rss_2.0Annals of Animal Science FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Annals of Animal Science of Animal Science Feed the biodistribution and metabolic effects of copper nanoparticles dependent on differences in the physiological functions of dietary fibre?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the recommended (6.5 mg/kg) or enhanced (13 mg/kg) level of CuNPs in the diet in combination with different types of dietary fibre – cellulose (control), inulin, pectin, or psyllium on the Cu biodistribution and level of selected minerals parameters in the blood of rats. Rats were randomly divided into 10 groups. The first two groups were fed control diets containing cellulose and a mineral mixture with standard or enhanced content of CuCO<sub>3</sub>. Experimental groups were fed a diet supplemented with CuNPs (6.5 or 13 mg/kg) and combined with different types of fibre (cellulose, pectin, inulin, or psyllium). After the feeding period blood, liver, brain, and thigh samples were collected. In the samples of water, diet, urine, feces, liver, brain, and thigh the Cu content was determined to assess Cu biodistribution in the body. Additionally, the concentrations of minerals (Cu, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn) in the blood plasma samples were measured. The replacement of CuCO<sub>3</sub> with CuNPs in the diet beneficially influenced the biodistribution of Cu in the body by reducing its excretion, improving its digestibility, and utilization, reducing its accumulation in the brain and muscle, and increasing levels of Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Fe in the blood. Increasing the level of CuNPs in the diet increased total Cu intake. The addition of pectin, inulin and psyllium to the diet with a high content of CuNPs significantly increased the excretion of Cu, with no negative effect on its digestibility, and utilization, and prevented its excessive accumulation in the brain and muscle of rats, especially in the case of inulin. The results suggest that the addition of dietary fibre to the diet of rats ensures homeostasis of this element in the case of excessive intake of CuNPs by modifying the bioavailability of Cu.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue new strain of in diets of lactating Holstein cows improved feed efficiency and lactation performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study compared the effects of feeding a new strain of <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic> HSA2020 with a commercial strain on <italic>in vitro</italic> rumen fermentation and production performance of dairy cows. Permeate was used as a substrate for the laboratory production of the new strain of <italic>S. cerevisiae</italic> after the hydrolysis by β–galactosidase (5000 µ/mL at 37°C). Two experiments were conducted: in Experiment 1, the effects of three levels (1, 2 and 3 g/kg dry matter) of <italic>S. cerevisiae</italic> on <italic>in vitro</italic> ruminal fermentation kinetics were evaluated. In Experiment 2, for 60 days, sixty multiparous Holstein cows (639±24.8 kg BW, 3±1 parity, 7±1 days in milk, with a previous milk production of 23±2.0 kg/d) during the previous lactation, were randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Cows were fed without any additives (control treatment) or supplemented with 2 g/kg feed daily of laboratory produced (PY)or commercial (CY) <italic>S. cerevisiae</italic>. In Experiment 1, inclusion of PY and CY increased (P&lt;0.05) gas production, propionate, and nutrient disappearance, while decreased (P&lt;0.05) methane production and protozoal count. Moreover, in Experiment 2, PY followed by CY increased (P&lt;0.01) nutrient digestibility, and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and glucose (P&lt;0.05). Higher daily milk yield, and milk energy output were observed with PY and CY without affecting concentrations of milk components or milk fatty acid profile. Compared to control, increased feed efficiency was observed with PY and CY. Compared to PY, CY increased serum concentrations of urea-N and decreased triglycerides, while PY decreased serum aspartate transaminase and increased concentration of conjugated linoleic acids in milk. In early lactating cow diets, both strains of <italic>S. cerevisiae</italic> improved production performance at 2 g/kg improved production performance, and minimal differences between strains were found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of distiller’s dried yeast on selected microbiotic fractions and the carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was conducted on 112 broiler chickens fed for 35 and 37 days with various levels of distiller’s yeast in diets – 3% in starter, 6% in grower, and 9% in finisher feeds. The results showed that as the level of distiller’s dried yeast in the broiler diets increased, the total number of bacteria in the mucosa of the small intestine, cecum, and colon decreased, including mainly <italic>Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus</italic>, and <italic>E. coli.