rss_2.0Acta Educationis Generalis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Educationis Generalis Educationis Generalis Feed Middle School Teachers’ Job Demands and Job Resources during COVID-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> The study aimed to explore teachers’ general working conditions, job demands and resources, and teachers’ general well-being in four middle schools in the Southeastern U.S during COVID-19.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> The methodology for this study was qualitative. The sampling strategy was purposeful and comprised 15 educators. The data were collected utilizing two semi-structured interviews and documentation. The data analysis consisted of thematic analysis.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> The study’s results revealed seven themes that emerged from the data: a) Changes in working conditions; b) teachers’ well-being and working conditions; c) perceived teachers’ new job demands and additional workload; d) emotionally draining job demands; e) perceived available job resources; f) perceived need for job resources; and g) strategies teachers used to cope with stress.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion:</bold></italic> The lessons learned during the pandemic in these four organizations may assist leaders in designing new policies and avoid further deterioration of teachers’ well-being.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations:</bold></italic> Access to the organization’s documentation and the sample size were limitations.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> The shift in job demands and job resources during the pandemic placed teachers at risk of emotional exhaustion and burnout.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Bloom’s Taxonomy in Reading Texts in EFL/ESL Settings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Among its contemporaries, the updated Bloom’s taxonomy is perhaps the most widely used cognitive process model. It is a categorization paradigm that emphasizes the cognitive levels beginning with remembering the information and progressing to more complicated levels such as producing the knowledge. Education psychologists want to assist instructors, policymakers, and curriculum creators in designing education that enables students to effectively retain, retrieve, and apply the selected content. Classifying information in a precise sequence that is durable in a person’s memory can aid learners in effectively storing, retrieving, retrieving, and using facts; otherwise, the whole learning process may be impeded. Thus, it is imperative that students acquire the fundamental knowledge prior to attempting to interpret current information to develop meaningful knowledge (Darwazeh, 2017). The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which the updated Bloom’s taxonomy is included into the reading sections of EFL textbooks developed for Turkish high school students. According to the results of the research, the evaluated textbooks lacked the higher level cognitive abilities outlined in the updated Bloom’s taxonomy. Consequently, based on the results, certain hypotheses have been formulated to indicate how reading sections of textbooks now being written or to be published might reference the updated Bloom’s taxonomy.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The objective of this research is to determine the degree to which EFL textbooks incorporate higher and lower level questions based on the updated Bloom’s taxonomy. In the study, the overall reading sections of the EFL textbooks were examined. In other words, the cognitive level of the reading passages was determined using the updated Bloom’s taxonomy. Consequently, the approach used in this study is descriptive content analysis in qualitative research. The updated cognitive levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy were referenced in the classification of reading questions in EFL textbooks.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The data indicate that the reading text questions did not target higher cognitive levels. Given that remembering is associated with working memory and short-term memory, it is doubtful that it can assess long-term memory. To reinforce knowledge in the long-term memory, it is necessary to engage higher cognitive processes. It is rare that learners of a foreign language would reinforce lexical, syntactical, and contextual knowledge unless they analyze or assess the corresponding information in the texts. Measuring mainly lower levels of cognition gives them with little data. Additionally, it is crucial to apply integrated activities while reading texts. Reading and writing, or speaking and listening, are examples of integrated tasks. Thus, reading text queries were unable to assist students in producing meaningful texts. Pure and concrete inquiries have just a superficial relationship to understanding.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> The revised Bloom’s taxonomy is a useful and successful tool for reading classes. Therefore, EFL and ESL instructors, researchers, and textbook authors must use Bloom’s higher cognitive aspects so that EFL students can reinforce texts at the lexical, syntactic, and contextual levels. Taking into account lower cognitive abilities, the most often utilized inquiry type concerned remembering, which includes definition, listing, memorization, recalling, and expressing the pertinent language and material. However, there are significant limits to memorizing dimension for language learners. This constraint may be overcome by including more cognitive elements. It is glaringly obvious that English instructors and textbook authors should include extra questions into reading texts so that foreign and second language English learners may build more productive abilities via reading text questions in line with the updated Bloom’s taxonomy. Due to the relationship between Bloom’s taxonomy and critical syllabus, it is possible to design a critical syllabus to obtain these competencies (Ordem, 2021).</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> This research is confined to the free EFL textbooks issued by the Turkish Ministry of National Education. In other words, only locally authored EFL textbooks are included in the research, as opposed to both locally and internationally published EFL textbooks. Consequently, future research should concentrate on a larger scope. Such an approach should consider the impact of locally authored textbooks and their comparison to textbooks published by international organizations, such as the British Council or Cambridge University Press. This is an important point to consider, as international publishers are likely to bring different perspectives on language learning, which may differ from that found in locally authored textbooks. Further, the research is exclusively confined to the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Therefore, alternative cognitive categorization models should also be applied to assess course contents. This would provide a more comprehensive picture of the students’ learning outcomes, and enable the researchers to evaluate course effectiveness from multiple perspectives. Moreover, the utilization of other cognitive categorization models, such as Anderson and Krathwohl’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives and SOLO Taxonomy, would help to provide a broader context of comparison to effectively evaluate the effectiveness of course.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Revised Bloom’s taxonomy provides helpful and productive stages for EFL students to be creative while reading materials. Creatively approaching a text and its questions requires assembling, creating, designing, articulating, and writing. Evaluation, which involves assessing, debating, defending, judging, choosing, supporting, valuing, and evaluating, is a further step that must be examined. Analyzing is another aspect that requires discriminating between various portions of the text, evaluating, comparing, contrasting, critiquing, differentiating, scrutinizing, and asking. These higher cognitive characteristics were not detected in the assessed reading text questions from textbooks. This lack of higher-order thinking skills presented in the text questions of the assessed textbooks suggests that students are not being adequately prepared to engage in thoughtful dialogue or comprehensive analysis when responding to texts. This is an alarming discovery as these skills are essential for students to demonstrate competency in language arts, develop effective reading strategies, and build critical thinking. This trend highlights the need for teachers to supplement reading material with activities that promote higher-order thinking, such as open-ended questions, research assignments, and group discussions. By incorporating these activities into the classroom, teachers will be able to ensure that students are exposed to the kinds of higher-order thinking that can help them to become engaged, competent readers and critical thinkers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Lifelong Learning Tendencies and Scientific Creativity Levels of Prospective Science Teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Prospective science teachers must themselves first generate rather than simply using knowledge and they must be science literate must be science literate and abreas of the changes in industry if we want future generations to be and do the same. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine lifelong learning tendencies and scientific creativity levels of prospective science teachers and examine the correlation between these variables.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> In the study, correlational survey, one of the quantitative research methods, was used. The sample of the study was composed of 201 prospective science teachers studying at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years in a public university in Eastern Anatolia Region within the academic year 2019/2020. “Lifelong Learning Scale” and “Scientific Creativity Test” were used as data collection tools in the study. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the scale scores of the participants in terms of gender and age and ANOVA was used to compare them in terms of class level. In addition, Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) analysis technique was used in order to examine whether or not there was a significant correlation between lifelong learning tendencies and scientific creativity levels of prospective science teachers.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The results of the study indicated that the prospective science teachers had high lifelong learning tendencies. No statistically significant difference was found between the Lifelong Learning Scale (LLS) total scores of female and male prospective science teachers. However, a statistically significant difference was found between the Scientific Creativity Test (SCT) total scores of male and female prospective science teachers and this difference was observed in favor of male teachers. Additionally, there was a positive and moderate correlation between the lifelong learning tendencies and scientific creative levels of the participants.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> As a result of the study, it was observed that there was a moderate and positive correlation between lifelong learning tendencies and scientific creativity levels of the participants. High levels of lifelong learning were correlated with high levels of scientific creativity. Lifelong learning requires individuals to have some atypical knowledge, skills and competencies to cope with current life problems. In addition, it is recommended in the literature that individuals should have some competencies, such as searching information, accessing information and knowing the ways of reaching information in order to have lifelong learning skills. Therefore, it can be interpreted that scientific creativity skills of individuals, who integrate learning processes throughout their lives and have the mentioned competences, will also improve.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The limitations of the study are that the study included 201 prospective science teachers studying in a public university located in Eastern Anatolia Region and the number of male participants was less than the number of female participants.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> It is important for prospective teachers to do practices, which will improve their lifelong learning skills during their undergraduate education, in terms of scientific creativities. This is because scientific creativity and lifelong learning skills should be included in the science course in order for students to acquire sense of task, scientific perspective, and skills for controlling and regulating their learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Self-Regulated Learning and Cognitive Flexibility through the Eyes of English-Major Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Assuming responsibility of learning and showing flexibility in case of changes and problems in learning could make this process more conscious and fruitful. This is significant, particularly at a time when traditional universities are increasingly moving into online education. To address the gaps in previous self-regulated learning and cognitive flexibility research, the current study examined the students’ perceived online self-regulated learning and cognitive flexibility, and looked into the probable relationship between them.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The present study used mixed-research design. The data were gathered from 115 English-major students both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative data were collected through two different scales as Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale. Two open-ended questions probing into both online self-regulation and coping skills of the students constituted the qualitative data.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The results revealed that online self-regulated learning and cognitive flexibility correlated positively although the relationship was found to be quite slight, and the students had online self-regulated learning and cognitive flexibility at relatively high level. Students also provided examples of online self-regulated learning strategies they used, and they presented probable solutions to their problems they experienced in improving their level of English.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> Online self-regulated learning and cognitive flexibility, which were positively correlated, are likely to feed the language learning and improving processes since both variables could enable students to take decisions multidimensionally, without confining them to only one type of study skill. Higher level of cognitive flexibility which is associated with adapting to new situations and problem solving could help students to better manage their online learning. However, it should be noted that both self-regulation and flexibility require time and effort, and they are not products, but processes, in the journey of learning; therefore, they could be achieved through raising awareness, providing opportunities for students to self-direct their own learning and to cope with their problems, and undoubtedly instructors’ role-modelling. Higher self-regulation and cognitive flexibility could turn students into autonomous and lifelong learners.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The study was conducted among undergraduate students in Turkish context. The participants were English majoring students. It could also be carried out among non-English major students because self-regulation and coping skills should be supported in every department at tertiary level. The number of participants could be increased, and students in different departments or in different years of education could be compared. Different variables such as age, gender and language proficiency levels could be included into the study to measure the influences of various elements.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Transition into online education at tertiary level brings both advantages and disadvantages; hence, it becomes a must to promote positive aspects and to minimize negative sides. Since online education necessitates more learner autonomy, students should be trained on how to use self-regulatory strategies in language learning. Likewise, such a change in learning setting could require students to be more cognitively flexible to be able to cope with probable difficulties and to expand their thinking skills. Thus, cognitive flexibility should be instilled into the curriculum. The last but not the least, the importance of taking responsibility of learning and seeking for alternatives in the face of problems should be reminded frequently. The study aimed to provide insights and implications for all stakeholders to consider self-regulation and cognitive flexibility in designing online courses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Mathematical Literacy Demands in Turkish, Singaporean and Australian Textbooks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Textbook tasks are considered as tools for implementing, endorsing mathematical thinking and thereby creating chances for mathematics learning. Therefore, textbook tasks can potentially influence and structure the way students think and can serve to limit or to broaden their views of the subject matter with which they are engaged. Among the essential sources of textbook tasks include worked examples and exercises. Because these worked examples and exercises in the textbooks are mostly used by students either in the classroom or at home, they definitely affect students’ conceptual understanding of mathematics and may inspire students to work individually or collaboratively with their peers. Thus, given the importance of mathematical literacy for learning and understanding of math, one should investigate the chances students can have through it. This study aims to reveal the inclusion of the mathematical literacy demands in the fifth-grade mathematics textbooks from Turkey, Singapore, and Australia.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> Being qualitative in nature, the current study employed a document analysis method to examine the textbooks. The cycle of mathematical literacy processes, defined in PISA framework, was used as a framework during the analysis to investigate mathematical literacy demands.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Findings of the analysis of mathematical literacy demand in real life problems indicated that textbooks from all three countries had provided more opportunities for the competencies of two mathematical literacy processes, formulating and employing, while a small portion of these problems requires higher level cognitive skills to interpret/evaluate their mathematical solutions and make decisions for real life, which is the third process in the cycle; therefore, most of the real-life problems in the textbooks could not provide the chances for completing the whole mathematical literacy cycle. Moreover, textbooks from all three countries provided more chances for experiencing mathematical literacy processes in to-be-solved questions rather than worked examples.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> In general, textbooks from all three countries have included a small portion of the problems relating real life. Related literature also proves evidence for lack of real-life opportunities in the mathematics textbook tasks. Moreover, textbooks from all countries had provided more opportunities for the competencies of formulating and employing while a small portion of these problems requires higher level cognitive skills to interpret/evaluate their mathematical solutions and make decisions for real life. These results are not in accordance with the mathematics education calls voiced in national and international standards of mathematics education: Raising individuals with both mathematical thinking and reasoning skills and a useful foundation of mathematical knowledge and skills needed in all areas of life. Most of the real-life questions in the textbooks could not provide the chances for completing the whole mathematical literacy cycle. Textbooks’ weaknesses in their inclusion of MLP may also cause impediments in the development of students’ skills of handling the problems that they confronted in daily life.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The present study only included one textbook from each country while these textbooks were representing the authenticity of the other textbooks in these countries. Moreover, this study examined the opportunities of mathematical literacy only provided in the textbooks while the actual implications of these opportunities may differ across classrooms in these countries.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Students’ inappropriate practices with the real-life problems may cause them to not successfully solving these kinds of problems. Instead, employing more real-life problems in the classroom activities may result in higher student understanding. Moreover, examples and tasks from daily life are helpful to provide students with meaningful contexts and enable students to relate to their familiar experiences. The absence of providing necessary problem-solving opportunities in a range of different types in the textbooks may cause students to not solve specific types of problems. Moreover, textbooks should also include these problem-solving opportunities to construct students’ conceptual appreciations of problem structures. Thus, one implication this study can make is that Singaporean and Australian textbook creators should include more sufficient practices of the whole MLP cycle in their problems to make sure students acquire the principal latent components of the problems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Happiness at School after COVID-19 and Some Implications for Future Research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> This research aims to determine what makes children feel happy and unhapy at school, the determinants of their subjective well-being, and by using this information it attempts to develop recommendations for the ongoing process which is characterized by uncertainty and stress and for education due to the crisis created by COVID-19 and some implications for future research.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> This is a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. The study group of the research consists of 34 primary school students in the 3rd and 4th grades (between the ages of 8-11) during the first term of 2019-2020 school year. A semi-structured interview form including three open-ended questions was used as data collection instrument. The data were analysed with descriptive analysis technique.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> As a result of the study, the main determinants of children’s happiness were found as the relationships which they established with their friends and teachers and their academic achievement. Also, it was revealed that students made references to creating more time for courses such as physical education, music, art, etc. and more free time at school and renewal of school fixtures in order to contribute to their happiness.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> Considering the students’ opinions about what makes them happy/unhappy at school and the factors that can contribute to their happiness, it can be argued that what is important for children’s happiness at school is their relationships with their friends and teachers. This finding of the research has itself an utmost importance in the current process which the children experience either limited or no relationship with their peers and teachers due to the COVID-19 crisis. Accordingly, this research discusses the children’s happiness within the framework of the researches that prompt us to rethink about students’ happiness in an atmosphere of stress and uncertainty.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> Although the qualitative method used in this study provided a profound picture of the views of students about what makes them happy/unhappy at the school, its limited sample constitutes an impediment to generalize it to all students in Turkey and the whole participants of the research.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Considering what makes students happy and unhappy in schools in that research, we can argue that even the existence of schools alone, as the main grounds of social relationships, can be considered as a means of happiness in the current process. Nevertheless, future research should aim to determine what makes children happy in a process which the students are deprived of all facilities which the schools provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Relationship between Lifelong Learning and Attitudes towards the Teaching Profession of Pre-service Teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lifelong learning (LL) and attitudes towards the teaching profession (ATTP) of pre-service teachers. LL and ATTP of pre-service teachers were compared in terms of gender, perceived success level and reading frequency variables.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> This correlational study was conducted with 515 pre-service teachers from a faculty of education located in Turkey’s Central Anatolia Region. “Lifelong learning tendency scale” and “Attitude toward the teaching profession scale” were used as data collection tools.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The results of the study showed that there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between pre-service teachers’ LL and ATTP. Gender, perceived success level and reading frequency are variables that affect LL and ATTP of pre-service teachers.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> Pre-service teachers’ LL and ATTP provide important tools for improving teacher quality and learning quality of students, making it an indispensable integral part of the teaching profession in developed countries.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> This study focused on pre-service teachers. A similar study can be designed with teachers and instructors. The quantitative research method was used in this study. A detailed examination with qualitative data was not carried out, which can be considered a limitation.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> It was revealed that the LL level of pre-service teachers was high and the ATTP level was very high. Being female affects LL and ATTP levels of pre-service teachers positively. Another result of this study is that the more successful pre-service teachers perceive themselves to be, the more lifelong learning tendencies they have. The more frequently pre-service teachers read books in daily life, the more their lifelong learning tendencies and attitudes towards the teaching profession increase. The results of this study revealed that there was a moderate, positive and statistically significant correlation between LL and ATTP.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Education Markets in Industry 4.0<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> The current development of the world economy defined as the Fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is rather determined by a larger social change caused by the interconnection of the physical, virtual, and social worlds. It affects the market of products, production factors, sectors, services, education, research, social systems, the labour market, the education, and specialization, including the legal framework, and the use of digital technologies for production and education purposes.</p> <p><italic><bold>Purpose:</bold></italic> The aim of the literature review will be the description and analysis of Industry 4.0, which are digitization and the application of digital technologies, associated with new emerging jobs in the circular economy, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, development, sales of products and services and the focus on human resources, as Industry 4.0 requires new standards regarding Education 4.0. <bold>Methods:</bold> The study, analysis, evaluation and comparison of selected scientific papers and research reviews of international organizations (European Union, OECD, etc.) related to Industry 4.0 and Education 4.0 resulted in the need for a significant transformation of education and labour markets, because of newly emerging professions demanding new profiles of graduates.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> Calls for changes in the educational structure and new qualifications will be formulated regarding the Slovak economy by 2030. A successful transition to Industry 4.0 paradigm requires the linkage between industrial policy and educational, scientific, technical and innovation policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Learning Activities – Adult Learning Initiatives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the international history of community culture and culture-based adult learning through showing the initiatives of a Post-Socialist country through introducing some initiatives from 1950, without claim for completeness. Additions to the History of Community Culture and Culture-based Adult Education and Learning in Hungary.</p> <p><bold>Purpose:</bold> Our questions include how the political and legal environment, and the spread of the mass media influenced the cultural activities and the community culture, and what culture-based adult learning initiatives and activities can be identified in the area of culture.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> To its realization we chose horizontal and vertical analysing viewpoints. The horizontal viewpoint of our investigation is the linearity of timeline, while the vertical analysing viewpoint is the characteristics of political and legal environment having influence on culture-based adult education (cf. non-formal and informal cultural learning) and showing the work of some significant personalities, through synthetizing archive sources and literature background.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The changing of the regime brought reform on this area, too, it basically changed the profession and the training as well: the community culture builds on local initiatives and active participation, includes the training, creating artistic, informational activity of the citizens, based on their self-activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review of Studies about Violence at School and Recommendations for Teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> Violence is a very complex and particular concept and it is difficult to make a precise definition, since acceptable and unacceptable behaviour patterns for each society vary according to social norms, time and value judgments of what harms that society. School violence results in students’ loss of concentration, poor academic success, bunking of courses, and depression. Violence is a global problem, solution depends on an integrated approach in which educators, parents and learners work together. Considering negative consequences of violence, reduction or even prevention of violence at school will not only increase quality of education and training, but also support education process to become more productive. The aim of this review is to examine studies on school violence in literature, to determine causes of violence at school and present suggestions for solutions. This type of study may also have the potential to shed light on future work on violence in schools. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to examine the studies on violence at school and to present a review on violence prevention.</p> <p><italic><bold>Purpose:</bold></italic> The aim of this study is to examine the studies on violence at school in the literature and to compile the measures that can be taken to reduce violence in line with the recommendations stated in these studies. Violence is defined psychologically or physiologically as the unintentional negative action or force.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> Considering the criteria of the study as a result of the preliminary examination, 66 articles were excluded and 42 articles were included in the study. Content analysis method was used to analyse the studies. First of all, data were coded and themes were formed. In order to confirm themes and codes researcher and a co-observer studied together.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> As a result of the evaluation of studies on violence at school, the themes of gender inequality, personal factors, school organization and evaluation were reached. In studies conducted to prevent violence in the educational environment, it is stated that it is important to listen to students, to value students, to understand them, to provide a democratic environment in the school, to take measures in accordance with the different dynamics that direct the school, and to establish a strong bond between the school and the society and stakeholders. Suggestions of studies to prevent violence at school are explained in the themes of understanding, teachers’ dedication, acting together, collecting, recording data, early intervention, teacher training programs, positive school environment, improving students’ personal skills.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis in Nurseries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> The present research aimed to review the qualitative aspects of communication between children and their caregivers. We focused on the presence of quality indicators, on the strategies we encounter in influencing language acquisition in the interaction between children and early childhood educators.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> We examined the diversity, awareness and efficiency with which educators use communication tools and techniques in various preschool education situations for children under 3 years of age. In the empirical survey of day-care interactions a questionnaire was based on the evaluation and observation of questionnaire responses.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> The emotional and motivational basis of language acquisition is formed by the toddler’s social inclinations and attachment needs, as well as social inclinations, with his environment playing a prominent role in changing these processes.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion: </bold></italic>These interactions provide a framework for language acquisition, where in the classic case language acquisition is not guided, but takes place through everyday situations, through participation in authentic communication situations. The axiom is that language skills develop in language use.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations: </bold></italic>The questionnaire was validly completed by 60 people. The data collection concentrated on the region of southern and northern Transdanubia in Hungary. Although not in national terms, this offers the opportunity to evaluate and reflect on the situation at the regional level.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> The professional communication and competent language development activity of educators’ results from the interplay of scientific-theoretical knowledge, implicit empirical knowledge, competence-oriented procedures</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Factor Analysis as a Tool for Measuring the Quality of Life of University Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> The aim of this research is to design a tool (a scale) for measuring the quality of life of university students and to copy down its validity, use and reliability on six-dimension academic achievement: it touches family life quality, social life quality, personal happiness, life satisfaction and mental health.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> 963 male and female students from the Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, for the academic year 2018/2019 were exposed to the application of the model (factor analysis) and the reliability coefficient was reached by using Roland and Kettmann equation (.773) and Spearman-Brown (.776) and Cronbach’s Alpha (.629).</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> The feedbacks show that this tool for measuring ‘Quality of University Student Life’ is characterized and described as a good degree of stability.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion: </bold></italic>When using “factor analysis” tool, we conclude that the exit dimensions focus on two basic axes: the first axis related to public health, quality of education, Family life, life satisfaction, and mental health. The second one consists of the quality of social life and personal happiness. Since these results have given a good degree to some extent, we were commended for working in favour of this tool (a scale) to judge the life quality of university students majoring in psychology faculty at the university.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations: </bold></italic>The research and the questionnaire of the tool were applied to a group of psychology students at the national level which includes 963 male and female students with a percentage of 23.98%.</p> <p>The questions of this tool were tested on a sample of 963 students at the national level who were randomly chosen from various disciplines of master’s degree in psychology. Research was conducted during the academic year 2018/2019.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> The targeted instrument designed in this research which is “the factor analysis” has achieves a good validity and stability and has driven to two basic scales.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Intentions to Use Open Educational Resources (OERs) in Professional Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> Open educational e-resources (OERs) are one of the informational resources that are openly available to all. Open educational e-resources provide learners with free access to high-quality educational content and materials. Learners should be able to use, read, adapt, and share these resources freely. In this study, we aimed to examine academics’ open educational e-resources usage intentions. We also tried to understand behavioral differences by collecting data from two different countries: Turkey and the United Kingdom.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> The study employed a cross-sectional approach, which is one of the quantitative research designs. In cross-sectional studies, several variables (characteristics, behavior, attitude, etc.) are measured simultaneously. Data were collected using a questionnaire based on the quantitative research paradigm. In order to address the research problem, the two researchers of the current study developed this questionnaire based on field expert opinion, a literature review, and from the researchers’ experiences. The questionnaire was initially developed in Turkish and then translated into English. In the current study 67 participants from Turkey and 18 from the United Kingdom have answered all the items of the questionnaire.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> In this study, the academics were found to be more inclined to use existing resources (81.39% for Turkey, 72.72% for the United Kingdom) than to generate e-resources of their own (47.67% for Turkey; 50% for the United Kingdom). The frequency for the usage of open educational e-resources for Turkey is 97 and 6 for the United Kingdom. The frequency number of open educational e-resources per participant from the United Kingdom averaged as less than one. Similarly, academics did not find beneficial the use of social media (frequencies for Turkey and the United Kingdom is 136 and 45) and video-hosting sites (frequencies for Turkey and the United Kingdom is 93 and 31). We can see that the academics expressed benefitting from e-resources whilst preparing new content (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=1.12, 82.09%; X̄<sub>UK</sub>=0.78, 77.78%, respectively) or enriching current content (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=1.25, 88.06%; X̄<sub>UK</sub>=0.94, 83.33%, respectively); engaging existing content (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=1.10, 80.60%; X̄<sub>UK</sub>=0.89, 72.23%, respectively) or for preparing interactive course content (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=0.73, 74.63%; X̄<sub>UK</sub>=0.94, 83.33%, respectively). The participant academics from Turkey generally reported finding e-resources to be useful in the long term (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=1.13, 83.59%), and think that they will contribute to their interdisciplinary studies (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=0.81, 71.64%). Like the academics in Turkey, academics from the United Kingdom reported finding e-resources to be useful in the long term (X̄<sub>UK</sub>=0.67, 66.67%). The academics from both countries stated that if they had more time (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=1.13, 80.59%; X̄<sub>UK</sub>=1.11, 83.34%, respectively), and if e-resources were customized more according to their needs (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=0.61, 64.18%; X̄<sub>UK</sub>=0.44, 55.56%, respectively), and they had a basic level of technology literacy (X̄<sub>TR</sub>=0.76, 68.66%; X̄<sub>UK</sub>=0.89, 68.34%, respectively), they would likely use and benefit from e-resources more frequently.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion: </bold></italic>Being familiar with open educational e-resources positively affects attitudes towards open educational e-resources; therefore, academics should be encouraged to become better acquainted with the development of open educational e-resources. However, academics are ready to use and develop open educational e-resources. Managers could help to incentivize academics in this regard. In the current study, open educational e-resources preferences seem quietly low. We can especially say that the academics from the UK stated that they rarely use open course materials to learn something. It may be necessary to increase the general awareness of academics about OERs for social media and video-hosting sites as they are among the less preferred OERs. In short, the habits of academics to use OERs can vary culturally. When we compare the results for the two countries, we can say that academics from Turkey have a more positive view of using e-resources for learning purposes compared to those from the UK. Academics from both countries find the use of e-resources useful in the long term, but especially participants from the UK have neither positive nor negative opinions (approximately 50%) about utility perceptions in terms of means of working interdisciplinary, contributing their career, getting certificates, enhancing their professional recognition, making different them from their colleagues, and increasing their level of professional satisfaction. When the necessary conditions are met, academics tend to use e-resources more, and they do not overestimate the problems they face, such as the language barrier.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations: </bold></italic>As one of the limitations of the current study, the data collected from the United Kingdom was considerably less than that collected from Turkey. Despite periodic reminders having been sent out with regards to the data collection form to academics working in the United Kingdom, only 41 instructors intended to answer the form and only 18 of those gave answers to all items of the questionnaire.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> This research study has shown that academics both intend to and utilize educational e-resources (including open educational e-resources) for the purposes of their own professional development; however, the results of the study have also revealed the need to increase usage more widely in this area. The current study has shown that academics working in Turkey had slightly higher e-resource usage than those working in the United Kingdom. Additionally, it can be said that the open educational e-resources usage intentions of the academics from Turkey was higher as well. Whilst the results of this study are not generalizable due to the limited sample size, academics’ open educational e-resources usage intention is a promising topic of study for the future. Furthermore, it is clear that educational e-resources could be more widely employed for the purposes of professional development, regardless of the country or level of education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Done, or a Bundle and Stumble? An Exploration of Assessment Methods in Undergraduate Science Curricula<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> Assessment, historically, has been done in a summative manner in post-secondary education (HE). Whilst useful for the purposes of grading and assessment of competency, there is also increasing pressure from post-secondary education institutions to meet certain standards in terms of education quality and graduate numbers, putting pressure on teachers to produce evidence of students’ level of understanding and thus putting a greater emphasis on the use of summative assessments. The formative assessment approach for student learning is preferable in some fields, but how useful is this format for the science subjects?</p> <p><italic><bold>Purpose:</bold></italic> To discuss the utility of either summative assessments or formative assessments (or both) in science teaching at university level.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> Exploration of the literature involving teaching science in university undergraduate courses (i.e., no formal search criteria).</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions: </bold></italic>A new category of assessment is needed - the integration of formative and summative assessment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Education in UNESCO Activities - Examples from History and Some Current Forms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded in the post-war period and since then it has been working to combat the illiteracy of children, the youth and adults. A specific area in this context is the issue of second-chance education.</p> <p><italic><bold>Purpose:</bold></italic> The paper analyzes these UNESCO activities in the field of second-chance education, which allows individual target groups to obtain elementary education, respectively professional knowledge and skills for finding a job in the historical transformations as well as at present.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> The main criterion was the perception of second-chance education in individual stages of educational reality, for which content analysis and comparison of the final reports of UNESCO conferences, its current educational programmes, as well as specific examples of educational activities were used.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> Second chance education, with its specific position, content focus, target groups and organization, has become an essential part of educational systems not only in developing countries, but also in developed countries, because in every society, this issue is a current challenge for the educational reality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Investigation of the Types of Power Used by High School Teachers in Classroom Management According to Teachers’ and Students’ Opinions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> Power relationships, which manifest themselves in all kinds of organizational environments, including educational institutions, manifest themselves as a necessity for teacher leadership in the classroom. It is necessary to use different types of power, which are multi-sourced and influenced by more than one variable, in classroom management to increase the quality of education. Due to these reasons, this study aimed to comparatively examine the types of power used by high school teachers in classroom management according to the opinions of teachers and students.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> This research is a descriptive study in the survey model. The study group of the research consists of 187 teachers working in high schools in the central districts of Adana province and 950 students studying in these high schools. The “Personal Information Form (PIF)” and the “Instructor Power Types Scale (IPTS)” were used to collect research data. In addition to descriptive statistics, data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> According to the data obtained in the study, it was determined that teachers used charismatic power and informational power most frequently in classroom management, and they used the power of understanding at least. It was observed that there was no significant difference according to variables in legitimate power and power of understanding among the types of power used by teachers in classroom management. It was revealed that the types of personal power, coercive power, charismatic power, informational power, and expert power differed significantly according to some variables. According to students, teachers use charismatic power and coercive power at most in classroom management and they apply the power of understanding less. Among the power types used by teachers, all other power types, apart from personal power, differ significantly according to various variables of students. There was no significant difference between teachers’ and students’ opinions in terms of using the power of understanding in classroom management. Furthermore, according to students, teachers use other power types (personal power, coercive power, charismatic power, informational power, expert power, and legitimate power) less than they think.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion: </bold></italic>The frequent use of informational power by teachers may be due to their desire to show these students preparing for the university that every knowledge is very important and necessary. Since the power of understanding is related to the items related to school attendance, this result obtained is thought to be influenced by the school attendance regulations in secondary education. Due to differences in the opinions of students and teachers, it can be said that teachers do not use these different types of power in classroom management as they think or cannot transform their intentions into behavior.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations: </bold></italic>It is obvious that these results were limited to the reached teachers and students in high schools. Another limitation was that the data within the study collected via PIF and IPTS.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> In addition to these findings obtained with only quantitative data, it can be examined with classroom observations and student interviews how teachers apply the types of power they use in classroom management in the classroom environment, their effects on the environment, and which type of power is used in which situations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influence of Sports Leisure Activities on the Level of Moral Competence of High School Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> In the relationship between sports morality and the morality of everyday life, there are no relevant studies and researches to clearly demonstrate the direct connections between sports and moral behaviour. The aim of this study is to find out if there is a significant difference in the achieved level of moral competence of secondary school students - between those who engage in sports in their free time and those who do not engage in sports activities.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> Quantitative research methods were used in the research, and for the purposes of expressing the level of moral competence of secondary school students, we used Moral Judgment Test (MJT). The MJT test expresses an individual’s moral competence through the C-score. 181 pupils of various grades studying at secondary school took part in the research. To verify the normality of the distribution of the C-score variable, we used the Shapiro - Wilk test, and for hypothesis testing, we used the two- sample T-test to test the mean value at known mean values of the distribution. Significance levels are set at p value &lt;0.05.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> The results of the test of significant differences for individual grades of secondary school are interpreted as the results of the analysis of the impact of sports activities on the level of moral competence. Sports leisure activities have an impact on the level of moral competence of students in the 4th grade.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion: </bold></italic>The research confirmed that sports leisure activities contribute to a higher level of moral competence measured by the MJT test and expressed by the C-score value as the age of the pupils increases.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations: </bold></italic>The research was limited to students of one secondary school.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> The result of the research, based on statistical testing, was the finding that leisure sports activities have an impact on the level of moral competence in upper secondary school grades.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cross-Sectional Examination of the Written Expression Skills of Students with Low Vision, Visual Impairments, and their Sighted Peers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> Several studies in the literature have investigated writing skills of students with visual impairment and low vision. However, no research was found to examine the written expression skills of students with visual impairment in terms of text cohesion, text coherence, text quality, text length, and writing time variables. A more comprehensive approach to research on the written expression skills of students with visual impairments and low vision is needed.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> In this study, a cross-sectional design was employed to examine the written expression skills of students with low vision, visual impairment, and their sighted peers. Participants of this study consist of 344 secondary school students who were divided into three groups: Visual impairment, low vision, and sighted peers. During the application process, all students were given two different guidelines (six in total) for each text type (memoir, persuasive, informative) and asked to write about the instructions they chose. As a result, all students wrote three different texts. Texts scored on text length, writing time, text quality, coherence level, and cohesion levels. Descriptive statistics and statistical comparisons of groups were provided. Whether written expression skills of students differed according to groups was determined by one-way analysis of variance, which is one of the parametric tests.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> In this research, the mean of students with visual impairment and sighted peer’s text length and writing time differed statistically. And in this study, the average of students with visual impairment and sighted peer’s coherence level and text quality differed statistically.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion: </bold></italic>It can be stated that students with visual impairment do not consider their thoughts in integrity, have difficulty in concluding their articles, their texts remain as an introduction, and generally write low-quality texts. In this study, the mean of students with visual impairment, low vision, and sighted peer’s coherence level and text quality differed statistically. There are significant differences between students in all text types except for persuasive text. While there was no difference in memoir and persuasive text at the level of cohesion, were significant differences among students in terms of informative text and total scores. There are studies in the literature that are in line with these results. Thus, it can be said that results obtained from the present research are parallel to the literature.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations: </bold></italic>The results obtained from this research are limited to memoir, persuasive and informative texts. The variables are limited to text length, writing time, text coherence, text quality, and cohesion level. Having each student write three different texts simultaneously (consecutively) in a single session can be given as another limitation of the research.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> In this research, memoir, persuasive, and informative text types were used. In future research, texts such as discussion and stories can be writing, or variables such as effort, motivation, and writing tendency can be examining. Further research on fluency and legibility regarding the mechanical aspect of writing can be planning, or spelling mistakes of students with visual impairment can be investigating. Experimental research focusing on teaching writing strategies can be done. Activities should be organized by teachers to motivate students about writing, encourage them, and increase their interests. If teachers include writing activities, this can serve to the improvement of students with visual impairments. Students who try to write should be supported. Considering the limitations of students with visual impairment in terms of writing skills, technologies that will serve these students’ better writing should be used.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Diversity at UNC Charlotte<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> A number of recent surveys have shown that college campuses are becoming intolerant of different viewpoints. Part of the mission of any college should be to create a space where different viewpoints can be debated in a healthy, intellectual way. To gauge the campus climate at their own University, the authors deployed a survey to business students asking how comfortable they were sharing and responding to different viewpoints.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> Business students were surveyed for their attitudes towards diverse viewpoints. The survey instrument has been used at other colleges to survey students for several years.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> A portion of students are censoring their views on controversial topics. There is often a reluctance to present honest viewpoints in the classroom.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion: </bold></italic>Faculty needs to be mindful of the classroom environment they create. Colleges should be a major place where different viewpoints are discussed and debated.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations: </bold></italic>Only business students were surveyed. There may be different outcomes for students in other majors.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> These results suggest that many students are self-censoring their views in class. Faculty should be aware of this and create an environment where different viewpoints are welcome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a Foreign Language Teachers’ Techno-Cultural Awareness Levels and Self-Reported Competencies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> In line with technological developments, many educational institutions offer students and teachers technical opportunities to benefit both inside and outside the schools. From the perspective of utilizing technology for a more effective language learning and teaching process, the present study aims to reveal techno-cultural awareness levels and self-reported competencies of secondary school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers working in Turkey.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> A total of 36 secondary school teachers participated in the study, and data were collected through a questionnaire and focus group interview. The focus group interview was conducted after the quantitative data analysis so that the quantitative data results guided the focus group interviews.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> The study’s findings show that participants have positive attitudes towards using technology in EFL classes However, most participants still feel they are not competent enough to utilize it for instructional purposes. In this context, all participants agree that the education they received during pre-service and in-service training offered by the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) is insufficient.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion: </bold></italic>The results obtained from data analysis are in parallel with some other studies. According to the findings, pre-service teacher training programmes need to be developed in line with the needs and expectations of teachers and learners regarding the use of technology in language teaching. Furthermore, it is suggested that teachers should be supported with much more comprehensive in-service training programmes to keep them up-to-date. In this regard, professional development programmes based explicitly on improving teachers’ technological awareness would motivate them to teach and significantly impact their self-reported capabilities.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations: </bold></italic>This study was limited to 36 participants working in secondary schools in the same province. Therefore, the results cannot be generalized to all language teachers. Furthermore, the data collection process was carried out using questionnaires and focus group interviews.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> What makes this study significant is that teachers are central to the research. From this point forth, the current study results reveal the analysis of the data obtained from a small province of Turkey. However, the study shows significant and representative results because the teachers included in the study are individuals with the same educational levels. They have graduated from different universities in Turkey, and their working environments somewhat reflect Turkey’s working environments. Considering the differences between teachers’ positive attitudes towards technology utilization in EFL classes and their capabilities, it is argued that in-service and pre-service training programmes should be reviewed to overcome these deficiencies and keep up with the new developments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue