rss_2.0Acta Technologica Agriculturae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Technologica Agriculturaehttps://sciendo.com/journal/ATAhttps://www.sciendo.comActa Technologica Agriculturae Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6470bb6471e4585e08aa40c0/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/ATA140216Chisel Tillage Under Spring Barley in the Forest-Steppehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The degradation of chernozems and increased soil erosion led to the search for more advanced methods of tillage, taking into account climatic conditions, the quantity and quality of crop residues, and the volume of fertilizer application. The aim of the study was to establish the effect of various methods of basic tillage in the presence of preceding plant‘s crop residues on the growth and development of spring barley plants. The experiment was carried out in the forest-steppe of Ukraine. During the experiment, the influence of various methods of basic tillage on the agrophysical properties of the soil, its water regime, and weed infestation of spring barley crops was studied. For comparison, the following types of basic tillage were used: dump to a depth of 20–22 cm, chisel tillage to a depth of 14–16 cm, and disc tillage to a depth of 10–12 cm. Dump and chisel processing were characterized by higher grain yield. Chisel tillage provided better moisture accumulation compared to reverse ploughing. In spring, at the time of sowing grain crops in the layer of 0–15 cm, the reserves of productive moisture during chiselling were 145 mm, and during mouldboard processing 122.6 mm. Thus, chisel tillage for spring barley creates the best conditions for moisture supply and guarantees a high level of grain yield and significant profitability of production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-00052024-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Drum Dryer Temperature and Rotational Speed on the Characteristics of Finger Millet () Based Weaning Food Enriched with Composite Flourhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Finger millet or red millet is a source of carbohydrates, protein, and phytonutrients that have not been widely used. This has the potential to be used as an ingredient in making bread and porridge. However, the protein content of millet is insufficient for infant feeding and deficient in essential amino acids like lysine, so other ingredients are needed. This study contrasted composite flour dried at various temperatures and rotational speeds with millet-based supplementary feeding. Finger millet flour, red bean, skimmed milk powder, sugar, and salt were used to produce the weaning meal in that sequence. The dough-to-water ratio is 1 : 4. Organoleptic, physical, and chemical interactions were all considered. The experiment used a randomised block design with three replications and a 3 × 3 factorial pattern. The study discovered that drum dryer temperature impacted chemical, physical, and sensory responses (<italic>p</italic> &lt;0.05). Temperature had a more significant influence on moisture content than rotational speed. Temperature above 120 °C results in lower moisture content at rotation higher than 1.0 min<sup>−1</sup> and meets the criteria for instant porridge (lower than 4%). Lower moisture content at higher temperatures leads to increased protein concentration, but carbohydrates and fats remain relatively constant. The samples more preferred by the panellists were samples processed at higher temperature with rotation above 1.0 min<sup>−1</sup>. So, this value is recommended, apart from fulfilling the standard criteria, processing with higher rotational speed can increase the output capacity of the process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-00022024-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Cacao Pod Husks Under Different Pretreatments for Bioenergy Productionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study sought to determine the potential of cacao pod husks for energy use. Biogas potential, the kinetics of anaerobic digestion at bench scale, and physicochemical characterisation of materials were evaluated for cacao pod husks (CPH), depectinised cacao pod husks (CPH-D), and cacao pod husks treated by <italic>Pleurotus</italic> spp. (CPH-DF). These materials showed accumulated biogas productions of 314.86 ±4.45 l·kg<sup>−1</sup> VS<sup>−1</sup>, 369.49 ±15.98 l·kg<sup>−1</sup> VS<sup>−1</sup>, and 342.52 ±10.98 l·kg<sup>−1</sup> VS<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. The calorific values in CPH-DF, CPH, and CHP-DF were 17.65 MJ·kg<sup>−1</sup>, 15.43 MJ·kg<sup>−1</sup>, and 17.21 MJ·kg<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. These values indicate that the evaluated materials have a high potential to be used as biofuels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-00032024-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Justification of the Unit Design Diagram for Mowing Agricultural Crops Simultaneously with Their Stuble Choppinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The two-phase method is quite widespread when harvesting grain crops and forage grasses. For its implementation, farmers prefer harvesting units with a front-mounted header. The main disadvantage of such units is that after their passage in the space between the swaths of mown crops, open soil falls under the direct influence of sunlight. Subsequently, this leads to an intensive loss of its moisture. A harvesting unit has been designed to eliminate this shortcoming, consisting of a tractor with a front harvester and a soil-cultivating machine (disc harrow) mounted at the rear. The latter chops stubble and soil in the space between the swaths of the mowed crop, contributing to soil moisture conservation. In the diagram plan, the tillage machine can have a swivel or fixed conjunction with the tractor in a horizontal plane. A mathematical model of the harvesting unit plane-parallel movement in the horizontal plane has been designed to choose these conjunctions better. In the study, it is used to analyze the corresponding amplitude (AFC) and phase (PFC) frequency characteristics of a dynamic system when it is working out a control action in the form of the sighting point transverse shift. As a mathematical modeling result, it was found that the fixed conjunction of a tillage machine with a tractor is preferable. In this case, the natural AFC practically approaches the perfect one for servo dynamical systems. The correlation degree between the tractor‘s steered wheels‘ rotation and heading angles increases by almost 37%. As a result, this leads to a significant decrease in this parameter variance fluctuations, which contributes to an increase in the harvesting unit controllability movement as a whole.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-00062024-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Environmental and Economic Analysis of Biomethane Production from Co-Digestion of Rice Straw and Spent Mushroom Compost: Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spent mushroom compost is one of the main potentials for biogas production. In recent years, several studies employed adding nanoparticles and alkaline pretreatment for improving biogas production. The present study is one of the pioneer studies that employ hybrid alkaline pretreatment (0, 5, and 15 mg of NaOH) and zero-valent iron nanoparticles (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg) for improving the co-digestion of spent mushroom compost and rice straw. According to the results, retention time (RT) and nanoparticle (NP) concentrations have the most significant impact on biomethane production (significant at 1% probability level), while the NaOH concentration has the lowest impact on biomethane production (significant at 5% probability level) in comparison with RT and NP concentration. Also, the maximum biomethane production is related to NP40Na15 (about 200% higher than the control). The minimum cumulative biomethane production is related to NP0Na15 (about 30% lower than the control). The lowest relative environmental midpoint impact is related to NP40Na15, which was on average about 60% lower than the control. Adding NPs at high concentrations of NaOH reduces the midpoint impacts. The results of the study could lead to new, ecologically friendly biomethane production methods that make better use of agricultural and organic wastes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-00012024-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Near Infrared Technology Coupled with Different Spectra Correction Approaches for Fast and Non-Destructive Prediction of Chlorogenic Acid on Intact Coffee Beanshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The primary objective of this research was to utilise near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a swift, non-destructive method for identifying chlorogenic acid in whole coffee beans. Additionally, this investigation explored the efficacy of different spectral improvement techniques alongside partial least square regression to construct predictive models. NIR spectral data was gleaned from whole coffee beans spanning a wavelength range of 1000–2500 nm, while the chlorogenic acid content was ascertained via high-performance liquid chromatography procedures. Our findings revealed that the highest coefficient of determination reached for chlorogenic acid was 0.97, and the root mean square error for calibration was 0.31% when using the multiplicative scatter correction method. Furthermore, upon testing the model using an external validation dataset, a determination coefficient of 0.91 and a ratio error to range index of 11.56 with a root mean square prediction error at 0.51% was attained. From these results, it can be inferred that the near-infrared technology, coupled with an effective spectral enhancement process, can facilitate quick, non-invasive determination of chlorogenic acid in whole coffee beans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-00042024-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigating the Essential Factors for Thresher Losses and Waste in Peanut Harvester Considering Several Varieties of Crophttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research investigated the performance of a model traction combine harvester (TCH) for harvesting several varieties of peanuts. The effect of independent factors including tested varieties at three levels (local Moghan, Goli Astana, and Turkish), tractor forward speed (FS) at three levels (4, 5, and 6 km·h<sup>−1</sup>), and rotational speed (RS) of the thresher at three levels (500, 600, 700 rpm) on losses and wastes were studied and investigated. To analyse the obtained data, a factorial experimental design was used in the form of randomised complete blocks, and Duncan‘s multi-range test was used to compare the mean values. According to the findings, the effects of tractor FS and rotary speed of the thresher on the percentage of threshing losses were significant at the probability level of 1%. Also, the interaction effects of variety type and tractor FS, tractor FS, and rotary speed of the thresher on the percentage of threshing losses were significant at the 1% probability level. Also, the effects of variety type, tractor FS, rotary speed of the thresher, and all mutual effects on the percentage of threshing waste were significant at the 1% probability level. The results of comparing the average effects of the main factors showed that the FS of 6 km·h<sup>−1</sup> had the highest average threshing loss (82.89%). Threshing losses were obtained in the Turkish variety with the lowest average value (2.51%) and in the local variety with the highest average value (3.53%).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-00082024-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Effect of Conventional Fuel with Newly Developed Biofuel in Operation and Emission Conditions of Piston Combustion Enginehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper deals with the evaluation of the impact of newly developed biofuels together with a comparison with conventionally produced fuel, diesel, in terms of their impact on the technical and emission condition of a studied vehicle. The main energy and emission parameters of the internal combustion diesel engine were evaluated. For laboratory experiments, a discrete test method was used for comprehensive assessment, the procedure of which is described in the methodology of the paper together with a description of the measurement chain designed to achieve the determined results. The paper deals with the evaluation of the measured results of power, torque, consumption, and emissions such as CO<sub>2</sub> and absorption coefficient. Among the technical parameters, the power and torque drop were observed for each biofuel. The decrease is attributed to lower values of calorific value, viscosity, and density. A positive effect was observed for the CO<sub>2</sub> and absorption coefficient emission parameters, i.e., a decrease for each of the newly developed biofuels studied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2024-00072024-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Selected Parameters Affecting the Electricity Consumption of Automatic Milking Systemshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0030<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presented is aimed at the determination of electricity consumption at selected dairy farms during milking employing automatic milking systems (AMS). The research was focused on the determination of electricity consumption during the performance of essential activities that are related to the AMS utilization, i.e., electricity consumption by a single AMS unit per day, by a single assembly compressor per day, by a single AMS unit and a single assembly compressor per day, per milking, and per 1 litre of milk. Measurements were conducted at eight dairy farms in Central Europe that house dairy cows of the black-spotted Holstein cattle breed. The cattle groups assessed comprised 95 to 105 animals subjected to milking over the entire observed period. On the basis of the measurements conducted, it was observed that the average amount of energy consumed per 1 litre of milked milk was 0.0232 kWh over the entire observed period. Regarding the essential activities, the results obtained indicate that the energy consumption throughout the year is relatively balanced, despite the fact that it is affected by a wide range of factors, including chiefly the herd management, as well as overall organization of entire farm, milk yield, health status of cattle, current climatic conditions, fodder quality, etc.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00302023-11-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Design and Analysis of a Solar Energy System for a Fruit Harvesting Robot in Pakistanhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0025<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to meet the growing agricultural demands, modern machinery needs to be deployed and cheaper energy supply needs to be ensured. With advancements in artificial intelligence, fruit harvesting robots can improve both the quality and productivity of fruit picking and increase orange fruit exports. However, to ensure effective working of the fruit harvesting robot, an energy source that is both efficient and cost-effective is necessary. This paper aims at designing of a solar energy system for a lightweight fruit harvesting robot for orange orchards in Pakistan and conducting a feasibility study for the deployment of the robot for remote agricultural land. The site for fruit harvesting robot employment is decided by irradiance using random forest regression. Solar system sizing is done based on the design and energy requirements of the fruit harvesting robot. The Homer Pro software is used for simulation of the system to analyse the potential of using solar system for fruit harvesting robot in Sargodha, Pakistan. The results show that compared to hybrid system, a stand-alone system is a more cost effective, reliable, and efficient option with a payback time of 3.36 years and levelized cost of energy being $0.085 per unit kWh. This study proves that solar energy is a viable and cheaper solution for using modern agricultural machineries, like fruit harvesting robot, in remote areas in developing countries, like Pakistan, to enhance productivity and improving quality of the produce.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00252023-11-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Dynamic and Stationary Testing of Vehicle Braking Systemshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0032<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with the dynamic and stationary testing of vehicle braking systems for a selected set of eight intercity buses in an unloaded state. In case of the dynamic test carried out on a defined test area, a decelerometer is used to record the braking deceleration of a set of vehicles, which is placed in the vehicle during the course of test. According to the methodical procedure, the vehicle is accelerated to a speed of 40 km·h<sup>-1</sup> and subsequently braked with the maximum braking deceleration. Braking deceleration values recorded by the decelerometer were used to calculate vehicle braking. During the stationary test, a roller brake tester was used, on which the maximum braking forces on the front and rear axles of the vehicle are measured, and then, the braking of the vehicle is calculated from these values according to the methodical procedure. The calculated braking values of vehicles during the dynamic and stationary test are subsequently compared, where it is possible to observe the percentage difference of these values, which may be caused by several factors taken into account in the results of the paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00322023-11-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Theory of Heap Particle Motion in Vibration Cleaning of Potatoeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0027<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Theoretical research was conducted using the basic principles of higher mathematics and theoretical mechanics. Numerical calculations and graphical dependences are obtained using a PC based on developed and standard programs. The movement of the potato heap on the wing surface of the V-shaped heap distributor in the process of its distribution over the entire width of the separating conveyor was studied. An equivalent scheme of interaction of potato heap particle with the surface of the distributor wing is constructed, on the basis of which differential equations of its motion on the specified surface are made, taking into account the main constructive and kinematic parameters of the separating conveyor and V-shaped distributor. Based on the integration of the specified system of differential equations in quadratures, analytical expressions describing the laws of change of speed and movement of a particle of a potato heap in time at various values of constructive and kinematic parameters of the distributor and separating conveyor are received. Based on the obtained analytical expressions, calculations were performed and graphical dependences of heap velocity along the distributor wing on time at different values of the angle of distributor wings taking into account the oscillations of the separating conveyor blade were obtained. The allowable speed of movement of the heap along the wing of the distributor is determined from the condition of maintaining the equality of supply of the heap to the distributor and its ascent from the distributor. The specified speed is 1.62 m∙s<sup>−1</sup>. The analysis of graphical dependences shows that the speed of the heap along the wing of the distributor decreases with increasing angle of the wing. If the speed is reduced to less than the allowable value, the heap will be unloaded on the wings of the distributor, which will lead to a disturbance of the technological process of the potato harvester. With the allowable time of movement of the heap along the distributor wing, the maximum allowable values of the deflection of the distributor wing are within 40–45°.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00272023-11-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Testing of Regulating and Non-Regulating Hydraulic Pumpshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0031<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article deals with the testing of regulating and non-regulating hydraulic pumps in laboratory conditions. The laboratory test was carried out on the hydraulic device consisting of two separate hydraulic circuits (for testing the non-regulating hydraulic pump and regulating hydraulic pump). A throttle valve or proportional throttle valve is used for loading. During the laboratory tests, the flow efficiency of the non-regulating hydraulic pump at rotation speed <italic>n</italic> = 1,500 rpm (nominal speed) was η<italic><sub>pp</sub></italic> = 98.91% (0 MPa) and η<italic><sub>pp</sub></italic> = 94.97% (20 MPa), and for the regulating hydraulic pump, the values were η<italic><sub>pp</sub></italic> = 97.57% (0 MPa) and η<italic><sub>pp</sub></italic> = 94.54% (20 MPa). The determined values of flow efficiency of hydraulic pumps determine the correct operation of the experimental hydraulic laboratory equipment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00312023-11-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Accommodation Speed and Reading Accuracy for Conventional and Digital Rear-View Mirrors with Emphasis on Overall Traffic Safetyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0029<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The topic of this article is a comparison of the speed of accommodation and the reading accuracy of conventional and digital rear-view mirrors. The data for the research described in this article was obtained through laboratory measurements using precise measuring techniques on a medium-sized, relatively heterogeneous group of users, consisting mainly of university students and employees. In the experiment, all research participants performed a series of test tasks on two identical passenger vehicles, where one was equipped with conventional side mirrors, while the other had digital side mirrors installed. The main reason for carrying out this study is to try to imitate a common situation where the driver is forced to drive a car with these modern technologies in normal traffic and to understand the specific issues associated with the use of this technology. The speed of accommodation and reading accuracy is a very important parameter in this regard, which is also important for maximizing road traffic safety. The data obtained from this research was subsequently subjected to selected statistical analysis. Results confirmed statistically significant differences in the speed of accommodation when reading data from conventional and digital mirrors. It has been shown that the use of digital mirror technology can have a direct negative effect on road safety, especially in combination with other negative effects given by the technical nature of the technology under investigation, such as image latency in digital displays.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00292023-11-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network Modelling to a Ploughing Unit in Various Soil Conditionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0026<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The specific objective of this study is to find a suitable artificial neural network model for estimating the operation indicators (disturbed soil volume, effective field capacity, draft force, and energy requirement) of ploughing units (tractor disc) in various soil conditions. The experiment involved two different factors, i.e., (Ι) soil texture index and (ΙΙ) field work index, and included soil moisture content, tractor engine power, soil bulk density, tillage speed, tillage depth, and tillage width, which were linked to one dimensionless index. We assessed the effectiveness of artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models between the values predicted and the actual values using the mean absolute error criterion to test data points. When the artificial neural network model was applied, the mean absolute error values for disturbed soil volume, effective field capacity, draft force, and energy requirement were 69.41 m<sup>3</sup>·hr<sup>−1</sup>, 0.04 ha·hr<sup>−1</sup>, 1.24 kN, and 1.95 kw·hr·ha<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. In order to evaluate the behaviour of new models, the coefficient <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> was used as a criterion, where <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> values in artificial neural network were 0.9872, 0.9553, 0.9948, and 0.9718, respectively, for the aforementioned testing dataset. Simultaneously, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> values in multiple linear regression were 0.7623, 0.696, 0.492, and 0.5572, respectively, for the same testing dataset. Based on these comparisons, it was clear that predictions using the artificial neural network models proposed are very satisfactory.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00262023-11-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Features of Wear of Gears of Agricultural Machineryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0028<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents data on the resource and wear of the gears of agricultural tractor transmissions, on the basis of which the research problem and the novelty of the proposed methodology are formulated, based on the development and application of the stress state model of the gear, taking into account surface hardening. The methodology and calculation scheme for determining the power parameters of gearing are described in detail. In this case, the dependences and results of previous studies in the field of increasing the durability and reducing the wear of gears of transmission elements of vehicles of various functional purposes were used. To achieve this goal, the mathematical models of the stress state of gears are constructed without the presence of an external diffusion hardening coating and with a coating. Based on the simulation of the process of interaction of rubbing pairs of gears, the distribution of stresses in the contact zone over the surface layer of non-hardened and cemented to a depth of 1 mm gears, as well as the dependence of deflection on the thickness of the cemented layer and the deformation of the cemented layer during operation was established. Considering the research results given in literature, as well as those obtained on the basis of our own research, it should be noted that the analysis of gear stress state is an important direction in the study of the durability of gear units, the entire gearbox, and other gears of tractor transmissions and automotive technology at the present time. At the same time, the actual task is to establish the ratios of the allowable wear of gears and the limiting value of displacement of the centre distance, taking into account changes in the stress state scheme when using various types of coatings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00282023-11-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable Biomethane Production from Sewage Sludge and Wheat Straw Co-Digestion in the Presence of Polypyrrole FeO Nanoparticles and Alkaline Pretreatment: Life Cycle Assessment Point of Viewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biogas production from sewage sludge can be valued in different scenarios of energy usage such as the electricity, heating, and transportation system. Improving the energy production value is the main reason for using different ways such as alkaline pretreatment and nanoparticles (NPs). This investigation uses life cycle assessment (LCA) for evaluating the biomethane production from co-digestion of sewage sludge and wheat straw in the presence of polypyrrole Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoparticles (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg) and NaOH alkaline pretreatment (0 and 5 mg) at mesophilic anaerobic digestion along with optimization for sustainable biomethane production. Results indicated that retention time (RT) and NaOH concentration had a significant effect on biomethane production. But, the effect of NP concentration on biomethane production was not significant. Also, the maximum biomethane production was obtained by NP40Na0 (about 50% higher than the control). On average, adding the NaOH and NPs improved the biomethane yield by about 25–40% vs in comparison with the control. The maximum biogas production yield was related to NP40Na0 with an enhancement of about 35% in comparison with the control. On average, adding nanoparticles and NaOH alkaline pretreatment improved the biogas production by about 10–20% in comparison with the control. Sustainable biomethane production can be obtained at an NP concentration of 50.24 mg and NaOH concentration of 24.04 mg, which increased the biomethane production by about 198%, and reduced human health, ecosystem quality, climate change, resources, and economic cost by about 87, 86, 92, 95, and 87%, respectively, in comparison with the control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00182023-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Degradation of Ecological Energy Carriers Under Cyclic Pressure Loadinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented work investigates the degradation of an ecological energy carrier in the form of changes in its properties, which was subjected to dynamic loading through a test device in laboratory conditions. The primary goal was to describe the degradation process itself in terms of obtained data through the analysis of kinematic viscosity, water content, acidity number, and X-ray spectrometry. The process was focused on monitoring the values of increase in contaminants and monitoring the values of changes that occurred in case of additives. The ecological energy carrier in the form of transmission-hydraulic fluid was cyclically loaded in a time interval of 200 working hours, while a time interval of every 25 working hours was used when a sample was taken and subsequently analysed. From the obtained data, it can be concluded that during the degradation process, there were no significant changes in the observed properties of the liquid, chemical composition, or additives. For this reason, further measurements of the ecological energy carrier were subsequently carried out. The influence of the given energy carrier on the change in the flow rate of a new type of hydraulic pump with external gearing was also monitored.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00232023-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sugarcane Stalkshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Manual harvesting of sugarcane requires skilled labourers, as improper harvesting leads to a significant loss of yield. Therefore, it is necessary to move towards designing a system capable of harvesting sugarcane on smallholdings, with high harvesting efficiency. This study aims to determine some physico-mechanical properties of sugarcane stalks related to harvester by making a comprehensive analysis of the compressing, bending, and shearing properties of sugarcane stalks. These properties were measured at three moisture content levels at three positions (base, middle, and top) of the stalk with three sugarcane varieties (G.T.54-9, IK 76-66, and HAO3-55-24). The different moisture contents were fresh stalk, after 7 days, and after 15 days. The values of different content with different varieties were (70.3, 42.1, and 23.2%), (68.7, 61.3, and 42.7%) and (66.4, 48.6, and 30.5%), respectively. The physico-mechanical properties of stalks were measured in terms of diameter, length, fresh mass, moisture content, sugarcane stalk bulk density, compression stress, shear stress and bending stress at three different positions (top, middle, and base).The most important results showed that the decreasing stalk moisture content of three sugarcane varieties led to an increase in compression, shear, and bending stresses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00192023-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Mathematical Modelling and Designing of a Universal Conical Spreader for Granular Materialhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A universal conical spreader for uniform distribution of granular fertilizers and seeds of grain crops, grasses is proposed. The developed universal conical spreader is designed for subsurface application of above-mentioned granular materials using seed drills and can be used as a passive distributor in a wide variety of applications. The methods of theoretical mechanics and descriptive geometry, particularly the method of replacement of projection plane have been applied to arrive at the design of the cone – the shape of conical spreader. A parametric equation was derived for the truncated part of the cone, which is an ellipse. The unique design of the cone-shaped distributor has a truncating form in the direction transverse to the movement of the seeder. In order to determine the interval of variability of spreader parameters more precisely, an analysis was carried out using a Mathcad-15 software. The results of theoretical research were confirmed in the laboratory and field conditions. The width of seed distribution, uniformity, and stability of distribution were studied to arrive at the most effective cone distributor design. The smallest values of non-uniformity and instability of material distribution of experimental coulter are reached at the values of factors <italic>D</italic> = 117–119 mm, <italic>h</italic> = 17–18 mm, and <italic>H</italic> = 32–35 mm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ata-2023-00202023-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1