rss_2.0Annals of Animal Science FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Annals of Animal Science of Animal Science Feed of various methods of processing soybeans on protein digestibility and reduction of nitrogen deposits in the natural environment – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soybean meal (SBM) is a significant source of protein for poultry due to its high concentration of protein and amino acids profile. The primary objective of SBM processing is the reduction and deactivation of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) to enhance nutrient digestibility. However, eliminating ANFs does not necessarily correlate with increased protein and amino acid content. Several processing methods, such as soaking, cooking, and commercial techniques, improve SBM protein digestibility. To sustain feeding qualities, soybeans must undergo heating to remove inherent chemicals that interfering with poultry digestion. However, both under and over-processing can impair meal digestibility. Extrusion heating significantly contributes to protein and starch digestibility while reducing certain ANFs. Thermomechanical and enzyme-assisted procedures reduce heat-resistant proteins more efficiently than extraction methods, producing soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermentation. These techniques reduce ANFs in SBM, activating digestive enzymes and alleviating digestive tract pressure, leading to decreased endogenous protein deficits. Exogenous enzyme supplementation is a biotechnological approach for enhancing the nutritional content of SBM and certain other protein-rich products. However, different processing methods not only affect protein digestibility but also impact poultry production, gastrointestinal health, and the environment due to higher nitrogen excrement. Ammonia (NH<sub>3</sub>) emissions, are a significant environmental concern in chicken farming, resulting from uric acid production during protein consumption. It has a negative impact on the environment and the health of birds/humans. This review investigates the impact of several processing techniques on the digestibility of SBM protein and the reduction of N<sub>2</sub> regarding one health concept. Future research should focus on identifying optimal processing methods maximizing protein digestibility while minimizing environmental nitrogen impacts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of species – fermented products on antibiotic resistome and virulence factor gene composition in the cecal digesta of broilers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the differential effects of <italic>Bacillus subtilis –</italic> and <italic>Bacillus licheniformis</italic> – fermented products (defined as SFP and LFPs, respectively) on microbial antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) and virulence factor gene (VFG) composition in the cecal digesta of 35-day-old broilers by using metagenomic sequencing. First, 160 1-day-old unsexed Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups: basal diet (CON group); basal diet + enramycin (10 mg/kg, ENM group); basal diet + SFPs (10<sup>8</sup> colony-forming units (CFU) of <italic>B. subtilis</italic> spores/kg, SFP group); and basal diet + LFPs (10<sup>8</sup> CFU of <italic>B. licheniformis</italic> spores/kg, LFP group). Principal coordinate analysis of ARG and VFG composition indicated distinct clustering among the cecal samples of the groups. At the antibiotic resistance class level, LFP treatment increased the expression of peptide resistance genes and decreased the expression of aminocoumarin resistance genes compared with the other groups. Compared with the other groups, LFP treatment promoted <italic>bcrA</italic>, <italic>ugd</italic>, and <italic>efrB</italic> expression but suppressed <italic>parY</italic> expression, whereas SFP treatment inhibited <italic>efrA</italic> expression. The abundance of the peptide resistance gene <italic>bcrA</italic> in <italic>Lachnoclostridium</italic> species was higher in the CON and LFP groups than in the ENM and SFP groups, whereas the abundance of the peptide resistance gene <italic>rpoB2</italic> in <italic>Bacteroides</italic> species was lower in the ENM and LFP groups than in the SFP group. No specific VFGs were regulated only by SFPs or LFPs. SFP and LFP treatment inhibited <italic>clpC</italic> expression compared with the other groups. <italic>clpC</italic> abundance in <italic>Bacteroides</italic> species was lower in the LFP group than in the CON group, whereas its abundance in <italic>Faecalibacterium</italic> species was lower in the SFP group than in the CON and ENM groups. These results demonstrated that SFPs and LFPs differentially regulate microbial ARG and VFG composition in the cecal digesta of broilers. LFP supplementation modulated more antibiotic resistance classes and ARGs than did SFP supplementation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and jejunum biochemical parameters related to physiological ageing of neurons in rats fed diets with copper nanoparticles and different fiber types<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the more important factors responsible for synaptic dysfunction of neurons is a neurological ageing. It is a natural consequence of occurrence of biochemical pathways in cells, promoting oxidation processes, an increase in the amount of free oxygen radicals that damage DNA, disorders in calcium ion homeostasis, interactions between lipids of cell membranes, formation of neurofibrillary tangles and deposition of toxic protein deposits. Diet modifications can delay neurometabolism disorders that occur as a result of aging, as well as limit the development of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study on rats was to verify the hypothesis regarding the effect of dietary addition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs; instead of standard CuCO<sub>3</sub>) in combination with various dietary fibers on changes in hippocampus and jejunum biochemical parameters related to metabolic disorders appearing with neurological ageing in rats. Male rats were fed a control diet with containing fiber α-cellulose and a standard or enhanced content of Cu provided as CuCO<sub>3</sub> (6.5 or 13 mg/kg diet). The diets of other groups were deprived of CuCO<sub>3</sub> and the animals were fed diets supplemented with two CuNPs aforementioned doses, and additionally combined with four different types of dietary fiber: α-cellulose (control fiber), pectin, inulin or psyllium (<italic>Plantago psyllium</italic>). The addition of dietary CuNPs increased the level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and decreased the levels of Tau protein, glycosylated AChE (GAChE) and Ca/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2α) in the examined organs. To sum up, both applied doses of CuNPs, 6.5 mg and 13 mg per kg of a diet, can beneficially modulate some important parameters describing metabolic and neurodevelopmental status in the hippocampal and small intestinal tissue of rats. With regard to the fiber type added to rats’ diet, the <italic>Plantago psyllium</italic> fiber strengthened the mentioned effects of copper nanoparticles. The observed effects should be confirmed in a model study of neurodegeneration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue curcumin nanoparticles improve growth performance, oxidative status and immune response of European seabass ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A 90 days of feeding trial was employed for evaluating the effects of dietary supplementation with curcumin nanoparticles (CURNPs) on growth performance, hematological and biochemical parameters, immune response, antioxidant status, and intestinal and hepatic architecture in European seabass (<italic>Dicentrarchus labrax</italic>) fingerlings. Fish (n = 300, initial body weight = 10.02 g ± 0.11g) received supplementary CURNPs at rates of 0 (control; CURNPs0), 50 (CURNPs50), 100 (CURNPs100) and 150 (CURNPs150) mg/kg diet for 90 days. Growth performance (final body weight (FBW), daily weight gain (DWG), weight gain (WG), relative growth rate (RGR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER)) and feed uptake (feed conversion rate (FCR)) were improved significantly in CURNPs (100 and 150 mg/kg)-supplemented groups. The hematological parameters red blood corpuscles (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), and packed cell volume (PCV) were improved significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001) in CURNPs150 and CURNPs100 groups, while CURNPs150 had the lowest values of monocytes (<italic>p</italic> = 0.019) and heterophils (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.005) when compared with other groups. Glucose was higher and lipid profile (total cholesterol and triglycerides) were lower in all CURNPs-supplemented groups as compared to the control group. Fish fed with CURNPS at various levels exhibited remarkable increase in digestive enzymes (amylase and lipase), immune markers (immunoglobulin G (IgG), lysozyme and phagocytic indices), and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)). A noticeable decrease (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) in malondialdehyde (MDA) and considerable upregulation of hepatic insulin-like growth factor 1 (<italic>IGF1</italic>) and interleukin-1beta (<italic>IL-1β</italic>) mRNA levels were found in CURNPs-supplemented fish in a dose-dependent manner. The down regulation of hepatic heat shock protein 70 (<italic>HSP70</italic>) was observed in CURNPs150. Intestinal and hepatic architectures were improved significantly by CURNPs. In conclusion, CURNPs supplementation improved growth performance, feed consumption and digestion, hematological and biochemical markers, immune response, and redox homeostasis in <italic>D. labrax</italic>. Therefore, CURNPs could be supplemented in the diets of <italic>D. labrax</italic> as a natural alternative to promote overall performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the effects of heavy metals (copper, cobalt, manganese, selenium, and zinc) on fish immune systems: an overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aquaculture, as a strategic and developmental industry, plays an important role in ensuring food security and economic stability within countries. This crucial sector faces various influences, including infectious and nutritional diseases. Certain minerals function as essential nutrients, playing a main role in processes across all aquatic animals when present in appropriate dietary proportions. Studies showed that some heavy metals serve as a catalyst for various biological functions, including the maintenance of colloidal systems, acid-base balance, bone formation, and the regulation of fundamental natural elements such as vitamins, hormones, and minerals. Fish acquire essential elements crucial for their well-being through both diet and water sources. Adequate levels of essential elements, such as iron, zinc, copper, cobalt, manganese, and selenium, in the diet contribute to enhanced growth, increased survival rates, improved disease resistance, and heightened specific immunity in fish. When incorporated in appropriate quantities, these elements play a pivotal role in disease prevention, fostering the production of high-quality fish, minimizing economic losses, and solidifying aquaculture as a robust and profitable industry. This article aims to delve into the immunological effects induced by metal elements, specifically copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se), in diverse fish species. The objective is to underscore the significance of this exploration, paving the way for the development of more potent immune supplements in the future. These supplements have the potential to improve growth, fortify immune responses, and enhance resilience against diseases in various fish species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue expression level and immunohistochemical localization of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors in the small intestine of Holstein bulls ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The gastrointestinal tract plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, secretion, and motility, ensuring proper digestion and overall homeostasis. Regulation of this complex system involves the coordination of various communication pathways, including neural and humoral mechanisms. One such mechanism is the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a signalling network comprising endogenous cannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes involved in the regulation of physiological processes in mammals and non-mammalian species. While extensive research has been conducted on the ECS in monogastric animals, limited information is available on its presence and distribution in cattle. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and localization patterns of cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in the bovine small intestine. The study included immunohistochemical analysis of intestinal tissue samples from Polish Holstein-Friesian breed bulls. Gene expression levels of <italic>CNR1</italic>, <italic>CNR2</italic>, and <italic>TRPV1</italic> genes, encoding CB1R, CB2R, and TRPV1, respectively, were quantified using qPCR analysis. The results showed that all three receptors were expressed in the bovine small intestine, with <italic>TRPV1</italic> exhibiting a significant upregulation in the jejunum compared to the duodenum and ileum. Immunoreactivity for CB1R and CB2R was predominantly observed in neurons of the enteric plexuses, while TRPV1 immunolabeling was detected in both enteric neurons and duodenal Brunner’s glands. These findings may establish an anatomical foundation for further investigations, lending support to the potential therapeutic efficacy of cannabinoid receptor agonists in alleviating gastrointestinal motility disorders associated with bovine enteropathies and optimizing milk production in dairy cattle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue nanoplastics disrupt hepatic vitellogenin metabolism and impairs the reproduction process in female zebrafish<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For this study, a number of 240 adult healthy female zebrafish were divided into 12 tanks (20 fish per tank) and exposed to 0 (control, T0), 0.1 (T1), 1 (T2), and 10 (T3) mg/L synthesized polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs, Nanoplastic synthesized in the chemistry laboratory of Faculty of Basic Sciences at Zabul University) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, exposure to PS-NPs had no significant affect the survival of female zebrafish (p &gt; 0.05). A significant decrease of hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) were seen in female zebrafish exposed to PSNPs (p &lt; 0.05). The level of 17β estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) were notably declined in female zebrafish of all PS-NPs-exposed groups (p &lt; 0.05). Glucose was notably increased in female zebra fish of all PS-NPs-exposed treaments (p &lt; 0.05). There was a significant increase in cortisol levels in all PS-NPs-exposed treaments (p &lt; 0.05). No significant diffrenece was seen in lactate levels between different treatments (p &gt; 0.05). A significant enhancement in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was observed in female zebra fish of all PS-NPs-exposed treaments than the control (p &lt; 0.05). The present results demonstrate that PS-NPs impairs the reproduction process so that none of the female zebrafish broodstock exposed to different doses of PS-NPs have not spawn.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue performance, liver health indices and immune-related genes transcription in Asian seabass () juveniles fed high and low fishmeal diets supplemented with a mixture of organic acids<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research was conducted to determine the effects of a mixture of organic acid (OAs) in low fishmeal diets on Asian seabass (<italic>Lates calcarifer</italic>) juveniles (54.2 g). There were two dietary groups including high fishmeal diet (HFM, 45.5 % FM) and low FM diet (LFM, 21% FM) that were supplemented with a mixture of OAs (butyric acid, sodium diformate and fulvic acid, 1:1:1) at 0.5 and 1.0% levels. Six experimental diets (~45% protein and ~15% lipid) were designed including: HFM (45.5% FM), HFM<sup>+0.5</sup> (HFM diet + 0.5% OAs), HFM<sup>+1.0</sup> (HFM diet + 1.0% OAs), LFM (21% FM), LFM<sup>+0.5</sup> (LFM diet + 0.5% OAs), and LFM<sup>+1.0</sup> (LFM diet + 1.0% OAs). Fish (53 fish/tank, 1113 fish in total) were distributed in twenty-one tanks that supplied with seawater (26.5 °C, 46.0 ppt). Each treatment had three replicates. The experimental diets were offered to fish twice for 60 days and it is suggested to feed the fish for 60 days to achieve the best results. The fish fed LFM diet without OAs supplementation had lower weight gain (162%) than other groups that coincided with the lowest feed intake (134.1 g). Fish fed LFM<sup>+1.0</sup> had the highest gut lactobacillus bacteria colonies count. HFM<sup>+0.5</sup> group had the highest catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in the liver. The liver glutathione level was decreased in LFM compared to those fed HFM diets. LFM<sup>+1.0</sup> group had the highest amount of liver malondialdehyde value (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05). Fish fed HFM<sup>+0.5</sup> and LFM<sup>+1.0</sup> diets had the highest values of liver alanine aminotransferase. The largest lipid vesicles size were in the liver of the fish fed with HFM<sup>+0.5</sup>, LFM and LFM<sup>+0.5</sup> diets and the smallest ones were in the fish fed with HFM<sup>+1.0</sup>. Both interleukine-10 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell genes were up-regulated in the gut of fish fed LFM<sup>+1.0</sup> and HFM<sup>+1.0</sup> diets after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Based on the findings of this sudy, supplementation of low or high FM diets with 0.5% OAs mixture is recommended for <italic>L. calcarifer</italic> juveniles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of butyl hydroxytoluene and vitamin C on the growth performance, blood biochemistry, and antioxidative status of common carp ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Common carp are proper finfish species for intensification, though their feeds should be reinforced with functional additives to ensure high growth performance and health status. Thus, this study tested the combined effects of butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin C (VC) on the growth performance, blood biomarkers, and antioxidative capacity of common carp. Fish were allotted into four groups and fed on four diets where the control diet was free of VC or/and BHT, while the second and third diets contained dietary VC or BHT at 500 or 150 mg/kg, respectively. The fourth diet was supplemented with both VC (500 mg/kg) and BHT (150 mg/kg) (BHT+VC). After 70 days, feeding VC or/and BHT markedly affected the growth performance of common carp. Carps fed VC, BHT, or BHT+VC had higher (P&lt;0.05) FBW, WG, and SGR than fish fed the control diet, while the FCR was lower (P&lt;0.05) in fish fed both VC and BHT than the control. In addition, feeding BHT or both BHT+VC markedly (P&lt;0.05) reduced the AST, ALT, and urea. The blood protein, albumin, and globulin were higher (P&lt;0.05) in fish-fed VC or/and BHT than in the control. Fish fed dietary VC, or BHT+VC, had lower (P&lt;0.05) total cholesterol (T-CHO) and triglycerides (TG) than those fed on the control or BHT. The SOD, CAT, and GPX were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) in carp fed on dietary VC or/and BHT than in fish fed on the control diet. Nevertheless, the malondialdehyde level was lower (P&lt;0.05) in carp fed on VC or BHT+VC diets than fish on the control or BHT diets. The lysozyme activity was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) in carp fed on the BHT+VC diet than in the control or VC. In conclusion, the study suggests that dietary BHT or/and VC can be added to the diets of common carp to enhance the growth performance, feed digestion, blood biomarkers, and antioxidative capacity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue association study for meat quality traits in a multi-breed pig population<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed at identifying genomic regions that affect nine pork quality traits in purebred and crossbred fatteners. A total of 259 fatteners represented by six purebreds/crosses were genotyped for 45556 SNP markers by Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The following traits were recorded: glycogen potential (GP), glycogen content (GC), lactate content (LC), pH<sub>35</sub>, pH<sub>24</sub>, pH<sub>48</sub>, drip loss after 48 hours (DL<sub>48</sub>), color lightness (<italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>) and lean meat content (LMC). Multi-Locus Mixed Model methodology was applied to find associations between SNP markers and recorded traits. Several SNPs were found to be significantly associated with some pork quality traits: four SNPs (located on SSC7, SSC10 and SSC14) with GP, three SNPs (SSC10, SSC14) with GC, one SNP (SSC15) with DL<sub>48</sub> and one SNP with pH<sub>48.</sub> Genetic variation explained by significant SNPs ranged from 7.6% to 9.1%. Moreover, some genes (e.g. CAPN10, ALDH5A1, PASK, SNITA1 and MYH7B) located in the close vicinity to significant markers are proposed to be candidate genes explaining the genetic background of the traits studied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, antioxidant, growth responses, and disease resistance of rainbow trout, , with feeding diets supplemented with and Lutein<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with <italic>Lactobacillus salivarius</italic> (LS) ATCC 11741 and lutein (LU) on immunological, antioxidant, and growth responses, and resistance against <italic>Yersinia ruckeri</italic> infection in rainbow trout (<italic>Oncorhynchus mykiss</italic>). There were seven experimental diets containing un-supplemented diet (CTL), <italic>L. salivarius</italic> at 1 × 10<sup>6</sup> (LS6) and 1 × 10<sup>8</sup> (LS8) CFU/g, lutein at 50 (LU50) and 150 (LU150) mg/kg, <italic>L. salivarius</italic> at 1 × 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g plus lutein at 50 g/kg (LS6+LU50), and <italic>L. salivarius</italic> at 1 × 10<sup>8</sup> CFU/g plus lutein at 150 g/kg (LS8+LU150). These diets were provided to the fish (N= 735; 14.0 ± 0.38 g). After 60 days of feeding, all experimental treatments exhibited significantly higher growth performance, compared to the CTL treatment. The intestinal protease activity and the intestinal lactic acid bacteria population in the probiotic-treated fish were significantly higher than in the CTL fish. The intestinal lipase activity was only higher in the LS6+LU50 treatment, compared to the CTL treatment. Compared to the CTL treatment, the intestinal total bacterial count, and serum superoxide dismutase significantly increased in the LS6+LU50 and LS8+LU150 treatments. The serum catalase significantly increased in LU150, LS6+LU50, and LS8+LU150 treatments, and serum glutathione peroxidase significantly increased in the lutein-treated fish. All experimental treatments, particularly LS6+LU50 and LS8+LU150, had significantly lower serum malondialdehyde levels, compared to the CTL treatment. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in LU50, LS6+LU50, and LS8+LU150 treatments were significantly lower than the CTL. All experimental treatments showed significantly higher serum lysozyme (LYZ), complement, blood respiratory burst activity (RB), and skin mucus alkaline phosphatase (ALP), compared to the CTL treatment. The highest serum LYZ, C4, total immunoglobulin (Ig), blood RB activity, and skin mucus peroxidase, ALP, and Ig were observed in the LS6+LU50 and LS8+LU150 treatments. All the experimental treatments, especially LS6+LU50, exhibited significantly lower mortality after the bacterial challenge compared to the CTL. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1 × 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g <italic>L. salivarius</italic> and 50 mg/kg lutein can maximally improve growth performance, digestive enzymes, antioxidant parameter, immune responses, intestinal lactic acid bacteria, and resistance against yersiniosis in rainbow trout.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and application of solid-state fermentation in animal feed production – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Animal feed production has recently received significant attention in the food and livestock sectors due to its high nutritional value and substantial environmental potential. Extensive studies have been conceded to explore the effects of solid fermented feeds on different growth stages of animals but also on the health status of animals, the quality of animal products, and the composition of intestinal microflora to replace non-fermented feed production. The purpose of this review is to provide up-to-date existing trends, recent developments, and prospects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) practices for the production of animal feeds. Studies on enhancing nutritional factors by increasing the crude protein content, enzymes, and antioxidant activity of feed using physical processing methods on agro-industrial waste such as rapeseed meal, cottonseed, wheat bran, soybean meal, and legumes by mainly SSF are reviewed and discussed thoroughly.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue first report of the growth performance and environmental sustainability effects of dietary insect meal application on the Jardine River turtle ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study provides empirical data on the balancing, production, and quality of freshwater turtle diets containing partially defatted black soldier fly larvae <italic>Hermetia illucens</italic> meal (BSFL) as a fish meal (FM) replacement. A 70-day experiment was performed using 27 Jardine river turtles (<italic>Emydura subglobosa</italic>) juveniles (6 months old). Three dietary treatments were applied, namely, CON with 30% fish meal and no BSFL as the control, H75 with 22.5% fish meal and 7.5% BSFL and H150 with 15% fish meal and 15% BSFL, with 3 replicates per treatment, 3 animals per replicate, and 9 specimens in total per treatment. Post-extrusion tests showed that feed technological parameters are dependent on the BSFL meal proportion in terms of the pellet length expansion rate, volume increase, and water binding capacity. The obtained experimental feeds were well accepted by the animals. During the entire experimental period, no turtle mortality, diet-related issues, or differences in shell development or growth performance were recorded among the treatments. However, the feed intake increased in comparison to CON when 7.5% BSFL meal was used (42.30 g vs. 50.40 g), and a lower feed conversion ratio was observed in the 15% BSFL treatment (1.51 vs. 1.38). For the first time, it was empirically proven that <italic>E. subglobosa</italic> can efficiently utilize BSFL meal for up to 15% of their diet. Moreover, the possibility of an increase in environmental sustainability during turtle husbandry due to a decrease in total marine resource use of 55.8% and a 57.4% decrease in the use of fish meal per kg of body weight gain were recorded.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue modifications of Longevity Regulating Pathway resulting from endurance effort in Arabian horses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent studies have shown a highly positive effect of physical exercise on the overall condition of the body. The observed changes occur at the cellular level – proliferation, oxidative respiration, ROS degradation, whole-organism homeostasis improvement and ageing inhibition. The longevity regulating pathway is a broad term encompassing all the biochemical actions that contribute to keeping the organism in good condition and prolonging life duration. The overall aim of the present study was to describe the correlation between intensive physical activity and the expression of genes involved in biochemical processes related to longevity. A group of n=10 Arabian horses taking a part in an endurance ride for 120 km were included in the study. Blood samples from the horses were taken before and after the ride to perform comparative analyses of the transcriptome profiles. Using high-throughput NGS and bioinformatics tools, the group of 9 genes with the highest up- and downregulation fold change (FC) rates were identified: <italic>PTEN, IRS2, SESN2, CCND1, TBC1D1, FOXO1, KL, TP53, and SOD2.</italic> The results of this study could lead to the identification of a genetic marker for hot-blooded horse breeding.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, digestive enzyme activity and body composition of captive juvenile spiny lobsters, (Fabricius, 1798)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An evaluation of six dietary protein-to-energy (P/E) ratios was conducted to the early juvenile lobsters (<italic>Panulirus ornatus</italic>) by investigating the ratio effects on physiology, digestive enzyme activities, body composition, and amino acid profiles. Juvenile lobsters (0.25±0.01 g) were individually kept in aquaria and treated with six isoenergetic formulated diets of P/E ratios of 21.8, 22.5, 23.5, 24.6, 25.3 and 26.6 mg KJ<sup>−1</sup>. After 8 weeks of feeding experiment, the differentiation on dietary P/E ratios was found to have affected the specific growth rates, but not the survival, moult increment, moulting rate, moult interval and average daily moulting rate of juvenile lobsters. The dietary P/E ratio also influenced the protease, lipase, super oxidase dismutase activities, and body composition of juvenile lobster. The increase in dietary protein levels significantly affected the increase of the specific growth rate, while increased dietary lipid levels only affected the length increments. Both protein and lipid content were found in the whole body of the juveniles which reflected the treated dietary composition. Results indicated that a P/E ratio of 26.6 mg KJ<sup>−1</sup> (55% dietary protein and 9% dietary lipids) can yield the maximum growth and digestive enzyme activities from among the studied diets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of vitamin D on uterine morphology and insulin signaling in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age leading to infertility. Besides reproductive and hormonal disturbances, PCOS is often characterized by vitamin D<sub>3</sub> (VD) deficiency. This study aimed to determine the effect of VD on uterine histoarchitecture, the biochemical composition of gland secretions, and the insulin signal transduction pathway using a PCOS rat model. The experiment was conducted on four animal groups (n=8/group): control (C), VD supplemented (VD; 500IU/day), letrozole-treated (PCOS; 1 mg/kg body weight), and VD-treated PCOS (PCOS+VD) group. Herein, VD supplementation did not improve histomorphometric parameters in the PCOS uterus, whereas clearly influenced sugar composition in uterine gland secretions, restoring their content to that observed in the C group. Furthermore, we found that VD can reduce peripheral and local uterine insulin resistance developed in the PCOS rats <italic>via</italic> activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and subsequent glucose metabolism in the uterus. To sum up, the present results suggest a possible beneficial role of VD supplementation for the maintenance of uterus functions in PCOS rats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue quality parameters and activity of albumen lysozyme of eggs from traditional hens bred in Poland compared with commercial hybrids<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The variation in eggs quality parameters of traditional/native hen breeds with good freshness and antibacterial properties of egg albumen may determine the attractiveness of these eggs for modern consumers looking for high quality products. The objective of this study was to evaluate external and internal physical quality parameters and enzymatic activity of lysozyme of eggs from three traditional hens bred in Poland and to compare this eggs quality parameters to those obtained from commercial hybrids kept under the same management conditions in extensive farming production system. The study was carried out on eggs collected from 4 genetic groups of hens, i.e. Polish Liliputy Bantams (PLB), native Polish Crested Chickens (PCr, CP–22 strain), Gold Laced Polish Chickens (GLP) and from Hy–Line Brown hybrids (HLB). In total 135 PLB, 75 PCr, 75 GLP and 75 HLB hens were kept on litter (3 pens) and fed commercial feed. The eggs (n = 33/genotype/age) were collected at the 33 and 55 weeks of age. The study concluded that with the age of the hens, there was an increase (P&lt;0.05) in the weight of the egg and the proportion of its main fractions, as well as a decrease (P&lt;0.05) in the quality parameters of the albumen and the eggshell. However the eggs from traditional breeds retain good parameters of albumen quality even at the end of production period. The eggs of traditional hens were characterized by higher (P&lt;0.05) yolk proportion and its color and albumen lysozyme parameters, and a lower (P&lt;0.05) eggshell and albumen height and Haugh unit score in relation to commercial hybrids. The highest (P&lt;0.05) content of lysozyme and enzymatic activity of lysozyme were found in eggs from Gold Laced Polish Chickens. Thus, eggs obtained from traditional hens may meet requirements of modern consumers because of specific physical characteristics, good albumen lysozyme activity and freshness parameters. Particularly noteworthy are Polish Liliputy Bantams eggs, characterized by the low weight and a high proportion of more intensely colored yolk and good Haugh unit score at the end of production period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sp. as potential probiotics for use in tilapia fish farming aquaculture – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aquaculture is a crucial and rapidly expanding industry in global food production. Fisheries are, also an essential socio-economic activity, providing abundant resources and remarkable prospects. However, due to the deteriorating ecological environment, aquatic animals are often exposed to traumatic conditions and are susceptible to bacterial infections that pose significant challenges for aquaculture production. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the past has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and sudden outbreaks of infectious diseases, resulting in serious economic losses. Moreover, the use of expensive chemotherapeutic drugs and antibiotics has negative impacts on aquatic environments. Therefore, it is increasingly important to adopt alternative natural agents, such as probiotics and their metabolites, to enhance healthy fish production. Probiotics are microorganisms that have numerous beneficial effects on their hosts. They are environmentally friendly, nontoxic, and cost-effective. This review specifically focuses on the use of Bacillus sp. as probiotics to promote healthy tilapia production in the aquatic sector, while also examining their interactions with the immune system and gut microbiota. The information presented in this review can guide future research and promote effective and healthy tilapia culture production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the transcriptional activities of genes coding for adipokines and their receptors in porcine -protected mesenchymal stem cells undergoing adipogenic differentiation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their adipogenic derivatives on the relative abundances (RAs) noticed for mRNA transcripts of the selected adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) and their receptors. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow (BM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) samples collected post mortem from a total of four gilts (each at the age of 6 months). The stemness of the MSCs was proven via recognizing their abilities to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. By using real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), the quantitative levels of transcriptional activity pinpointed for the adiponectin (<italic>ADIPOQ</italic>), adiponectin receptor 1 (<italic>ADIPOR1</italic>), adiponectin receptor 2 (<italic>ADIPOR2</italic>), leptin (<italic>LEP</italic>), and leptin receptor (<italic>LEPR</italic>) genes were comparatively analyzed between non-differentiated AT-MSCs and BM‐MSCs and their cell counterparts undergoing differentiation into adipocytes. A significantly higher RA for <italic>ADIPOR1</italic> transcripts was identified in the AT-MSCs compared to the BM-MSCs and their adipogenic derivatives (P≤0.05). Moreover, the quantitative levels of <italic>LEPR</italic> transcripts were shown to increase significantly among adipocytes originating from differentiated BM-MSCs compared to undifferentiated BM-MSCs, AT-MSCs, and AT-MSC-derived adipocytes (<italic>p</italic>≤0.05). Nonetheless, there was no significant inter-group variability in the RAs of the <italic>ADIPOQ</italic>, <italic>ADIPOR2</italic>, or <italic>LEP</italic> mRNA transcripts (P&gt;0.05). Cumulatively, the <italic>in vitro</italic> models focused on the identification and detailed exploration of transcriptomic signatures of undifferentiated pig BM- and AT-MSCs, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the adipogenic differentiation pathways of the above-indicated two distinct sources of stem cells were developed and optimized in the current investigation for the very first time. These <italic>ex vivo</italic> porcine models might confirm the expedited functional mobilization of <italic>ex situ</italic>-protected MSCs and their enhanced capacity to be transcriptionally reprogrammed into adipocytes due to physiopathological alterations in the expression profiles of adipokines and their receptors, which are prompted and progressed in obese and superobese women patients at the peripubertal period of ontogenesis. Finally, the models providing comprehensive molecular insights into <italic>ex situ</italic>-protected porcine BM- and AT-derived MSCs and their differentiated derivatives can be largely suitable for the biotechnologically assisted rescue and restitution of endangered representatives of rare native breeds of domestic pig.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of dietary probiotic and succinic acid on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, immunomodulation, antioxidative capacity, and disease resistance in rainbow trout () juveniles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study was carried out to explore the effects of lactofeed (LA) as a multi-strain probiotic and succinic acid (SA) on growth variables, gut lactic acid bacteria count, digestive enzymes, innate immune responses, antioxidant capacity, and resistance against <italic>Yersinia ruckeri</italic> in rainbow trout juvenile (<italic>Oncorhynchus mykiss</italic>). Three hundred sixty healthy rainbow trout juveniles (13.21 ± 0.41 g) were randomly divided into twelve tanks (300 L) as four experimental groups. They were fed with basal diet (Control; BD), FT1: BD + 1 g/kg LA, FT2: BD + 5 g/kg SA, and FT3: BD + 1 g/kg LA + 5 g/kg SA for eight weeks. According to the results, final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), protein efficiency rate (PER), and feed conversion rate (FCR) revealed a remarkable discrepancy compared to the control group. In addition, dietary inclusion of LA (FT1 and FT3) significantly increased the specific growth rate (SGR). Dietary supplementation of LA+SA (FT3) remarkably improved total bacteria count (TBC) and amylase activity compared to the un-supplemented group. Gut lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count and digestive protease activity in all supplemented fish were remarkably higher than in un-supplemented gruop. Blood immunological factors including white blood cell (WBC) count, total immunoglobulin content (Ig), and the activity of lysozyme (LYZ), alternative complement pathway (ACH50), and acid phosphatase (ACP) were significantly enhanced in the supplemented groups. Neutrophil (NEU) count, skin mucus Ig and hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased in SA (FT2 and FT3) treatments. In addition, monocyte (MON) count and skin mucus LYZ activity significantly elevated following feeding with the FT3 diet. Other immunological parameters of skin mucus including protease activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and ACH50 activity, as well as hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased in fish fed with diets containing LA and/or SA. malondialdehyde (MDA) value was remarkably decreased in all supplemented rainbow trout compared to the fish fed with BD. Disease resistance against <italic>Y. ruckeri</italic> in fish fed with supplemented diets significantly improved with respect to the results obtained in the control specimens. Overall, dietary LA+SA supplementation was beneficial to improve growth performance, gut LAB count, digestive enzyme activities, innate immune responses, antioxidant capacity, and disease resistance in rainbow trout. According to these findings, 1 g/kg LA + 5 g/kg SA is suggested for adding to rainbow trout diet.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue