rss_2.0Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura Feed Condition of Complex Technical Objects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article shows the results obtained during the implementation of a portable diagnosis system to the maintenance the complex technical objects. As an example, the procedures for testing the behaviour of passenger vehicles and the fixed track of an underground train were proposed, which allowed for the assessment of such aspects as: safety, comfort and technical condition of the track-vehicle junction. The reports given in this evaluation allowed the identification and the arrangement of the track sections according to its technical condition, relating thus the track and vehicle condition parameters to the estimators connected with the passenger vehicles dynamics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the damage and reinforcement of the foundation in a ten-storey multi-purpose building in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research work examined the evaluation of the damage and reinforcement of the foundation in a ten-storey building in Rivers State. The following tests: deep boring test, standard penetration test, boreholes sampling, and crack monitoring by Demec gauge have been carried out to check all kinds of damages related to a strong connection with the ground since the behaviour of the ground determines the stability of the building foundation and the long-term performance of the building. Foundation failures have a major impact on the performance of the building structure. If the base is not stable and moves easily, distortion and deflection will occur. It causes damage to the structure, such as cracks in walls, beams, and floors, and becomes a problem for residents. This problem needs to be fixed and corrective work is the option to fix the error. The following recommendations were considered as follows; maintenance of the building and subsoil to avoid deformation and damage to the building structure at least every six months. Periodic on-site inspection is very important to determine if there is any damage to the building structure. The inspection can be carried out at least once every six months or once a year.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Constrictions Number on Filtration Characteristics of Nonwoven Geotextiles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The use of nonwoven geotextile filters is common in geoenvironmental and geotechnical engineering applications. The main requirements for successful performance of drainage and geotextile filters are soil retention, permeability and clogging resistance. In case of anti-clogging capabilities, the most popular method to evaluate the filtration behaviour of nonwoven geotextile in contact with soils is gradient ratio test. Also the number of constrictions of nonwoven geotextile should be determined on the basis of fibre diameter, thickness and porosity. The number of constrictions has been found to explain the different filtration behaviours of nonwoven geotextiles with similar or even the same opening sizes but different structures for various soil conditions. This paper presents the gradient ratio test program for internally unstable soil and nonwoven geotextiles with different structures. Test results show a significant impact of the number of constrictions on the filtration characteristics of geotextile. What is more some modifications to the filter design criteria are proposed based on interpretation of the experimental results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue aspects of the digitisation of spatial planning in the context of legislative changes in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digitisation of spatial planning can be considered multi-dimensionally. The more comprehensive the approach, the better the solutions will be. The idea of a step-by-step approach should bring the best end result. The obligation to create spatial data, which was introduced in Poland, in a way, forced municipalities or urban planners to acquire knowledge and skills in geoinformation and GIS software. The main objective of this article is to present the assumptions and propose a framework and further stages of digitisation of spatial planning in Poland. The specific objective is to present the legislation in the process of digitisation of spatial planning, which has been initiated or significantly modified by the author, and the procedure of which has started or was ongoing in the Department of Spatial Planning within the Ministry of Economic Development and Technology in June 2021. Thus, in addition to the implemented measures, the author also indicates the potential and benefits for urban planners, resulting from the creation of the graphic part of acts in vector form, but also outlines the importance of such studies for various groups of recipients and public administration. At the same time, the people for whom any solution is created – the general public – should not be forgotten.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of fibre reinforced frozen soil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Across the globe, cold region areas experience frequent freeze and thaw cycles. Sometimes these natural cycles become so impacteous that the engineering properties of soil get affected adversely and supported structures like pavements damage or collapse by the time. In the present study chicken eggshell powder, sodium chloride and polypropylene fibres were used to stabilise the soil. Strength properties of 21-day cured virgin and treated soil samples were determined after keeping under 3, 5 and 10 freeze–thaw cycles. For durability assessment, mass loss was also determined after the same number of freeze–thaw cycles. Finally, optimal conditions were determined through analysis of variance. Results showed that the natural additives and synthetic fibres promise as better provision against harsh weather conditions. Design of experiments was made by the Taguchi technique using a statistical software Minitab® 17. Further analysis was done to find out the probability distribution of the responses. Probability distribution showed a large variation in the responses that implies that although the results were found satisfactorily as per the engineering purposes, yet not suitable to make any relationship between strength and durability properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue water level in an excavation for a multi-family residential building in urban development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper concerns lowering water level in excavations for residential buildings in a dense urban development. The construction and protection of excavation walls as well as the methods of lowering the water level and its impact on the surroundings were discussed. An excavation dewatering system is presented on the example of a multi-family residential building with one underground floor, built in dense urban development. The excavation executed in the sandy subsoil below the groundwater level and encased with walls made of steel sheet piles was analysed. Two concepts of lowering the water level in the excavation were considered: the first with use of a wellpoint system, the second with use of a well with pumps. The conducted calculations showed that when using a wellpoint system to lower the water level in the excavation for analysed multi-family residential building, a system consisting of 260 wellpoints with a spacing of 1.0 m should be made. The efficiency of a single wellpoint is 12.25 m3•d–1, and the efficiency of the entire installation is 3,185.69 m3•d–1. When draining the wells, a system consisting of 9 wells should be made, with a unit capacity of 375.58 m3•d–1 and efficiency of the total installation 3,380.22 m<sup>3</sup>•d<sup>−1</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue monitoring of geotechnical structures displacements: a case study of Radiowo landfill site in warsaw<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Geodetic monitoring of deformation has an important role in ensuring the safety of geotechnical objects by monitoring of not exceeding the critical states defined for slope stability and monitoring the uniformity of the object settlement process. A special case of such objects are landfills built of various anthropogenic materials. Heterogeneous building material causes increased values of displacements in relation to other geotechnical objects and requires that measurement works be carried out throughout the entire life cycle of the landfill: both in the exploitation phase, during the reclamation period and in the post-exploitation phase. This study presents the methodology of geodetic measurements of deformation of geotechnical objects on the example of the Radiowo landfill and the results of this type of measurements carried out for 30 years on this object. The analysis of the literature has also shown that, in addition to the commonly used geodetic methods, it is possible to use modern measurement methods such as laser scanning and photogrammetry, which are more and more often successfully used in the measurement of this type of structures. These methods can be an interesting alternative in measuring the displacement of landfills or constitute their perfect supplement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue modelling of heat conduction in biperiodic fourth-component composite<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The object of analysis is a heat conduction problem within the framework of tolerance modelling in fourth-component biperiodic composite. Two materials are isotropic and two are orthotropic, and additionally symmetry axes of orthotropic ones are rotated with respect to each other by an angle equal 90°. The results of some special boundary conditions for stationary problem of heat conduction were obtained from the local homogenization model (LHM). The model equations were derived by simplifying the equations of the standard tolerance model (STM), which were obtained based on two model assumptions: micro-macro decomposition of the temperature field and residual function averaging, after introducing the concept of “weakly slowly varying function” (WSV) and “slowly varying function” (SV) into the modelling process. The presented examples show the influence of the given boundary conditions on the macro-temperature distribution and on the distribution of the approximate temperature field <italic>θ</italic>(·). The effect of thermal conductivity of the component materials and the number of periodicity cells on temperature distribution was also shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effect on Construction Barriers from External Load Including Angle Incidence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the method of determining the impact of an external explosion on construction barriers, taking into account the angle of the shock wave. For the presented two variants of the analysis, i.e. for the load placed at a distance of 5 and 10m from the construction barrier, the initial pressure of the reflected wave, the duration of overpressure and the course of load variability over time were determined. For the assumed parameters of the barrier and the blast load, the values of overpressure were determined, taking into account the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the proposed method with other methods available in the literature was made. The convergence of the results did not exceed 10%. The proposed method allows to determine the boundary between the Mach and the incident waves.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Technical Methods Landfill Sealing and Reclamation in the World<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Landfills, even properly designed, constructed, and operated, are facilities that in the future can be a potential source of pollution of surface and groundwater and atmospheric air. Especially, old municipal landfills were very often established in inappropriate soil and water conditions, which contributed much more to the release of toxic leachate into the ground. This happened due to lack of sufficient regulation and control systems in this area. Reclamation of degraded sites became a kind of rescue for contaminated areas. However, this process was not always carried out in a proper way. This study presents the trends of landfills sealing and their reclamation over the years in different countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Methods to Strengthen the Bending Reinforced Concrete Elements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The analysis of methods of strengthening reinforced concrete structures showed, that strengthen structures that work for bending can be both a way of increasing the cross-section, and a way to change the calculation scheme of the work of structure. To date, the effect of low-cycle loads of high levels on the work of strengthened bending reinforced concrete elements is not fully investigated. Research in this area is relevant and necessary for modern construction. The use of modern carbon-plastic materials and steel-fiber reinforced concrete is an effective way to strengthen bending reinforced concrete elements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ecosystem of Green Roofs from the Perspective Rainwater Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Bielsko-Biała (Poland), thanks to the initiative of the originator and architect, a green intensive roof was created on a shopping centre. This roof primarily serves as a garden that enhances the qualities of the residential area, but also as a means of absorbing some rainwater and slowing down the runoff. The water collects in the rainwater retention tank located under the building. Rainwater also evaporates, and its surface runoff is slowed down as it passes through the vegetation on the green intensive roof. This paper addresses some of the operational problems of a selected green roof. The Water Law introduces the obligation to pay charges for the reduction of natural terrain retention. Shopping centres usually occupy large areas of land, but their roofs are rarely used for rainwater management and the installation of biologically active surfaces. Green roofs undoubted advantage is the increase of biologically active surface in urban areas. It is also an oxygen-producing surface as well as reducing urban heat islands and attractive place for honeybees and butterflies. The roof in question meets the requirements of a retention facility mentioned in the Water Law Act. It is a multifunctional system for rainwater management. The analysis suggests that the roof under study is not a self-sustaining ecosystem and requires human intervention.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Construction Nodes a Water Pipeline Network and Modeling Planned Overall Dimensions Its Working Chambers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While designing water supply networks, an important task consists in establishing the place necessary for an installation of water supply wells along with water supply units located in them, in aim to determine the number of structural elements in the composition of individual pipelines of this water supply network. It has been proposed to apply a methodology for predictive calculation of a number of structural elements of the water supply pipeline system by indirect signs. An improvement of this technique was carried out by systematising the structural elements into simple and complex ones, with the determination of an indicator of the structural device for each of them. In order to analyse the role of each structural element of the same type, belonging to an assembly consisting of a linear part of a pipeline and nodes, a concept of coefficient of constructiveness was introduced. Analytical and graphical dependencies for predicting the value of the coefficient of constructiveness have been obtained. For typical (simple) nodes, the minimum value of the coefficient of constructiveness is 1.3 and maximum value is 2.54. The largest value of the coefficient of constructiveness for a conventional (complex) node is 1.45, the minimum value is 1.13. Recommendations have been given for assessment of the complexity of the installation of water supply units in practice in the design of new and reconstruction of existing water supply networks. For the above water supply units, working chambers of a round shape are recommended, which makes it possible in practice to reduce the overall planned dimensions of a water well in comparison with a rectangular shape of the same chamber.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Soil Type Interpretation and Determination from CPT and DMT Tests<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the methodology of <italic>in situ</italic> tests using a CPT probe and methods of soil type determination that are based on them. The second part lays out the methodology of field tests with Marchetti’s dilatometer (DMT) and methods of soil type determination on their basis. In the third part, the process of validation of CPT and DMT tests with borehole test methods is carried out based on the analysis of <italic>in situ</italic> investigations in the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW) Campus sites compared to the results obtained from laboratory tests. Validation of the CPT method using Marr’s nomogram was successful. The DMT method using Marchetti’s nomogram chart should be also considered as satisfactory.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sand–Nonwoven Geotextile Interface Characterisation Through Gradient Ratio Test<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nonwoven geotextiles have been widely used as a substitute for mineral materials to provide filtration functions in civil engineering. However, in filter systems, geotextiles are the first to be in contact with soft, saturated, and fine soils. For that reason, the selection of a geotextile filter depends on the characteristics of the geosynthetics and the base soil (e.g. grain size distribution, internal stability, permeability) and on the design and boundary conditions such as continuity of the soil–geotextile filter contact interface. The geotextile filter must be properly designed to avoid clogging. The most commonly method used for measuring filtration compatibility of soil–geotextile systems is the gradient ratio test. This paper presents the gradient ratio test program for needle-punched nonwoven geotextile used as a filter layer and internally unstable soil. Laboratory tests were conducted in a modified gradient ratio test apparatus. Test results show that gradient ratio increases with time due to clogging. Also the need for a measurementofwaterheadsveryclosetothegeotextiletomeasurement of water heads very close to the geotextile to provide additional information on the soil–geotextile system behaviour were presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Modelling of Soil-Binder Composites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of an appropriate soil-binder composite (stabilized soil) is associated with the selection of the appropriate strength class of the hydraulic binder (e.g. ash-cement) and its amount to stabilize the soil. Advanced statistical methods based on the use of the <italic>spline</italic> function were used in the analysis of tests of soil-binder composites. The analysis presents statistical modelling as a tool helpful in the design of soil-binder composites, showing possible interactions between the components of materials included in the mineral composition of composites. A logarithmic model of the compressive stress forecast was developed for soil-binder composites both with freezing cycles of the soil composition and without freezing cycles, in which the composites hardening time and the addition of ash-cement binders to the soil were continuous variables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Risk Analysis of Construction Investment and Property Value in the Areas with Mining Impact<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The scientific objective of this issue is to estimate the number and the significance of variables defined for particular functions, describing the nature, scope and type of impacts on buildings located in mining areas in terms of the technical condition of civil structures and costs of their possible protection and repair or modernisation. This publication analyses a problem of risk response as separate stages of a risk management process in investment projects being carried out in construction industry in the areas with mining impact. Specified and diagnosed variables are analysed in a selected respect, with particular emphasis on the assessment of the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state of the tested civil structures. The prognostic knowledge of the process of protecting or repairing buildings on an active subsoil, within the assumed time range of the design use of the civil structures and the predicted mining impacts, is essential in an analysis of the form and scope of responses of the structures to adverse impacts and when estimating the cost of building interaction with the subsoil through the entire life cycle of the structure. The subject matter is interdisciplinary, covering both subjects in the field of engineering, as well as stochastic processes, econometrics and reliability of output data predicting the operational impact of mines in analysed urban areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Removal of BOD, COD and Suspended Solids in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to evaluate the performance of subsurface flow constructed wetland in Latvia which was established to receive storm water from surface runoff from a farmjard in agricultural area. As a part of this study, subsurface horizontal flow wetlands was monitored, in order to evaluate the changes in the efficiency of treatment depending on biological factors. The efficiency of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland was evaluated by comparing the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD<sub>5</sub>) and chemical oxygen (COD) at inlet and outlet of the wetland depending on temperature and pH. Since June 2014, water quality monitoring in a research site in the farm “Mezaciruli”, Zaļenieku parish, Jelgava region has been carried out to treat the point source agricultural runoff from the impermeable pavements. The analysis of the data obtained in the monitoring allows to draw conclusions about the influence of certain factors in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands under the climate and environmental conditions in Latvia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Compaction, Reinforcement and Reclamation as a Protection of Slopes Against Erosion in Road Engineering Earthworks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of building engineering, both transport, hydrotechnical and industrial as well as housing induces the growth of the volume of earth mass at the building sites, which cause the need for a proper protection against destructive influence of water from precipitation and snow melting. The increase of the volume of earth works directly influences their technology, characterized with translocation of large amounts of mass. The paper presents characteristics of reclamation and earth works with emphasis on preparing escarps of earth buildings to their natural finishing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Vertical Farm – Introduction to the Subject and Discussion of Selected Examples<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The topic of this paper is contemporary architecture of urban agriculture. The aim of the paper is to review the architectural design of vertical farms in cities. The following research methods and techniques were used: literature review, case studies, project descriptions and research by design method. The paper discusses both out-door and in-door vertical farming facilities. Vertical farms can be part of local food systems of cities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue