rss_2.0Annals of Public Health Issues FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Annals of Public Health Issues of Public Health Issues Feed Literature Review on the Global Burden and Impact of Substandard and Falsified Medicine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Substandard and falsified medicines are a global health concern negatively affecting individuals, the public, the pharmaceutical industry and governments all over the world. This review aims to examine the global prevalence of substandard and falsified medicines, its impact on health and the health system, including socio-economic impacts and strategies for curbing this menace. A literature review of published articles between January 2000 and May 2020 was done with keywords “substandard”, “counterfeit”, and “falsified medicines”. Articles were sourced from PubMed, World Health Organization (WHO) databases and Google Scholar. There are reports of substandard and falsified medicines from all WHO Regions with noticeable prevalence in the African Region. These medicines have been reported to cause death, antimicrobial resistance, increase prevalence of diseases, and loss of confidence in the health system. Increased patients spending, loss of productivity, strain of limited health systems resources, and loss of government revenue are major socio-economic implications of substandard and falsified medicines. An increase in criminal sanctions, global harmonization of drug regulatory authorities, and appropriate education of healthcare professionals and patients on how to prevent, detect, and respond to reported cases of substandard and falsified medicines are strategies that can be implemented to curb the menace of these medicines. Registered pharmacists and pharmacy students play critical roles in addressing this global health issue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue cell Anaemia: The Need for Increased Drug Development in Africa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sickle cell anaemia is a life-threatening genetic disease that causes damage to red blood cells by polymerisation of deoxygenated haemoglobin. It is highly prevalent in Africa especially in regions with high prevalence of malaria. Over the years, hydroxyurea had been the only promising drug used in the management of sickle cell anaemia; however, it has been found to be unaffordable and not readily available to the affected poor people in rural areas. Several challenges face drug development efforts in Africa yet there remains a significant need for the development and standardisation of newer, cheaper, and effective anti-sickling drugs that would be readily affordable and available to meet the needs of the African populace.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Pandemic: A Survey of Safety Practices among Eye Care Workers in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Objective: To assess safety practices among eye care workers in Nigeria during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. A structured electronic questionnaire was distributed among eye care workers (ophthalmologists, optometrists, ophthalmic nurses) across the six geographical zones of Nigeria. Information on socio-demographics, COVID-19 infection, current working conditions and safety practices were obtained. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc. Chicago Illinois, USA) for windows, version 22. Results: A total of 236 eye care workers participated in the study; their mean (±SD) age was 37.13 (±8.141) years, 125 (53%) were females, and 145 (61.4%) worked in a tertiary care hospital. All participants described COVID-19 as a viral disease and 98.3% agreed that the disease can affect the eyes. Outpatient clinic consultation was recorded as the highest (77.7%) service provided during the pandemic. Regarding preventive practices, 95% of eye care workers wore facemasks, 82.4% wore gloves during ophthalmic examination and Hazmat suit was the least used protective device (2.5%). About three-quarters (77.5%) reported feeling unsafe in their working environment and 63.9% were dissatisfied with the personal protective device provided by hospitals to eye care workers. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic presented an unprecedented challenge for eye care workers; with the practice of ophthalmology posing a high risk of transmission of the virus. Efforts should be made to provide the required personal protective devices needed for optimum protection of eye care workers in healthcare settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Narrative review of Myths on Neonatal and Natal Teeth in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Myths associated with neonatal and natal teeth (NNT) differ across different countries and cultures, ranging from beliefs of a magnificent future at one end, to that of serious misfortune at the opposite end. In Nigeria, the beliefs reported on NNT have been mostly negative and erroneous, with consequential effects of varying degrees ranging from anxiety by the affected child‘s mother and other members of the family to infanticide contemplation. The beliefs surrounding NNT, oftentimes, are handed down from generation to generation, and they are held in high esteem in many families. These erroneous beliefs need to be dispelled and the accurate information regarding NNT need to be passed to the people for public health benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Acceptability of Digital Healthcare Services among People Living in Southwestern Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: The advent of digital healthcare services has become paramount in the world we live in today. Digital healthcare involves the use of information and communication technologies in addressing the medical problems and health-related challenges faced by people seeking medical treatment. This study assesses the impact of digital healthcare among technologically literate people in Southwestern Nigeria (SWN) and seeks to understand its accessibility and acceptability among them. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study. Our study data was obtained through an online questionnaire survey of 427 individuals (aged ≥15 years) living in SWN. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 25 software. Results: The study found that roughly half of the respondents (52.0%) have heard about digital healthcare while only 44.0% have accessed it. Over seven-tenth (76.3%) of the respondents considered digital healthcare to be an acceptable form of receiving healthcare while 64.4% were willing to pay for it. Age (X<sup>2</sup>=7.702, p-value = 0.021), occupation (X<sup>2</sup>=20.685, p-value = 0.004) and awareness about digital healthcare (X<sup>2</sup>=55.507, p-value = 0.001) were significantly associated with accessibility of digital healthcare. Conclusion: The findings obtained from this study showed that awareness of digital healthcare was high among people in SWN; however, its accessibility was low. Also, digital healthcare was highly acceptable amongst them and they were willing to pay for such service.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Infected Economy: Interrogating the Early Economic Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>COVID-19 pandemic infests every sphere of life, including the economy, thereby accounting for tremendous economic calamities on a global scale. Some of such calamities are still evolving. This paper examines the economic impact of COVID-19 with particular emphasis on Nigeria within the early days of the pandemic. The article established its theoretical foundation through a marriage of both AK-type of endogenous growth theory and endogenous growth model with an assumption of increasing returns to scale. Using a simple descriptive technique, the article identified the devastating economic impacts of the pandemic on the oil-dependent economy in the short run. The paper identifies four fundamental COVID-19 economic shocks; the declined price of oil; unplanned increase in health spending, temporary shutdown of the local economy; and unanticipated palliative needs. Some of these impacts also include loss in income and output, increasing rate of unemployment, and poverty contributing to the disruption of the previously steady growth rate. In the longer term, COVID-19-related damages will have no or insignificant negative impact on growth. The economy is bound to bounce back on a steady growth path provided the quality of institutions is strengthened to the extent of surmounting the disruptive shocks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Crisis in Africa: Revisiting the Contributing Factors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major threat to people and healthcare systems around the world. Each region of the world has had unique factors such as culture, demographics, socioeconomic and the political landscape that has either fueled or mitigated the severity of the pandemic. For example, the 2021 Indian Kumbh Mela festival fueled a devastating wave of the pandemic in India. Similarly, the pandemic in the United States has in part been fueled an epidemic of disinformation that led to a growing number of anti-vaxxers, and those who are opposed to COVID-19 prevention guidelines set by agencies like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Africa, burial practices in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo once fueled the Ebola epidemic. Likewise, in the context of COVID-19, there are factors that are unique to Africa that may have either fueled or mitigated the severity of the pandemic. The anti-COVID-19 measures in many African countries significantly affected household income without commensurate deployment of palliative measures to cushion the effect. Fortunately, the pandemic has run a relatively milder course in sub-Saharan Africa—defying earlier devastating projections. Therefore, to be prepared for the next pandemic, African governments must involve critical stakeholders such as religious and traditional leaders, strengthen current disease surveillance systems and invest in systems that encourage private investments in local vaccine manufacturing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue“Annals of Public Health Issues” Has Come to Stay! and Neck Cancer Literacy in Nigeria: A systematic Review of the Literature<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Head and neck cancer (HNC), oral cancer inclusive (OC), is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths globally, especially in Nigeria – a developing African country. Public literacy about HNC plays a very crucial role in HNC prevention. Aim: This study aimed to systematically review existing literature on literacy of HNC in Nigeria. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Google Scholar and AJOL databases for all relevant English articles published on HNC literacy in Nigeria from January 2000 till October 2020. Only relevant articles were included for the study. Quality assessment of the full text of the included articles was done using the Appraisal Tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS); also, relevant data were extracted from these articles and analyzed thematically. Results: A total of 21 articles (19 surveys and 2 interventional studies), which studied a total population of 7,883 people, were included in the study. All the included articles were rated “excellent” (70 – 100%), regarding quality. The awareness rates of HNC/OC, as documented in the included studies, ranged from 0% to 100%; however, the rate recorded in the majority of these studies was &lt;50%. In-depth knowledge of HNC/OC was found to be generally poor among the surveyed population groups; however, education intervention was found to improve in-depth knowledge of HNC and attitudes toward peer and nonpeer education about HNC among Nigerians. Conclusion: The level of knowledge regarding HNC, in Nigeria, is low. The use of relevant health education programs to boost knowledge about HNC among the Nigerian public is highly recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue