rss_2.0Annals of Animal Science FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Annals of Animal Science of Animal Science 's Cover use of artemia for aquaculture industry: An updated overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increasing global population tends many sectors to overcome the food security issue; sustainable aquaculture is one of the systems that reveal the food problem in the world. The aquaculture industry is drastically increasing to offer the growing demand for this food type. The high mortalities threaten this sector during the first larval stages because of the low supplies of suitable feed for the fish larva. Artemia is vital for the aquaculture industry as it is the primary feed source for fish larvae; it is distinguished by its small size, food carrier characteristic, and off-the-shelf food feature. However, the principal source of artemia cysts has been affected by climate change, ultimately affecting artemia cyst production. Consequently, many areas worldwide try to produce artemia locally to satisfy the aquaculture rearing requirements. As a feed transmitter, artemia can be enriched with essential elements to feed the fish larvae; this method increases survivability, growth performance, and other growth indicators for many fish species. This review aimed to update the academia and stakeholders involved in artemia production in relation to the aquaculture industry. An updated overview of artemia production is also presented in the current review.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of broiler chicken age and dietary protease on the standardised ileal digestibility of amino acids in seeds from two lupin species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The extent to which lupin seeds can replace soybean meal in diets for broiler chickens is limited, and one of the reasons for this may be a lack of careful consideration given to the age-related amino acid availability differences in the feed formulation process. This study aimed to determine and compare standardised ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients of amino acids (AA) in raw seeds of the <italic>Lupinus luteus</italic> (YL) and the <italic>Lupinus angustifolius</italic> (NLL) cultivars as sole sources of AA in the diet of broiler chickens aged 14 or 28 days. An additional purpose was to check the influence of exogenous mono-component protease added to lupin-based assay diets on AA SID in birds at both ages. Each assay diet was offered to six replicatecages. On both sampling days, the contents from the lower half of the ileum were collected for determination of the apparent digestibility values. The SID coefficients were calculated using the age-appropriate basal ileal endogenous AA losses determined from birds fed a N-free diet. Results indicated a substantial advantage of YL over the NLL in SID of Met, Cys, His, Leu, Gly, Asp, Glu, Pro, Tyr and the average of total AA for 14-d-old chickens. With the exception of Cys and Tyr, there was no significant difference between these <italic>Lupinus</italic> species in the SID of AA in 28-d-old birds. The significant age-related differences within species were found only for the seeds of NLL, where the higher SID for Met, His, Ala, Pro, and the averages of total and indispensable AA were noted in birds aged 28 d. The protease increased SID of most AA from <italic>L. luteus</italic> in older broilers, whereas for <italic>L. angustifolius</italic> its efficacy was more pronounced in younger birds, giving the SID values similar to those determined at 28 d on an enzyme-unsupplemented diet. In conclusion, the SID coefficients of indispensable AA determined at 14 or 28 days of age for yellow lupin should not be applied to the precise formulation of starter-type feeds containing seeds of NLL.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00How potentially sustainable solutions may be unsustainable in practice: carrot pomaces in common carp nutrition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of carrot pomaces dried at two temperatures as a feed component on growth performance, environmental sustainability, and meat quality in common carp (<italic>Cyprinus carpio</italic>). Three diets were developed: a control without pomace (CON); CPL with 15.5% carrot pomace dried at 40°C and CPH with 23.6% carrot pomace dried at 120°C. A total of 240 two-year-old common carp (average body weight of individual: 1025 g) were randomly distributed into 12 tanks, four per treatment, including 20 fish per tank. The experiment was performed using an outdoor open flow aquaculture system. The growth trial lasted 60 days, after which fish samples were taken for analysis of meat quality parameters. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of the final body weight, protein efficiency ratio, or survival rate. However, in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio, fish fed the CPH diet exhibited significant worsening. Moreover, the fillets of fish from the CPH group exhibited a darker coloration compared to the CON diet. It is concluded that high temperature drying of carrot pomace added to carp diet negatively affected fish quality. It should be also emphasized that inclusion of the both carrot pomaces tested in this study significantly increased the usage of fish meal per kilogram of fish body weight gain. These results showed a reduced efficacy of using carrot pomace in practical and sustainable common carp nutrition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of serum starvation and contact inhibition on dermal fibroblast cell cycle synchronization in two species of wild felids and domestic cat<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cell cycle synchronization of donor cells is an important step in mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was designed to compare the efficiency of serum starvation (Ss) and contact inhibition (cI) on cell cycle synchronization of jaguarundi, manul, and domestic cat skin fibroblasts, in the production of G0/G1 cells suitable for SCNT in felids. Ss was performed after the growing (G) cells reached 40–50% (G50+Ss), 60–70% (G70+Ss) and full confluency (Fc), i.e. in association with cI (cI+Ss). Frozen-thawed cells were cultured to the given state of confluency (d0; controls), and subjected to Ss or cI for 1, 3, and 5 days (d). In manul, the effect of Ss on arresting fibroblasts in the G0/G1 phase was noted after just 1d of culture at G70 confluence, while G50+Ss and cI+Ss were effective after 5d of treatment. In jaguarundi, 1–5d of G50+Ss and 5d of G70+Ss increased the percentage of G0/G1 cells versus d0 (P&lt;0.01), with 5d of G70+Ss producing more (P&lt;0.05) quiescent cells than after the same period of G50+Ss, cI+Ss and cI. In the domestic cat, Ss was efficient only after 3 and 5d of G50+Ss. In all species, cI alone failed to increase the proportion of G0/G1 cells compared to d0, however in the domestic cat, 5d of cI was more efficient than the same period of G50+Ss. In jaguarundi, &gt;93% of cells were already in G0/G1 phase at d0 of Fc, suggesting that culture to Fc could be also a valuable method for fibroblast cell cycle synchronization in this species. In contrast to cI, prolonged Ss generated cell loss and could induce apoptosis and/or necrosis. In conclusion, Ss was the more efficient method for skin fibroblast cell cycle synchronization at the G0/G1 phase in manul, jaguarundi and the domestic cat. The response of cells to the treatments was species-specific, depending on cell confluence and duration of culture. This research may find application in preparing donor karyoplasts for SCNT in felids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Aquamimicry system: a sutiable strategy for shrimp aquaculture – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Shrimp culture is the most lucrative sector in aquaculture industry; however, for its sustainable development the environment conservation should be concerned. New developed technologies are required to achieve aquaculture to its sustainable goals. Among the different novel sustainable technologies, the biofloc technology (BFT) and more recently the aquamimicry system are considered as reliable methods in burgeoning development of shrimp culture. The establishment of the BFT needs a certain carbon to nitrogen (C: N) ratio so that heterotrophic bacteria able to utilize nitrogenous metabolites, and preserve the water quality in the standard ranges suitable for shrimp culture. In addition, the produced floc can be used as supplementary food for shrimp. On the other hand, the establishment of the aquamimicry system relies on organic carbon without providing a specific C: N ratio. In this system, a synergistic relationship between a prebiotic source, which usually consists of an oligosaccharide derived from the fermentation of a carbon source (<italic>e.g.,</italic> rice bran), and a probiotic source such as <italic>Bacillus</italic> sp. can provide natural conditions by blooming phytoplankton and zooplankton organisms, especially copepods. These live foods can be used as complementary foods for shrimp. Furthermore, the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the aquamimicry system can provide stable culture condition for growth and welfare of shrimp. Based on the findings of recent literature, using the aquamimicry system for shrimp production is a more sustainable, eco-friendly, and greener than the conventional systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Why Osteoglossomorpha is one of the most peculiar groups of fish - a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Osteoglossomorpha is a significant taxon for studies of evolution and various aspects of fish biology as an evolutionarily old group of fish. The taxon exhibits anatomical, morphological and physiological diversity and various adaptations such as air breathing or electroreception as well as modifications visible in sight and olfactory organs. A peculiarity of this group is the presence of four types of spermatozoa, namely complex introsperm and uni-, bi-, and aflagellate aquasperm. Given the unique morphology and large dimensions of some species, osteoglossomorphs are popular in aquaristics as ornamental fish, and in fisheries because they are an important source of food in many countries. The aim of this paper is to focus on some aspects of the biology and unique features as well as the importance for humans of this unusual group of fish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Bio-active components in medicinal plants: A mechanistic review of their effects on fish growth and physiological parameters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>World population is increasing at a tremendous rate so is the demand for animal-based protein. Aquaculture is a promising industry that has the potential to supply high quality protein for mankind with minimum environmental impact. In the past decade, aquaculture practices have been shifting from extensive to intensive culture. To achieve maximum production per unit area, high stocking densities are maintained in intensive aquaculture. If not managed properly, this may lead to stress in fish. Fish under stress condition show decreased growth, suppressed appetite, weakened immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Chemicals, vaccines and antibiotics are used for the treatment of diseased fish. Use of synthetic chemicals, vaccines and antibiotics is not sustainable because pathogens develop resistance against them and they have high residues. Moreover, certain chemicals used for the treatment of fish diseases are not safe for humans therefore, are banned in some countries. Plant parts and their extracts are used in traditional medicines to cure many diseases and to improve health of mankind. In aquaculture industry, use of plants and their derivatives in fish feed to improve health status of fish is increasing. Several plants improve growth and overall health status of fish, some provide protection against pathogens by improving the immune system while others increase appetite by direct action on neuro-endocrine axis of fish. This review provides an in depth and up to date information about use of medicinal plants and their derivatives to improve growth and physiological status of fish and their possible mechanism of action.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Tomato pomace waste as safe feed additive for poultry health and production – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tomato cultivation and industrial processing produce a considerable amount of tomato pomace, peels, and seeds, which are difficult to handle. These by-products contain a variety of minerals and bioactive substances, and may thus be further valorized, generating additional revenue for processing plants while also decreasing environmental issues caused by their buildup. The inclusion of tomato pomace in poultry feed has been shown to produce promising effects in poultry growth and health, however the results are largely inconsistent. Literature has documented improvement in growth, egg production and quality, immunological and antioxidant effects in poultry. This review has complied the impacts of tomato pomace on the growth and health indices of poultry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Dietary (Macro-Algae, Sargassaceae) extract improved antioxidant defense system in diazionon-exposed common carp,<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of different dietary levels of algae (<italic>Sargassum angustifolium</italic>) extract were investigated on the antioxidant system of common carp, <italic>Cyprinus carpio</italic>. Fish (30.2 ± 2.1 g) were fed 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g/kg basal diet of <italic>Sargassum angustifolium</italic> extract (SAE) for 60 days and then exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of diazinon (2 mg/l) for 24 h. The biochemical assays was conducted in two times including at the end of feeding period and after 24 h exposure to diazinon. According to the results, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver remained unchanged (P&gt;0.01) during feeding period, while significantly increased in response to diazinon in control and fish fed 5 and 10 g/kg diet SAE (P&lt;0.01). The hepatic metabolic enzymes (AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, LDH: lactate dehydrogenase, CK: creatine kinase) showed no significant changes in all groups during feeding period, while these enzymes increased in Non-SAE supplemented fish and those fed 5 and 10 g/kg SAE after exposure to diazinon (P&lt;0.01). Although little elevations were observed in the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT: catalase, SOD: superoxide dismutase, GPx: Glutathione peroxidase) in fish fed SAE, these elevations were not significant (P&gt;0.01). After exposure to diazinon, antioxidant enzymes significantly decreased in control and fish fed 5 g/kg diet SAE, while the fish of 10 and 15 g/kg diet SAE treatments showed significant elevations (P&lt;0.01). The antioxidant-related genes (<italic>sod</italic>, <italic>cat</italic>, <italic>gpx</italic>) significantly expressed more in response to dietary SAE compared to control (P&lt;0.01). After exposure to diazinon, all groups showed significant elevations in antioxidant-related genes (P&lt;0.01). In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed the antioxidant enhancing effects of SAE at dietary levels of 10 and 15 g/kg diet, which this effect may be attributed to some antioxidant components in the chemical composition of the macro-algae or to the direct effect of SAE on antioxidant defence system of the fish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Gene expression adjustment of inflammatory mechanisms in dairy cow mammary gland parenchyma during host defense against staphylococci<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to identify differences in the expression of splice variants of the <italic>PRMT2, LTF</italic> and <italic>C4A</italic> genes in the mammary glands of healthy dairy cows and those infected with staphylococci. An expression study was conducted on 38 Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows who were removed from the herd owing to subclinical and chronic mastitic or reproductive issues. Two days before slaughter, milk samples were taken for microbiological analysis and examined for the presence of bacteria. The mammary gland parenchyma samples with a predominance of secretory tissue were taken; these were divided into three groups according to the health status of the mammary gland: H (without pathogenic bacteria in milk), CoNS (with coagulase-negative staphylococci in milk), and CoPS (with coagulase-positive staphylococci in milk). Two of the investigated genes, <italic>LTF</italic> and <italic>C4A</italic>, demonstrated variants unequivocally expressed in infected tissue. Two <italic>LTF</italic> gene variants were found to be associated with cow health status, and with the type of bacteria causing mastitis (CoPS or CoNS). In addition, the expression of C4A isoforms differed with regard to mastitis etiology groups. The comprehensive evaluation of <italic>PRMT2</italic> transcript suggested that the gene may also be involved in course of mastitis: two of four <italic>PRMT2</italic> transcripts showed increased expression in the mammary gland of the CoPS group compared to controls. The obtained results are important for the knowledge on the etiology of bovine mastitis. The effects of the identified mastitis-relevant splice variants need to be further explored on the protein level to verify the suitability of splice variants and recognize their contribution towards the disease phenotypes and course.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Fibrolytic enzymes increases fermentation losses and reduces fiber content of sorghum silage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fiber digestibility is a key-point of forage usage in ruminant production systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of fibrolytic enzyme blend on whole-plant sorghum silage fermentation profile, fermentative losses, chemical composition, in vitro degradation, and aerobic stability. It used fifty experimental silos (plastic bucket, 28 cm i.d. and 25 cm of height) in a blocked randomized design to evaluate the following fibrolytic enzyme levels: 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 mL per ton. of dry matter (DM). Enzymes had 300 U/mL of xylanase and 300 U/mL of cellulase. Enzymes linearly increased acetic acid, branched-chain organic acids, and ethanol concentration of silage. Although there was no treatment effect on silage DM recovery over the ensiling process, enzyme levels linearly increased gas, effluent, and total losses. Intermediary levels of enzymes (from 312 to 342 mL/ton. DM) decreased fiber content (NDF and ADF), whereas improved NFC silage content. Besides, enzymes did not affect DM and NDF degradation and tended to linearly reduce acid detergent fiber in vitro degradation. The enzymes addition linearly decreased silage temperature after aerobic exposure. However, there was no treatment effect on silage pH after aerobic exposure neither during the time that silage remained with a temperature lower than 2 °C above environmental temperature. Thus, fibrolytic enzymes reduce fiber content, promote a heterolactic fermentation, and reduce silage temperature after aerobic exposure. However, it increases fermentative losses and has no positive effect on in vitro degradation and in the time of aerobic stability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The quality of duck meat – from the perspective of physical measurements and expert judgment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between some physicochemical properties and organoleptic assessments of duck meat quality and expert assessment of the general appearance of raw breast and leg muscles. Body, carcass, breast and leg muscle weight were analysed. For both breast and leg muscles the following parameters were recorded: water holding capacity, thermal drip, colour lightness L*, electrical conductivity after 15 minutes and 24 hours <italic>post mortem,</italic> as well as four traits subject to expert organoleptic evaluation (general appearance, colour, odour and fatness). The dependence was evaluated using the Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression equations (the general appearance was treated as a dependent variable). Three sets of variables were considered as factors influencing the general appearance of the raw breast and leg muscles. First, the influence of jointly selected performance traits and physiochemical properties of meat was analysed. Next, the impact of only the second-mentioned group of discriminants was considered, and then the dependence on other organoleptic attributes. It was shown that for both muscle groups, the following have a significant effect on the general appearance: muscle weight (breast muscle p &lt; 0.0001, leg muscle p &lt; 0.0001) in the first set, electrical conductivity 15 minutes after slaughter (breast muscle p = 0.023, leg muscle p = 0.042) in the second, and colour (both muscle groups p &lt; 0.0001) in the third. Muscle weight, electrical conductivity 15 minutes <italic>post mortem</italic> and visually assessed colour can be used to make a preliminary assessment of the technological and culinary quality of duck meat. Moreover, measurement with a conductometer is an economical and fast method, possible to carry out in a slaughterhouse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of higher plasma growth hormone levels on subclinical ketosis in postpartum Holstein cows<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ketosis is a major metabolic disorder that can lead to huge economic losses in postpartum dairy cows by influencing milk production and reproduction performance. Therefore, it is very important to understand the characteristics and significance of plasma GH levels and dynamic changes in postpartum dairy cows for finding pathogenesis of subclinical ketosis (SK). The present study aimed to determine the role of growth hormone (GH) from the onset of SK to the fifth week postpartum and to explain the variations in GH, and metabolic markers namely, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glucose (GLU) at early and later SK stages in postpartum Holstein cows. A 5-wk test and an intraday 12-h test were conducted in postpartum Holstein cows. Both tests were carried out every three hours from 10:00–22:00 for 7–14 days postpartum (12-h test: n = 16) to determine plasma concentrations of GH, BHBA, NEFA and GLU. The 5-wk test results showed that GH, BHBA and NEFA concentrations were significantly higher in the SK group during the five-weeks postpartum (p &lt; 0.01); GLU concentration was significantly lower in the SK group (p &lt; 0.01). Intraday 12-h test results revealed that the feeding time affected the plasma concentrations of GH, BHBA, NEFA and GLU. After 1-h of feeding time, GH concentrations decreased, while BHBA, NEFA and GLU concentrations increased. After 4-h of feeding time GH, BHBA and NEFA had the highest plasma concentrations, and GLU the lowest. In both experiments, GH was positively correlated with BHBA, NEFA, and negatively correlated with GLU. It can be suggested that GH has a potential role in development and aetiology of subclinical ketosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the growth of genetically improved tilapia reared at different temperatures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the growth and performance of genetically improved tilapia reared at different temperatures. Four hundred and eighty fingerlings of Genomar Supreme Tilapia, GST (8.39 ± 0.60 g) were equally separated into three indoor water recirculation systems maintained at 22, 26 and 30 ºC. Each of four tanks contained 500 liters with 40 fish per tank in natural photoperiod. The fish were fed ad libitum with the same feed for each growth phase, weighing the total feed supplied. After 30 min of feeding, leftover feed was collected, dried in an oven and weighed. Ten fish from each tank were weighed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210. Survival, weight gain, feed conversion and feed intake in each period were determined. Fish reared at 30 ºC and 26 ºC showed a higher specific growth rate than that of fish reared at 22ºC (P≤0.05). Feed intake increased along temperature and feed conversion and was poorest in fish reared at 26ºC (P≤0.05). Final fish weight estimates at day 210 by the Gompertz model were 597.84, 819.26 and 1079.39 g for 22, 26 and 30 ºC, respectively. At 30 ºC, fish had a higher absolute growth rate (7.76 g day<sup>−1</sup>) and lower weight (459.30 g) and age (95.85 days) at the inflection point. Tilapia at 22 ºC had a higher weight (539.57 g) and age (197 days) and lower absolute growth rate (4.52 g day<sup>−1</sup>). It was concluded that GST tilapia can potentially improve aquaculture in all Brazilian regions based on different rearing temperatures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences and changes: an evaluation of the genetic diversity of Arabian mares from Polish state studs born between 1996 and 2013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of our study was to estimate genetic diversity of Arabian horses from Polish state studs which could have changed due to the extensive use of foreign sires in Polish breeding after 1989. The analysis focused on 1,388 Arabian mares born from 1996 to 2013 in the Białka, Janów Podlaski and Michałów studs. Basic parameters of pedigree, mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses were considered in the study. In the pedigree analysis, changes in the gene pool over the years were noted through the considerable increase of contribution of new founders’ genes and the considerable decrease of inbreeding level. The microsatellite analysis confirmed progressive changes in the gene pool but, contrary to expectations, only three new microsatellite alleles were detected, and a decreased level of heterozygosity was observed. In turn, mtDNA analysis showed a stable genetic situation in the studs throughout the period analysed. The results of the analyses present a diverse picture of the population, which is clearly divided into the three subpopulations of Białka, Janów Podlaski and Michałów, although the pictures presented differed depending on the analytical methods used. Genetic differences among the studs should be considered a positive feature of the Polish population. In order to preserve the present level of population genetic diversity, changes in breeding policy are needed that aim to stop the loss of genes of the historical ancestors of Polish Arabian horses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of dietary halloysite supplementation on broiler chicken’s blood parameters, carcass and meat quality, and bone characteristics: a preliminary study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effect of halloysite supplementation to the complete diets for broiler chickens on selected blood parameters, carcass and organ characteristics, as well as bone and meat traits. The trial was conducted under experimental conditions in a large-scale poultry farm on 18,000 broiler chickens. The one-day broiler chicken Ross 308 chicks were randomly divided into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E) in an amount of 9,000 birds per group. In each group, chicks were separated into five pens (100 m2) with 1800 chicks per pen. The birds were fed granulated complete mixtures without (C group) or with halloysite (E group) distributed in an amount of 1% (based on fresh matter) from the 11 d of life. Analysis revealed that halloysite supplementation to the broiler diet at the level of 1% showed a trend (<italic>P</italic> = 0.056) towards higher final body weight, significantly improved carcass yield (<italic>P</italic> = 0.048), and reduced the relative weights of the liver and gizzard (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). No differences (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) were observed either in terms of the physicochemical parameters of the broiler chickens’ breast muscles, except a significantly lower b* value of the colour parameter (<italic>P</italic> = 0.048). In turn, in the blood serum, the addition of 1% halloysite significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) the content of triglycerides and the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fraction, but did not affect (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) the high-density lipoprotein fraction, calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphate content. Tibia and femur characteristics (weight, length, relative bone weight, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and breaking strength) were not affected (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) by the usage of halloysite. In conclusion, supplementation of broiler diet with halloysite in the amount of 1% had beneficial effects on the carcass yield and health status of the animals, without any adverse effect on the bone parameters or meat quality of the broiler chickens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00New long-non coding RNAs related to fat deposition based on pig model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Obesity is a problem in the last decades since the development of certain technologies has forced submission to a faster pace of life, resulting in nutritional changes. Domestic pigs are an excellent animal model in recognition of adiposity-related processes, corresponding to the size of individual organs, the distribution of body fat in the organism, and similar metabolism. The present study applied next-generation sequencing to identify adipose tissue (AT) transcriptomic signals related to increased fat content by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including long-non coding RNAs in Złotnicka White pigs (n=16). Moreover, besides commonly used functional analysis, we applied the Freiburg RNA tool to predict DE lncRNA targets based on calculation hybridisation energy. And in addition, DE lncRNAs were recognized based on information available in databases. The obtained results show that closely 230 gene expression was found to be dependent on fat content, included 8 lncRNAs. The most interesting was that among identified DE lncRNAs was transcript corresponding to human MALAT1, which was previously considered in the obesity-related context. Moreover, it was identified that in <italic>ENSSSCG00000048394, ENSSSCG00000047210, ENSSSCG00000047442</italic> and <italic>ENSSSCG00000041577</italic> lncRNAs are contained repeat insertion domains of LncRNAs (RIDLs) considered as important gene expression regulatory elements, and <italic>ENSSSCG00000041577</italic> seems to be the host for mir1247(NR_031649.1). The analysis of energy hybridisation between DE lncRNAs and DEGs using the Freiburg IntaRNAv2 tool, including isoforms expressed in AT, showed that <italic>ENSSSCG00000047210</italic> lncRNA interacted with the highest number of DEGs and <italic>ENSSSCG00000047210</italic> expression was only correlated with positive fat-related DEGs. The functional analysis showed that down-regulated DEGs involved in ECM proteoglycan pathways could be under control of both positive and negative fat-related lncRNAs. The present study, using pigs as an animal model, expands our current knowledge of possible gene expression regulation by lncRNAs in fat tissue and indicates for <italic>MALAT1</italic> role in the fat deposition determination, which function is still often questioned or doubtful.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00 (IBRC-M 10,711) ameliorates the growth retardation, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression induced by malathion toxicity in goldfish ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Probiotics can functionality improve fish wellbeing and are suggested as antioxidative agents to protect fish from xenobiotics toxicity. Herein, dietary <italic>Lactobacillus casei</italic> (IBRC-M 10,711) was included in the diets of goldfish (<italic>Carassius auratus</italic>) to protect against malathion toxicity. Fish (12.47 ± 0.06 g) were randomly allocated to six groups (triplicates), as follows: T1) control; T2) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC<sub>50</sub>; T3) <italic>L. casei</italic> at 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g diet; T4) <italic>L. casei</italic> at 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/g diet; T5) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC<sub>50</sub> + <italic>L. casei</italic> at 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g diet; T6) fish exposed to 50% of malathion 96 h LC<sub>50</sub> + <italic>L. casei</italic> at 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/g diet. After 60 days, goldfish fed T4 had the highest final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the groups (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). However, the T2 group showed lower FBW, WG, and SGR and higher FCR than fish in T1 (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Fish in the T4 group had the highest blood total proteins, albumin, and globulin, while fish in T2 had the lowest levels (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Fish in the group T2 had the highest triglycerides, cholesterol, cortisol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the blood, while fish fed T4 had the lowest values (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest activities in T3 and T4 groups, and the lowest SOD was seen in the T2 group, whereas the lowest CAT was seen in the T2, T5, and T6 groups (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Fish in the T5 and T6 groups had higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities than fish in T1 and T2 groups but T3 and T4 groups showed the highest values (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). T2 group had the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) level, while T3 and T4 groups had the lowest MDA level (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Blood immunoglobulin (Ig) and lysozyme activity were significantly higher in T3 and T4 groups and lower in the T2 group than in the control (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). The alternative complement pathway (ACH<sub>50</sub>) was significantly higher in T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6 groups than in the T1 group (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Skin mucus Ig was significantly higher in T3 and T4 groups and lower in the T2 group than in the control (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). The highest lysozyme activity, protease, and ACH<sub>50</sub> in the skin mucus samples were in the T4 group, while the lowest values were in the T2 group (P &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, dietary <italic>L. casei</italic> protects goldfish from malathion-induced growth retardation, oxidative stress, and immunosuppression.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The effects of different stocking densities on nursery performance of Banana shrimp () reared under biofloc condition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of Banana shrimp <italic>Fenneropenaeus merguiensis</italic> stocking density on water quality, growth performance, survival rate and body composition was assessed in a biofloc system with limited water exchange. The study was conducted for 32 days with an average larvae weight of 10 ± 0.85 mg in fiberglass tanks containing 120 L of water at four stocking densities. Five experimental treatments consisted of a control (density 1000 shrimps/ m<sup>3</sup>) with 50% daily water exchange and four biofloc treatments with limited water exchange (0.5% daily) at four stocking levels (1000 shrimps, T1; 2000 shrimps, T2, 3000 shrimps, T3 and 4000 shrimps, T4/ m<sup>3</sup>) were considered. According to the results, total ammonia nitrogen (0.99 mg /L) and nitrite levels showed higher amounts in the control compared with the other treatments (P&lt;0.05). Growth performance and survival rate (95.55%) in the biofloc treatment with a density of 1000 shrimps/ m<sup>3</sup> were higher than the other treatments (P&lt;0.05). The proximate composition of shrimp body and biofloc produced in rearing tanks depended on the stocking density, so the shrimp body ash increased along with the enhancement of stocking density. The lowest amount of ash (31.53± 0.81%) and protein (26.38± 1.26) of bioflocs was observed in T1 treatment. The present study showed that stocking density affects the water quality, growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Banana shrimp larvae in a biofloc system. More improved indices of water quality, growth performance and survival rate were observed with the least stocking density of 1000 shrimps / m<sup>3</sup> in the limited water exchange system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating local strains of soybean and corn cultivars in the diets of Nile tilapia (): growth and insulin-like growth factor 1, intestinal health, and inflammation features<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recently, the high cost of aquafeed affected fish farming feasibility in some countries, including Egypt. The imported soybean meal and corn ingredients consume a large amount of the hard currency, thereby increasing feed prices. Thus, the current study investigated the different sources of soybean and corn on the performances of Nile tilapia. Fish fed with the diet I (based on Egyptian soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar) or diet II (based on imported soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar) in a 90-day feeding trial. The results showed no marked effects on the growth performance, protein efficacy ratio, and FCR in the case of fish-fed diet I or diet II. No histological alterations were observed in the skeletal muscle, hepatopancreas, spleen, and intestines, while the diet I-fed group showed normal architecture of the above-listed organs. The expression of liver and muscle IGF-1 showed no changes in fish-fed diet I or diet II. No diet-related variations were observed in IL-1β expression in the spleen but increased regulation in the liver of the diet II group compared to the diet I group. Furthermore, significant upregulation of SOD and HSP70 genes were seen in the spleen and liver of the diet II-fed group. We conclude that the inclusion of the Egyptian soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar (diet I) did not reduce the growth performance and immune-related genes compared with the imported soybean meal cultivar and cornmeal cultivar (diet II).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1