, with higher biological parameters, became leaders in the school’s social groups. Furthermore, sociometric ‘stars’, leaders and gray eminences, compared to scapegoats, achieved maturity faster, and had greater body height and higher BMI among all age groups.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship between bone density of paranasal sinuses and adrenal steroids pattern in women during menopausal transition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The course of menopause transition (MT) is associated with peculiarities of alterations occurring in a woman’s body, in particular, in the structure of bone tissue. Considering that bones of the paranasal sinuses (BPNSs) play a natural defense role against the spread of dental infection, their structure is important in dentistry. However, no information was found pertaining to changes of BPNSs during MT – a time when dental maladies increase in many women.</p><p>The aim of our study was to collate density of BPNSs with status of adrenal steroids in women during MT, since the pattern of their changes determines the course of MT.</p><p>Cross-sectional associations were examined between bone density of PNSs assessed by Spiral Computed Tomography and Serum content of testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), Adione, and Adiol in 113 women of perimenopausal age (age range from 45 to 55 years) who had already experienced premenopausal menstrual decline (amenorrhea less than 2 years).</p><p>Strong positive (r = 0.73) correlation between minimal bone density of maxillary sinus in women with level of DHEAS was detected. It is important to note, that the correlation between minimal density of the lower wall of frontal sinus is a weak positive (0.3). Therefore, it can be suggested that bone tissue of the maxillary sinus is more sensitive to changes in DHEAS.</p><p>The study showed that the level of male steroids, in particular DHEAS, affected the state of bone tissue in participants older than 50 years of age.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00From gerontology to geroscience: a synopsis on ageing<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Biological ageing can be tentatively defined as an intrinsic and inevitable degradation of biological function that accumulates over time at every level of biological organisation from molecules to populations. Senescence is characterised by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. With advancing age, all components of the human body undergo these cumulative, universal, progressive, intrinsic and deleterious (CUPID) changes. Although ageing is not a disease <italic>per se</italic>, age is the main risk factor for the development of a panoply of age-related diseases. From a mechanistic perspective, a myriad of molecular processes and components of ageing can be studied. Some of them seem especially important and they are referred to as the hallmarks of ageing. There is compelling evidence that senescence has evolved as an emergent metaphenomenon that originates in the difficulty in maintaining homeodynamics in biological systems. From an evolutionary perspective, senescence is the inevitable outcome of an evolutionarily derived equilibrium between the amount of resources devoted to somatic maintenance and the amount of resources devoted to sexual reproduction. Single-target, single-molecule and disease-oriented approaches to ageing are severely limited because they neglect the dynamic, interactive and networking nature of life. These limitations notwithstanding, many authors promote single-target and disease-oriented approaches to senescence, e.g. repurposed drugs, claiming that these methods can enhance human health and longevity. Senescence is neither a disease nor a monolithic process. In this review, the limitations of these methods are discussed. The current state of biogerontology is also summarised.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Functional fitness of people over 65 participating in physical activities organized by the Universities of the Third Age and Seniors’ Clubs in South-Eastern Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The subject of the research was to assess the level of functional physical fitness of people aged 65 and over, taking into account the sex of the respondents, and to estimate the direction of changes in the functional physical fitness of the respondents as a result of participation in programmed physical activities of a University of the Third Age. The research on the level of functional physical fitness was carried out both among men and women aged 65 and over (104 men – 29% of the respondents and 251 women – 71% of the respondents), in total 355 people who are members of the Universities of the Third Age in Rzeszów, Mielec, Jasło, Zamość, and Seniors’ Clubs in Rzeszów, Stalowa Wola, Przemyśl, Krosno and Lubaczów. The Functional Senior Fitness Test by Rikli and Jones (1999) was used to objectively analyse the level of functional physical fitness in the study group. The individual tests of the Functional Senior Fitness Test give the opportunity to assess the muscle strength of the lower and upper body, flexibility in the upper and lower body areas, agility and dynamic balance as well as the aerobic endurance of the senior citizen.</p><p>The research procedure assumed two studies to assess the level of functional physical fitness of people over 65 using the Functional Senior Fitness Test among seniors who are members of Universities of the Third Age participating in physical activities. Study 2 was conducted 6 months after study 1. In order to obtain reliable and credible results of individual tests and to maintain similar conditions for all participants, study 1 was conducted at the University of the Third Age at the beginning of the winter semester, and study 2 at the end of the first half of the academic year. The number of respondents was n = 86.</p><p>Men showed statistically significantly higher results in muscle strength in upper and lower parts of the body and aerobic endurance, women in flexibility of upper and lower parts of the body. Regular participation in physical activities among people over 65 has a significant statistical impact on the achievement of higher results in individual motor skills.</p><p>Sex significantly differentiates the level of functional physical fitness in selected age groups. A significantly higher level of functional physical fitness was presented by men in the test of muscle strength in in upper and lower parts of the body, agility and dynamic balance, and aerobic endurance, while women showed higher results in flexibility of upper and lower parts of the body.</p><p>The analysis of the results of the preliminary (study 1) and repeated (study 2) functional fitness level allows us to find significant differences in the results of the Functional Senior Fitness Test. It is worth noting that the regular participation in programmed physical activities organized at U3A contributed to an improvement in individual motor skills, such as the strength of the lower and upper body and aerobic endurance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Tibetan Adolescent girls of Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Malnutrition among adolescents is an important public health issue in India. The aim of the present study was to assess nutritional status and body composition characteristics of adolescent girls and their interrelationships with physical activity and socioeconomic status (SES). Nutritional status and body composition characteristics were assessed in terms of body mass index (BMI), upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) and percent body fat (PBF) among 276 Tibetan adolescent girls from Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh. Overall, 12.7% of the girls were in the wasting category (using Z-score based classification for UAMAH) and 9.8% were thin. About 16.3% girls were obese. Significant variabilities of PBF have been observed with respect to age and levels of physical activity and wasting. Adolescent girls were observed to have higher lean body mass than body fat.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Frequency of dental caries in children in the Early Iron Age and the Medieval populations from Ukraine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In this paper we determine the caries frequency in children of the Early Iron Age (EIA) (the 9th - the 3d centuries BC) and the Medieval populations (the 8th - the beginning of the 15th century AD) from the Ukraine area, and compare the results with the data from several European populations who lived at the same time. The EIA is presented by 41 children skeletons, three of which were Cimmerian (the 9th - the 7th centuries BC) from the territory of contemporary Poltava region; 38 skulls from the territory of contemporary Poltava region and Crimea represented Scythian period (the 7th - the 3d centuries BC). Remains of 24 children from the Medieval populations were also examined, three of which were the ancient Hungarians from the Poltava region (the 8th - the 9th centuries AD), 6 Khazars from the Kharkiv region (the 8th - the 9th centuries), 1 child related the Old Rus culture from the Kyiv region (the 9th century), and 14 representatives of the nomadic populations in the Golden Horde period (the 13th - the beginning of the 15th century) from the Poltava and Zaporizhzhya regions. Taking in consideration the letter archaeobotanical studies we suggest that there were no major changes in the plants exploited during all the studied periods. The frequency of carious lesions in children from the Medieval populations (8.3% in individuals, 0.5% in deciduous teeth, and 0.4% in permanent teeth) is only slightly higher than those from the EIA period (2.4% in individuals and 0.2% in deciduous teeth). These indexes were not larger those of majority of European populations dated to the same historic period. Further isotopic, chemical and palaeobotanical studies of the additional sites, with sufficient sample sizes, allow us to learn so much more of the cariogenic factors in children of the past populations from the Ukraine area.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The frequency of overweight and obesity occurrence among Polish children (age 6–7 years) in relation to the place of residence, the education level of parents and the number children in the family<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This study sought to evaluate the number of those overweight and the rate of obesity among 6- and 7-year-olds living in Poland with regard to their place of residence, the parental level of education and the number of children in the family. The analysis was based on a survey of 64 544 children (33 051 boys and 31 493 girls) living in Poland. Overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass index (BMI) using the IOTF cut-off points. To evaluate the rates of overweight and obesity occurrence in children with regard to family socio-economic status, parental level of education, the number of children in the family, and the place of residence (divided into city and village) was used. ‘Only children’ were the most likely group to be overweight or obese. These children were twice as likely to be obese as their peers living in families with four or more children. Overweight and obesity occurred more often amongst children living in cities rather than those living in rural areas. Moreover, these conditions were more frequent among children whose parents had higher levels of education. The most significant predictors of childhood overweight and obesity were the number of children in the family and the educational level of the mother</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Using dental and activity indicators in order to explore possible sex differences in an adult rural medieval population from Thebes (Greece)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Assessing the subsistence strategies of past populations; through their dietary and occupational patterns; could provide important information regarding social status and possible gender differences, especially in turbulent historical periods, as the one of the Crusader’s occupation in Greece (1204-1460 AD). Therefore, the human sample from Aghia Triada in Thebes (13<sup>th</sup>-14<sup>th</sup> c. AD) serves as the ideal skeletal material. Diet was explored through two dental indicators; dental caries and tooth wear, while occupational stress was explored through three activity markers; osteoarthritis (OA), spinal facet remodeling and Schmorl’s nodes. The aims of the present study are to assess the dietary and activity patterns of the stated population and explore possible sex differentiations. A total of 126 teeth and 350 vertebrae have been examined. The entire population presents a caries rate of 16.7%, and males present a much higher caries frequency than females (25.5% males vs. 9.9% females). Furthermore, females present significantly higher rates of osteophytes than males, whereas no significant sex differences were found regarding facet remodeling and Schmorl’s nodes. Dental results confirm historical information of medieval Thebes having an agricultural economy and are also in agreement with isotopic data. In addition, our findings suggest very intense physical activity for both sexes, whereas the distribution of facet remodeling along the spine could indicate a possible gender division of labor. Our study proposes two positive correlations; between facet remodeling and osteophytes, and between Schmorl’s nodes and facet remodelling; as activity indicators in past or/and modern populations. Finally, we strongly encourage the inclusion of spinal facet remodelling in studies focusing on occupational stress.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Body Mass Index (BMI) assessment among Macau students: age group differences and weight management strategies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with being overweight later in life. Therefore, overweight tendencies need to be detected at an appropriate age, and suitable strategies need to be implemented for weight management to achieve optimal long-term health. The objective of this study was to investigate comparisons in BMI status and associated categories in male and female students over ten years in two phases, including 2008-2013 and 2009-2014. Weight and height data were collected to obtain BMI (Body Mass Index) over ten years in two phases. The first phase occurred from 2008 to 2013, and the second phase occurred from 2009 to 2014 in a population of 10846 school children (Males: 6970, 64.3%, and females: 3875, 35.7%) in Macau. Their ages ranged from 6 years old in 2008 to 11 years old in 2013. The same age range was observed in the second phase, i.e., 2009-2014. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, such as the mean, standard deviation, t-tests to determine gender differences (year-wise) and a Chi square test for independence to determine the relationship between BMI (Underweight, Standard, Overweight and Obese) and age groups. In the first phase (2008-2013), the findings indicated a higher BMI level among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2008 t = 5.24, 2009 t = 88.25, 2010 t = 11.32, 2011 t = 17.45, 2012 t = 19.70 and 2013 t = 19.92). In the second phase (2009-2014), a higher BMI level was found among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2009 t = 2.68, 2010 t = 2.886, 2011 t = 3.076, 2013 t = 4.228, and 2014 t = 2.405). The results of the two phases combined (2008 to 2014 and 2009 to 2014) revealed that male students in 2008 had a higher BMI level than their counterparts in 2009 in the two age categories (8 years t = 3.025 and 11 years t = 3.377). Female students in the second phase (2009-2014) showed a higher BMI level than their male counterparts (9 years, t = 3.151). The results indicate the need to have focused strategies and structured interventions for male students at the critical age range of 8 to 9 years old. The results of this study also imply the need for the delivery of suitable school intervention activities at the appropriate time. Specifically, the prevention of weight gain should start early in life to encourage the development of healthier behaviours and habits throughout childhood and later ages. </p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-21T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1