</italic> The addition of 9% yeast to the diet significantly reduced the abundance of <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> sp. in the intestinal mucosa of broiler chickens. There was no significant effect of the level of distiller’s dried yeast in the diet of broiler chickens on carcass quality, pH, water holding capacity, sensory characteristics, and macronutrient and micronutrient content in breast muscle. On the other hand, there was a significant effect of the analyzed distiller’s yeast on color characteristics and basic chemical composition of breast muscle. The highest lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), and chroma (C*) and the lowest dry matter content were found in the meat of chickens receiving 6% and 9% distiller’s dried yeast in their diets. The results of the study indicate that for the best results in terms of carcass and meat quality, the optimal content of the analyzed yeast in the diet of broiler chickens should not exceed 3%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of light on dairy cattle in farm conditions – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cattle are among the animals with diurnal activity, which is due to the specific animal– environment relationship and the natural role wild cattle play in the ecosystem. As humans began domesticating, breeding these animals, they became an integral part of this relationship. This review article addresses the most important current issues: 1) a characterisation of contemporary knowledge on the biological determinants of the vision abilities of dairy cattle, 2) a discussion of the relationship between these abilities and animal health and performance, and 3) a characterisation of the light–animal relationship under husbandry conditions. The intricate link between the anatomical and physiological aspects of visual function in cattle and their circadian rhythms was emphasised. This connection directly influences cattle growth and development, as well as the health and performance of dairy cows during the long/short day photoperiods. The article also considers the possibility of managing dairy cows’ photoperiod and light quality to enhance their performance and overall well-being.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the effects of hesperidin over 30 and 60-day intervals on rainbow trout: a potential biostimulant to promote growth, immunological and antioxidant responses, and disease resistance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current research evaluated the effects of dietary hesperidin (HSP) on growth parameters, digestive enzyme activities, innate immune markers, and antioxidant responses in rainbow trout, <italic>Oncorhynchus mykiss</italic> after the 30- and 60-day feeding trial. Then, specimens were subjected to <italic>Yersinia ruckeri</italic> infection for 14 days. For this, six hundred rainbow trout juveniles (initial weight; 25.49±0.40 g) were fed with different levels of HSP including 0 (HSP0; control), 50 (HSP50), 100 (HSP100), 150 (HSP150), and 200 (HSP200) mg/kg feed. After 60 days, dietary HSP100 supplementation significantly improved growth and feed efficiency indices. The optimal dose of HSP based on the regression test for WG and FCR detected 122 and 131mg/kg, respectively. At the end of the 30th day, dietary HSP150 supplementation markedly boosted serum lysozyme (LYZ), myeloperoxidase (MPO), complement component C3, and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, as decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In the same period, dietary administration of HSP at the different concentrations markedly increased complement component C4 (HSP150 and HSP200), superoxide dismutase (SOD), skin mucus alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (HSP100- HSP200), skin mucus LYZ and catalase (CAT) (HSP100 and HSP 150), and skin mucus Ig level (HSP50- HSP200). After 60 days, all dietary HSP supplementation significantly improved lipase, serum C3, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and skin mucus ALP, LYZ, and Ig levels, but decreased MDA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. After 60 days, dietary administration of HSP150 induced a significant discrepancy in the activity of serum LYZ, MPO, respiratory burst (RB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) compared to the control group. In the same period, dietary HSP supplementation at different levels induced a remarkable increase in digestive protease activity (HSP100), serum ACH50 and CAT activities (HSP100 and HSP150), skin mucus peroxidase and serum SOD levels (HSP100-HSP200), and serum C4 value (HSP50, HSP150, and HSP200), but markedly decreased ALP activity (HSP150 and HSP200). In addition, dietary HSP supplementation, especially HSP150, markedly boosted disease resistance against <italic>Y. ruckeri</italic> infection. The current data demonstrated that the oral administration of 100 - 150 mg/kg HSP has a high potential to promote growth performance, disease resistance, and faster induction of immune and antioxidant responses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue into the impacts of endogenous and exogenous short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in fish health and growth<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are small organic acids exist in the fish gastrointestinal tract, mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate. These SCFAs are produced through anaerobic fermentation of dietary non-digestible carbohydrates by gut microbes. Though enough studies have been devoted to showcasing the potential of SCFAs in human nutrition, the research on their production, potential, and existence in fish has been comparatively limited until recently. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding SCFAs in aquaculture. It starts with commenting on the different sources, such as substrate and microbial species that are responsible for the production of SCFAs and their transportation and ends up depicting the relationship between biofloc technology and SCFAs production. This review also discusses the factors influencing SCFA production, such as environment, diet, and feeding habits of fish. Furthermore, the biological functions of SCFAs have been highlighted, and critical findings were compiled, including immunomodulatory effects, physiological response, gut health, and immunity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue models for the treatment of human diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, studies conducted on animal models provide new insight into the aetiology and course of various pathological conditions in humans. Due to the cause of disease, animal models can be divided into two categories: natural models, such as nude mice, and induced models, such as transgenic pigs. This article discusses several examples of animal models and their contributions to the development of effective therapies for human diseases such as muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, and atherosclerosis. In addition, we presented the latest news on gene therapy, xenotransplantation, and drug trials in humans and animals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue responses to heat stress in normal and dwarf chickens: implications for meat quality and immune function<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the impact of heat stress (HS) on meat quality, antioxidant ability, and immunity in normal and dwarf-size chickens. A total of 144 chickens, with 72 from the normal yellow chicken (NYC) strain and 72 from the dwarf yellow chicken (DYC) strain, were equally divided into groups exposed to heat stress (35±1°C for 8 hours daily) and those kept at 28±1°C as the control group. After seven days of treatment, meat color parameters, including lightness (L*-value), redness (a*-value), and yellowness (b*-value), were assessed. Histopathological examination was conducted on spleen tissues to assess structural changes. Gene expression analysis determined the expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and liver catalase (CAT) related to immune response and antioxidant capacity. HS significantly affected meat color parameters, with an increase in lightness (L*-value) (P&lt;0.01) and a decrease in redness (a*-value) (P&lt;0.01) observed in breast and thigh muscles. Furthermore, HS led to increased drip loss (P&lt;0.05), cooking loss (P&lt;0.05), and shear force (P&lt;0.01) in breast muscles. Histopathological examination of spleen tissues revealed varying degrees of lymphoid depletion, necrosis, fibrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in response to HS. Gene expression analysis showed that HS upregulated the expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-6 in the spleen of NYC (P&lt;0.05) but not in DYC. Additionally, HS reduced the expression of liver catalase (CAT) in NYC (P&lt;0.05) but had no significant effect on DYC. These findings indicate that HS adversely affects meat quality, immune response, and antioxidant capacity in broilers, with normal-sized chickens being more susceptible to these effects compared to dwarf chickens. The results provide valuable insights into the differential responses of chicken strains to HS and underscore the importance of considering genetic factors in mitigating the negative impacts of heat stress on poultry production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue removal of nitrogenous waste compounds in the biofloc aquaculture system: a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aquaculture has experienced significant global expansion and is considered one of the fastest-growing sectors in food production. However, there exist additional challenges that restrict the capacity to achieve maximum efficiency in aquaculture systems, such as issues over water quality and shortages of appropriate live feeds. Intensive aquaculture systems involve the use of protein-rich prepared feed for feeding the cultured animals. This may give rise to the discharge of nitrogenous compounds into the water, which can pose a risk to the environment when present in excessive quantities beyond the acceptable levels. In recent years, an innovative method called biofloc technology (BFT) has become a practical solution to this issue. Undoubtedly, BFT offers a groundbreaking method for nutrient disposal that eradicates the requirement for excessive water use or equipment maintenance. Three primary types of microorganisms are crucial in alleviating the adverse impacts of nitrogen compounds in this technique. Photoautotrophs participate in the processes of removal and absorption, whereas chemoautotrophs promote nitrification and conversion. Heterotrophs contribute to the absorption process. Biofloc predominantly consists of heterotrophic bacteria, alongside algae, protozoa, rotifers, and nematodes. While there have been reviews carried out on multiple aspects of biofloc technology, there exists a lack of literature that tackles this particular field of research progress. This article discusses every aspect and techniques of biological management used for removing nitrogenous waste compounds in biofloc aquaculture systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue nutrient digestibility and antioxidant efficacy in piglets: The impact of fermented rapeseed meal supplementation on biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to investigate the effects of varying levels of dried fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on the nutrient digestibility and antioxidant efficacy in piglets. The experiment was conducted on 300 piglets, starting at 18 days of age. The primary experimental factor was the inclusion of FRSM in the diet, substituting mainly for post-extraction soybean meal and wheat. Two control groups were established: a positive control (PC) supplemented with 2500 ppm zinc oxide, and a negative control (NC) without additives. Additionally, four experimental groups were designated based on FRSM inclusion levels: FR-8 (8% FRSM), FR-12 (12% FRSM), FR-15 (15% FRSM), and FR-25 (25% FRSM). Results indicated a positive impact on nutrient absorption and redox processes, characterized by reduced efficiency of lipid peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide in both blood and organs like the liver and intestines. From this perspective, the recommended inclusion of fermented rapeseed meal in piglet feed appears to be within the range of 8–12%</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of welfare of Pekin ducks reared in intensive production system in Poland using transect method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the practical application of the Transect Walk (TW) method on a commercial farm, focusing on different ages of Orvia ST5 Pekin ducks. The study was conducted in four flocks of Orvia ST5 ducks, reared in two identical buildings. Flocks 1 and 3 were housed in Building 1, while flocks 2 and 4 occupied Building 2. A total of 8,000 ducklings were allocated to rearing, with 2,000 in each flock. The welfare of the ducks was assessed at 5, 6, and 7 weeks of age using the TW method, which involved assessing indicators such as immobility, lameness, dirtiness, small size, head wounds, back wounds, tail wounds, feather loss, illness, terminal illness, being flipped, or being deceased. Information regarding factors contributing to reduced carcass quality was gathered from the slaughterhouse. It was observed that all welfare indicators, except for head and tail wounds, were equally effective in assessing duck welfare and accounted for up to 82.13% of the variation in welfare. Lameness emerged as the most prevalent factor associated with reduced welfare, showing a strong correlation with immobility. Both indicators exhibited a significant interaction with age and flock (P = 0.001 and P = 0.029, respectively). Feather loss emerged as another crucial indicator of reduced welfare in the examined flocks. The percentage of featherless ducks varied from 0.29% to 3.50% and was significantly influenced by both duck age and flock (both P&lt;0.001). Additionally, it showed a significant and positive correlation with immobility (P&lt;0.05). The primary issues identified during duck culling were associated with skin problems and leg and joint issues. Statistically significant variations were noted among flocks concerning the frequency of indicators linked to reduced welfare. This variance was attributed to the specific building where the ducks were raised. The findings of this study suggest the incorporation of the TW method in future welfare assessments, utilizing the 10 welfare indicators employed while excluding head and tail wounds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue overview of alternative protein sources for ruminants in the tropical area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Investigating alternative protein sources for ruminants in tropical regions is crucial due to distinct climatic conditions and limited resources. Scientists, acknowledging the challenges, are exploring locally accessible alternatives to develop cost-effective and sustainable protein supplements for ruminant nutrition, emphasizing the importance of understanding the nutritional composition for advancing livestock husbandry sustainability. The aim of this research is to elucidate alternative local protein sources for ruminants in tropical areas and assess their effectiveness in promoting sustainable production and enhancing ruminant nutrition. Protein feed sources are essential for providing amino acids to animals and producing animal products such as meat, milk, and wool. Inadequate protein in animal feed may have a detrimental impact on rumen fermentation and animal output. Therefore, alternative protein sources have received increased attention in order to replace the main protein source. The alternative protein sources in this review were divided into five categories: agricultural biomass, fodder shrubs, biological protein and plant weeds, insect protein and agro-industry biomass. Furthermore, plant secondary compounds found in alternative protein sources might be used to modulate rumen fermentation and improve animal performance. By focusing on regional sources of protein, feed costs are reduced while availability is raised. Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that there are a number of alternative protein sources that might be used in place of primary protein sources and that they could support ruminant production in the face of several animal feed crises. However, the potential use of any protein source should be assessed in light of the country’s availability and animal production practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue developments in antibiotic contamination of animal products, soil, and water worldwide<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), facilitated by antibiotic consumption, remains one of the biggest threats to global health and food security. The burgeoning AMR has an estimated forecast of 10 million deaths and 100 trillion USD economic losses annually worldwide by 2050 if no urgent actions are taken. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in food animal production plays an expressive role in the AMR crisis. This paper compiles information regarding antibiotics and AMR in animals, animal-derived products, and agriculture-impacted environment. A holistic approach is needed to mitigate the burden of AMR within the context of human-animal-environment. Currently there are few approaches to this problem such as nanotechnology, anaerobic digestion, biochar composting, and alternatives to antibiotic treatments (like herbal plant extracts, probiotics, vaccines, enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides) have been developed. However, there are gaps in knowledge about AMR and areas for improvement are obvious. There is no a clear path to put an end to the persistent trends of AMR. Despite the trends for stricter regulation on the use of antibiotics worldwide, they find their way into food animal production, water, and soil as a result of misuses in many countries. We need to acknowledge the antibiotic contamination and/or AMR as a silent pandemic, and we are challenged to adopt a global approach to reducing and improving their use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of fermented wheat germ extract on broiler chicks’ growth performance, immunological status, and carcass characteristics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many studies have mentioned the advantages of adding wheat germ to chicken diets, but few were interested in studying the effect of the fermentation process on this addition. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adding fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) and immunostimulant (IS) to the broiler diet and water, respectively, on growth performance, hematological and blood biochemical parameters, immune status, and carcass characteristics. A total of 180 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly and equally assigned into four treatment groups of 5 replicates (9 chicks/replicate) each. The first group (G1) served as a control group with a basal diet and normal drinking water, while the second (G2) and the third (G3) groups were treated with a basal diet supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2% of FWGE, respectively. The fourth group (G4) was treated with one level of immunostimulant (ORGA IMMU<sup>®</sup>, 0.2% in drinking water) and served as a positive control. The experiment lasted 35 days. According to the results, adding 0.2% FWGE to the broiler diet (G3) improved (P≤0.05) feed conversion ratio and increased (P≤0.05) live body weight and body weight gain compared to the control group (G1). The G3 also showed improvements (P≤0.05) in red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), and white blood cell (WBC) counts. Blood biochemical parameters, such as total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), were positively affected (P≤0.05) by FWGE and immunostimulant treatments. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers for Newcastle and Avian Influenza viruses, phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI), and lysozyme activity (LA) were significantly (P≤0.05) improved by FWGE and immunostimulant treatments. Furthermore, carcass traits, such as carcass weight and dressing percentage, were improved (P≤0.05) by adding FWGE and immunostimulant treatments. The inclusion of FWGE in the broiler chicken diet by 0.2% had a considerably positive impact on the birds’ growth performance, health, and carcass quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and green bioconversion – a comprehensive review on black soldier fly () larvae for converting organic wastes to quality products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food security remains a pressing global concern, exacerbated by population growth, diminishing agricultural lands, and climate uncertainties. As the demand for high-quality protein sources like eggs, meat, and milk escalates, conventional feed ingredients face challenges in meeting the burgeoning needs of livestock production. The projected increase in poultry and pig consumption further strains the availability of protein-rich feed sources, necessitating sustainable alternatives. Insects, notably black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), offer numerous advantages, including efficiently converting organic substrates into high-quality protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins. Their rapid reproduction, minimal environmental footprint, and ability to thrive on various organic materials make them an attractive protein source. However, consumer acceptance remains a hurdle, hindering their direct consumption despite their nutritional value. Incorporating BSFL into animal diets, especially poultry and swine, demonstrates promising results regarding growth and production. This review comprehensively overviews BSFL production systems, processing techniques, and nutritional profiles. Various factors influencing BSFL growth and feed quality are discussed, highlighting the importance of optimizing breeding systems and feed formulations. Processing methods are elucidated to ensure the safety and quality of BSFL-based products. Nutritional analysis reveals BSFL as a rich source of essential amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals, making them suitable replacements for soybean meal and fish meal. Despite the economic and environmental benefits of BSFL utilization, challenges persist, including regulatory issues, consumer perceptions, and production scalability. Standardized production protocols and legislative frameworks are needed to facilitate the widespread adoption of BSFL in animal feed industries. In conclusion, integrating BSFL into animal diets presents a promising solution to address protein shortages in livestock production while promoting sustainable resource utilization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of dietary Moldavian balm ( L.) on growth performance, antioxidant status, immune response, and gene expression of common carp ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chemical compounds used to prevent and control fish disease often cause environmental hazards; thus, alternative approaches as new and effective strategies are needed. The current investigation was performed with the aim of exploring the effects of dietary Moldavian balm (MB, Dracocephalum moldavica L.) on the growth, immune parameters, and antioxidant status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish (n=300, w= 3.80±0.02 g) in four groups in triplicates were supplemented with 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% MB. After 42 days, it was found that feed supplements increased final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR) and decreased the food conversion ratio (FCR) (P &lt; 0.05). In addition, fish supplemented with 2% MB significantly showed higher serum total protein (TP), alternative complement pathway (ACH50), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (P &lt; 0.05). The 0.5% MB-supplemented fish represented higher levels of LYZ, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total Ig, and ACH50 in their skin mucus in comparison with the unsupplemented fish (P &lt; 0.05). The results also indicated that 2% MB resulted in a significantly higher expression level of intestinal tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α) (P &lt; 0.05); however, the level of LYZ, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and TLRs decreased in supplemented fish. CAT and SOD expressions were increased in 0.5% MB supplement. In conclusion, MB could be recommended as an efficient feed additive to boost common carp’s growth, immunity, and health status.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the detrimental effects of heavy metal pollution in shrimp farming and treatment methods – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>High levels of heavy metals in the environment pose a significant risk to the aquatic ecosystem and its organisms. The non-biodegradable nature and lengthy persistence of heavy metals in the environment lead to toxicity in shrimp. Using aquatic animals as bio-indicators of metal contamination provides valuable data on acute and chronic toxicity in aquatic species and environmental quality. This review aims to provide insights into the sources, impacts, diseases and mitigation strategies related to heavy metal pollution in shrimp farming and the dangers to humans. Shrimp growth and development at each stage exhibit distinct responses to toxicity, which can vary depending on the species, types of metals, their mechanisms of action, as well as the concentration of heavy metals and duration of exposure. While several heavy metals are considered essential nutrient elements that enhance shrimp growth and feed efficiency, exceeding the maximum tolerable limit threatens shrimp health, human consumers, and ecological systems’ stability. Shrimp species subjected to lethal toxic metal concentrations experience significant effects on accumulation in histopathology. Heavy metal toxicity has been linked to high mortality rates, malformation rates, oxidative stress, moulting issues, and decreased reproduction with increasing concentrations in shrimp. Various methods have been reported for removing heavy metal ions from aquatic environments, including filtration, adsorbents, removal efficacy, operating conditions, and the pros and cons of each technique. Therefore, this review provides an overview of how heavy metals can affect shrimp physiology and dangers to consumers. It aims to increase awareness about the importance of preventing and regulating their contamination in aquatic environments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of feeding enriched with various oil resources on growth, blood biochemical and behavioral indices, and survival of<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of the present trial was to examine the efficacy of feeding tilapia fry fish on <italic>Artemia franciscana</italic> diets supplemented with various oil emulsion resources in terms of performance, behavior indices, survival rate, blood biochemical parameters, and immunological response. Four hundred Nile tilapia fry (weighing 0.15±0.05 g and measuring 2.17±0.08 cm) were randomly allocated into four equal groups (each with five repetitions) and acclimatized for fifteen days. The first group served as the control and received unenriched <italic>Artemia franciscana</italic> (G0), while the remaining three groups were fed <italic>Artemia franciscana</italic> diets enriched with different oil resources (0.5 mL oil per Liter for 6 hours): soybean oil (G1), sesame oil (G2), and rice bran oil (G3). Behavioral observations were recorded during the 45-day experimental period. At the end of the feeding trial, the chemical composition and fatty acid content of both Artemia and fingerlings were analyzed. Furthermore, the growth performance, survival, and immune response of the fingerlings were evaluated. The results indicated noticeable improvements in behavioral measurements (feeding, foraging and schooling), performance (final length, final weight, net weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate), survival, and immune response among fry fish supplemented with enriched Artemia, particularly those enriched with soybean oil. Additionally, the chemical composition and fatty acid content of both Artemia and fish fry were significantly enhanced when oil emulsions are applied, with soybean oil demonstrating the most prominent improvements. Whereas, supplementing fry fish Artemia diets with oil resulted in lower liver enzyme activity and higher protein component levels in plasma in comparison to the control group. In brief, feeding Nile tilapia fry fish Artemia diets enriched with a soybean oil emulsion (0.5 mL/L) is recommended for promoting high performance, immunological activity, and survival throughout the early stage till fingerlings phase.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue benefits of dietary silymarin and selenium on growth, immune functions, antioxidants, and gut/liver health of Thinlip mullet () juveniles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the synergistic impact of silymarin (SI) levels combined with inorganic selenium (sodium selenite: Se) on growth, feed utilization, biochemical parameters, antioxidants, innate immunity, intestinal and liver histology, and gene expression of Thinlip mullet (<italic>Liza ramada</italic>) juveniles. The experimental design involved thinlip mullets initially weighing 3.5±0.13 g, distributed in a completely randomized design with 30 fish per hapa (0.5 × 0.5 × 1 m), and conducted in triplicate over 60 days. Seven experimental diets were employed, including a control (without SI and Se supplementation), a negative control (with only Se supplementation), and four treatments with varying levels of silymarin (250, 450, 650, 850 mg/kg) alongside selenium (0.5 mg/kg diet). The growth performance results highlighted significant enhancements in final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate, particularly in the SI 850 mg/kg + Se treatment. Survival rates, feed intake, and feed conversion ratios showed positive trends across the SI-Se supplemented groups. Biochemical profiles of serum exhibited that the control diet-induced elevated concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase, and urea, while Se or SI supplementation significantly mitigated these levels, with the lowest concentrations observed in the SI-Se supplemented groups. Moreover, SI supplementation increased serum protein content. Antioxidant enzyme activities, represented by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and catalase (GPx), demonstrated notable improvements in the SI-Se fortified groups, with significantly elevated GPx activity compared to the Se-supplemented and control groups. Immune system responses, including lysozyme, bactericidal, Nitro-blue Tetrazolium (NBT%), and serum alternative complement pathway (ACH50) activities, were highest in the SI-Se augmented groups. SI and Se in <italic>L. ramada</italic> reduce liver pro-inflammatory gene expression (<italic>il-1β</italic>, <italic>hepcidin</italic>) vs. control group. Histological examinations of the intestine and liver depicted structural enhancements, especially at moderate and high levels of SI with Se supplementation. The results indicate improved intestinal villi morphology and hepatic architecture, supporting the positive influence of dietary treatments on the health of thinlip mullet juveniles. In conclusion, the combined supplementation of SI at 850 mg/kg diet and Se at 0.5 mg/kg diet positively influenced the growth, biochemical profiles, antioxidant status, immune responses, gene expression, and histological integrity of Thinlip mullet juveniles, providing valuable insights for optimizing aquafeed formulations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue artichoke () extract ameliorated the growth performance, humoral immune parameters and resistance against in goldfish ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This trial investigated the efficacy of artichoke (<italic>Cynara scolymus</italic>) extract (AE) on the growth performance, immunity, antioxidant parameters, and resistance against <italic>Aeromonas hydrophila</italic> of goldfish (<italic>Carassius auratus</italic>). For this purpose, a total number of 470 gold fish with initial weight 5.70±0.2 g fed with four experimental diets including 0 (T0), 100 (T1), 150 (T2), and 200 (T3) mg kg <sup>−1</sup> diet AE for 8 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, growth performances, serum immune parameters, and mucus antioxidant enzymes were measured. Fish were challenged with <italic>A. hydrophila</italic>, and the antioxidant and immunity-related gene expression were investigated. Based on the results, the highest final weight (FW) and weight gain (WG) attained in T2 and T3 (P&lt;0.05). Immune factors including ACH50, lysozyme, and total immunoglobulin in T2 and T3 showed the highest values (P&lt;0.05). The expression of <italic>GR, IL1β</italic>, <italic>TNFα, HSC70</italic>, <italic>HSP70</italic>, and <italic>HSP90β</italic> genes in T1, T2, and T3 were higher than the control (P&lt;0.05). The <italic>GST</italic> expression was significantly enhanced in T2 (P&lt;0.05). The present study demonstrated that the administration of AE, especially at doses of 150 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>, could improve the growth, immunity, and antioxidant parameters, as well as enhance disease resistance against <italic>A. hydrophila</italic> in goldfish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue