rss_2.0Acta Educationis Generalis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Educationis Generalishttps://sciendo.com/journal/ATDhttps://www.sciendo.comActa Educationis Generalis Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6470bd3671e4585e08aa436f/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/ATD140216The Subjectivity of the Grading Evaluation System in the Religious Class in Greece - A New Approachhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> The grading process in secondary education is always challenging to navigate since the subjective dimension of the human parameter always seems to interfere dynamically in combination with the variety of the submitted assessment questions grounded on the grading teacher’s style. The central questions asked are: a) what are the applied assessment styles among Greek Religious Education (RE) teachers? b) What are their main assessment criteria? Moreover, c) What kind of evaluation plans are used to benefit the students? The above assessment issue is affected by the culture and mentality of each teacher.</p> <p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> The method uses a quantitative survey designed by Google Forms to research the grading and topic patterns used by RE teachers and colleagues of humanities during their class assessments, both oral and written.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results:</italic></bold> RE teachers have particular inclinations concerning the students’ assessment issues. They consider their discipline demanding and often prefer to apply written form assessments in class. Moreover, more methods emerged, which belong to the new school perception but are still placed statistically as auxiliary assessment weaponry. Microsoft Excel was also used for data visualization and quantitative analysis.</p> <p><bold><italic>Discussion:</italic> </bold>The assessment point of view might differ in each subject’s nature and, indeed, be planned by the objectives of each teacher. However, RE teachers and affiliated colleagues (literature teachers – affiliated colleagues should prioritise adjusting knowledge to the social realm.</p> <p><bold><italic>Limitations:</italic> </bold>The present research paper aims to stimulate educational interest regarding RE evaluation subjectivity by converting some subjective elements into precise statistical questions. Therefore, the questions used were a few but accurate, while the magnitude of the participants needed to be bigger, hindering the accumulation of more statistical information.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions:</italic></bold> Written-test assessments are prioritized, though oral inquiries are vital to the RE teachers’ methodology because of time scheduling issues explained throughout the text. The whole assessment scenery is grounded on the fact that RE discipline is considered demanding and essential. Some statistical inconsistencies undergird the necessity of applying knowledge in the social praxis to benefit Greek society. The latter lack is a drawback.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-00062024-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Dual Role of a Reflective Future Teacher during School Practisehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> Teaching and learning are processes that significantly impact one’s future. Active participation in school practises serves as a strong foundation for future educators. This paper aims to present the viewpoints and feedback of university students on chemistry lessons conducted in schools by fellow university students as part of their training. The study explores how these prospective teachers perceive lessons while simultaneously playing the roles of both the teacher and an observer. It also investigates their ability to identify areas in need of support and those that require further development during their subsequent pre-service teacher training courses.</p> <p><bold><italic>Methods: </italic></bold>Quantitative data was collected through formal documents, specifically observation sheets. The study’s participants were university students enrolled in pre-service teacher training programs who conducted chemistry lessons in school settings. These participants assumed the dual roles of instructors and observers during the lessons they taught.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results:</italic></bold> Analysis of the observation sheets revealed that the experience of assuming both teaching and observing roles contributed to the enhancement of the pre-service teachers’ reflective attitudes. This finding suggests the positive impact of this dual role on their professional development.</p> <p><bold><italic>Discussion:</italic></bold> Teaching demands a blend of pedagogical knowledge and the ability to reflect, as evidenced by a study at Jagiellonian University’s Faculty of Chemistry. This research, aimed at understanding the effectiveness of trainee teachers, highlighted the importance of creativity, proper communication, and skills in interpersonal relations for educators. While the research provided valuable insights, there’s a call for more extensive studies to gain deeper understandings and address challenges such as classroom management and student engagement.</p> <p><bold><italic>Limitations: </italic></bold>It is important to acknowledge certain limitations within this study. The scope of the investigation was restricted by the size and composition of the sample of participants. Consequently, the outcomes cannot be generalised to the broader population of pre-service teachers.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions:</italic></bold> The findings of this research highlight the importance of adopting a dual-role methodology in teacher education. By assuming both teaching and observational roles, aspiring teachers acquire a more profound understanding of their pedagogical techniques and recognize potential enhancements. Engaging in such reflective practices promises to enhance their subsequent teaching experiences. This study emphasizes the advantages of weaving hands-on teaching experiences into teacher training, fostering a more introspective and effective teaching methodology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-00012024-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of Community Resources in Education Planning and Delivery in Ghanahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> This study explored the involvement of community resources in education planning and delivery in Ghana. It focused on how the involvement of community resources have had an impact on educational planning and development in the Ada East District of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.</p> <p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> A qualitative method was used, and data collected through structured interview from fifteen participants of parents, teachers, and education officers. The participants were selected by using purposive sampling technique. The data were analysed qualitatively as per the themes that emerged.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results:</italic></bold> The findings indicated that communities contribute to the development of effective educational policies by providing insights and perspectives through various channels, such as community forums, advisory committees, and public hearings. Also, communities celebrate and embrace cultural diversity, fostering inclusivity within educational settings.</p> <p><bold><italic>Discussion:</italic> </bold>To maximize community involvement in education, it is essential to establish collaborative partnerships with community organizations, PTA, SMC, businesses, and institutions. Community organizations, businesses, and institutions can provide a wide range of resources, such as funding, expertise, facilities, and educational materials. These resources can greatly benefit schools and students, improving the quality of education.</p> <p><bold><italic>Limitations:</italic> </bold>With just 15 participants, it may be challenging to generalize the findings to the entire population of Ghana, or even a specific region. The small sample size may not adequately represent the diversity of experiences and perspectives within the country.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions:</italic></bold> It was recommended that there was a need to establish of strong partnerships between schools, parents, community leaders, and local organizations by the Ghana Education Service is crucial to promote collaboration and shared responsibility in education planning and delivery.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-00042024-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Mediating Role of Mindfulness in the Relationship between Psychological Resilience and Test Anxiety in Adolescentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> The examination of variables such as resilience and mindfulness, which may help adolescents who are enrolled in distance education cope with test anxiety, is important in terms of reducing test anxiety and increasing the efficiency of distance education. For this reason, it was aimed to examine the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between students’ psychological resilience and test anxiety.</p> <p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> The study group included 840 high school students. Baron and Kenny’s causal steps approach was applied to investigate the mediating effect of conscious awareness on the relationship between psychological resilience and test anxiety. In addition, the bootstrapping method proposed by Hayes was used to determine the significance of the mediating effect of conscious awareness.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results:</italic></bold> It was observed that there was a negative relationship between psychological resilience scores and test anxiety scores, a positive relationship between resilience and mindfulness scores, and a negative relationship between test anxiety scores and mindfulness scores. While psychological resilience had a negative effect on test anxiety, the indirect effect of psychological resilience on test anxiety was also found to be significant. Mindfulness provided partial mediation of the effect of resilience on test anxiety.</p> <p><bold><italic>Discussion:</italic> </bold>High levels of awareness and psychological resilience enable students to experience less stress. Conscious awareness, like psychological resilience, is therefore viewed as an important resource that enables a person to manage stressful situations, and it is believed to be effective in reducing one’s anxiety.</p> <p><bold><italic>Limitations:</italic> </bold>This study was limited to students enrolled in Anatolian high schools in Turkey who could be reached via convenience sampling, whose parents consented to their participation, and who were enrolled in distance education in 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, a major limitation of the study is that data were only collected from students of Anatolian high schools, and the majority of the participating students were in their first or second years of high school.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions:</italic> </bold>There is no prior direct research examining the mediating role of conscious awareness in the relationship between psychological resilience and test anxiety among high school students in the literature. In this regard, it is anticipated that this study will contribute to the literature. Within the scope of preventive guidance, educational guidance, and psychological counseling services, face-to-face and online psychoeducation programs based on conscious awareness can be designed by school psychological counselors to enhance psychological resilience, reduce students’ test anxiety, and support adolescents in coping with intensely stressful situations such as pandemics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-00052024-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigating Factors that Affect Reading Literacy Skills in PISA Turkey Samplehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> In this study, it was aimed to examine the relationships between the variables that related the reading skills of the students and the variables related to the opportunities that the student, family, and the school have. Variables related to students’ reading skills (reading skills scores/PV1READ, perception of competence in reading/SCREADCOMP and perception of difficulty in reading/SCREADDIFF) comprised the criterion variable set, and variables related to students’ socio-economic and cultural characteristics (cultural possessions/CULTPOS, home educational resources/HEDRES, index of economic, social, and cultural status/ESCS, joy/like reading/JOYREAD, teacher’s stimulation of reading engagement perceived by student/STIMREAD, subjective well-being: Sense of belonging to school/BELONG, student-teacher ratio/STRATIO, shortage of educational material/EDUSHORT, student behavior hindering learning/STUBEHA, teacher behavior hindering learning/TEACHBEHA) comprised the predictive variable set.</p> <p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> Between two sets of variables, used canonical correlation analysis to examine, simultaneously, the relationship between these two sets and the contribution of the variables to each set. Turkey data of the PISA 2018 organized by OECD was used as the sample. PISA 2018 Turkey data consisted of 6890 Turkish students from the 15-year-old age group. The variables PV1READ, SCREADCOMP, SCREADCOMP, SCREADDIFF, CULTPOS, HEDRES, ESCS, BELONG, STIMREAD and JOYREAD in the student survey and the variables STRATIO, STUBEHA, TEACHBEHA, EDUSHORT in the school survey in the PISA 2018 were used as data collection tools.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results:</italic></bold> A summary of the results of the canonical correlation analysis revealed that the most important factor in the predictive variable set was liking/enjoying reading, followed by the student behaviours that hinder learning, economic and socio-cultural status, cultural position, sense of belonging to the school, and teacher behaviours that hinder learning, respectively. In the criterion variable set consisting of students’ reading skills, the most important factor was the perception of reading competence, followed by reading scores and perception of reading difficulty, respectively. In this context, it can be said that the variable that had the most relationship with the reading literacy skills of the students was the variable of like/enjoy reading.</p> <p><bold><italic>Discussion:</italic> </bold>It is important for teachers to include additional materials that students can enjoy in the teaching process. Positive school climate is one of the factors that help increase student achievement.</p> <p><bold><italic>Limitations:</italic> </bold>This study focused on variables related to students’ socio-economic and cultural characteristics and school-related variables as predictors of reading literacy. In addition to the variables, studies can examine the effect of the categorical variables such as gender and school type.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions:</italic></bold> The results of the study showed that the variable that had the most relationship with the reading literacy skills of the students was the variable of like/enjoy reading. This variable was followed by student behaviours that hinder learning and the socio-economic cultural status of the students respectively. In line with the results of this study, positive school climate is one of the factors that help increase student achievement. In order for the school climate to be positive, student or teacher behaviors that prevent learning should be minimized. Thus, students can learn more easily in a school climate where there are no obstacles to learning. Finally, as the socio-economic and cultural status of the students increased, it was observed that the reading scores increased.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-00022024-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigating Perceived Paternal Attitudes of Children Aged between 9 and 17 Yearshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> The study aims to investigate the perceived paternal attitudes of children aged between 9 and 17 years in relation to some variables such as child’s gender, child’s age, the number of siblings, father’s working status, and father’s level of education.</p> <p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> The study used a survey design. The sample group consisted of 424 children aged between 9 and 17 years, including 233 girls and 191 boys. The data were collected using the Child Raising Styles Scale developed by Sümer and Güngör (1999), and a General Information Form. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. An independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test whether there is a single significant difference in the dataset. The Scheffe test was used to determine the groups that caused the significant difference.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results:</italic></bold> The level of significance was set at p&lt;0.05 in all statistical analyses. There was no significant difference in father’s acceptance/attention in terms of child’s gender and the number of siblings, while a significant difference was found in terms of child’s age, father’s working status, and father’s level of education. There was no significant difference in children’s perceived paternal attitudes according to child’s gender, child’s age, number of siblings, father’s working status, and father’s level of education in the supervision/control dimension. On the other hand, there was a significant difference according to child’s age, child’s gender, number of siblings, father’s working status, and father’s level of education in the acceptance/attention dimension.</p> <p><bold><italic>Discussion:</italic> </bold>Taken together, the research results showed that fathers’ child-raising attitudes vary. Some results are consistent with earlier studies, and some are contrast to earlier studies. A possible explanation for this might be factors such as place, time, sample, changes in parental attitudes, and socio-cultural changes.</p> <p><bold><italic>Limitations:</italic> </bold>The sample consisted of 424 children aged between 9 and 17 years including 233 girls and 191 boys.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions:</italic></bold> Parents’ attitudes and behaviours in raising their children are different. These differences may result from parents’ expectations of their children, parents’ enjoyment of the parenting role, the number of children, children’s birth order, children’s gender, children’s personality traits, parents’ personality traits, and the interaction that parents had with their parents in their childhood. These factors have an impact on parents’ attitudes and behaviours and determine the form and quality of the relationship between the mother, father, and child.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-00072024-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Field of Free Time as Tertiary Agency of Socialisationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> The authors examine the agencies of socialisation and attempt to reveal a pattern among these agents. They differentiate social elements and agencies of socialisation, and they endow the latter with three conditions: the requirements of scope, time and intensity and specific set of rules.</p> <p><bold><italic>Purpose:</italic> </bold>The purpose of the paper is to examine which factors satisfy this triple set of requirements.</p> <p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> Explanatory method to expose the issue, based on desk research and secondary analysis was used.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results:</italic> </bold>Near the family and the school, the free time space meets the three conditions of the socialization environment (scope, time-intensity, specific set of rules).</p> <p><bold><italic>Discussion:</italic></bold> The authors believe that these three conditions are not met by any other socialization area.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions:</italic></bold> All this means that in postmodern society, the institution of the family, which has been with us since pre-modernity, and the institution of the school, which has been with us since modernity, is accompanied by a third socialization macro-agency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2024-00032024-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00A Framework for Implementing Positive Learner Discipline in Public Secondary Schools from the Context of the Mpumalanga Provincehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0025<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic> Learner indiscipline has emerged as a global cause for concern for educators and parents in the 21st century. This study sought to develop a framework for the successful implementation of positive discipline. The study sought to provide answers revolving around the contributing factors towards learner indiscipline, the effects of indiscipline on teaching and learning, educators’ perceptions on positive discipline, factors leading to the ineffective implementation of positive discipline and the constituents of an effective framework for implementing positive discipline.</p> <p><italic>Methods:</italic> The study adopted a qualitative approach. Districts were identified utilising convenience sampling, while participants were sampled purposively. Data collection comprised semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Six schools from two districts in the Mpumalanga Province were selected as the study sample. The sample comprised twenty-four participants, including principals, class teachers, Life Orientation teachers, and chairpersons of School Governing Bodies from each school. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data and present the findings.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> The findings revealed that learner indiscipline is affected by several contributing factors such as family situation, community setting, human rights, peer pressure, educators, and learners themselves. Lack of stakeholder engagement, absence of training, overemphasis on learners’ rights and conditioning of educators and parents on corporal punishment are the factors that have led to the ineffective implementation of positive discipline.</p> <p><italic>Discussion:</italic>To ensure the implementation of positive discipline is successful, a framework should support a multi-stakeholder consideration to engagement. Ubuntu values should be incorporated in re-packaging the positive discipline toolkit so that it suits the local context.</p> <p><italic>Limitations: </italic>Only two education districts in one province of South Africa formed part of the study.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic> Educators are to adopt a revised curriculum that accommodates positive discipline and Ubuntu values in related subjects taught in school. Effective implementation requires regular monitoring, evaluation and reviewing of the positive discipline approach. The study proposed an Afrocentric framework for the implementation of positive discipline.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00252023-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Information and Material Support to Environmental Education in Slovakia in the Times of Crisishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0020<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic> The undergoing globalization brings epidemiological, economical, energetical, and environmental security risks. The current task in the field of improving the quality of the environment is educating students in schools for adaptation to the climate change and mitigating its impact on the life and health of living organisms.</p> <p><italic>Methods: </italic>The authors carried out a research study on the sample of teachers in 57 schools in the Slovak Republic focusing on particular themes of environmental security, teachers’ knowledge in the field and the availability of material didactic means.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> Particular themes of environmental security were identified and teachers’ knowledge in the field was examined. Special attention was paid to the availability of material didactic means to be used for the purposes of environmental education. Statistically significant differences were found between their availability in towns and villages.</p> <p><italic>Discussion:</italic>Human activities have significantly changed the quality of the environment and now, the necessary to start applying a more environmentally responsible approach is clear. In the Slovak school system, the cross-cutting theme environmental education provides space for it.</p> <p><italic>Limitations:</italic>Limitations are given by the size and the composition of the sample, which do not allow to generalize the obtained findings to the entire population.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic>In education, it is important to introduce measures and to prepare graduates for the future as a reaction to the climate emergency situation and the planetary crisis. So, teachers should have expertise, possess objective information, as well as appropriate didactic means for educating students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00202023-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy in a Principles of Economics Textbookhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic> Among the contemporary models developed, the updated Bloom’s taxonomy has become the most widely used cognitive process model for gauging learning questions. This model emphasizes the cognitive levels starting from remembering information and progresses to advanced levels such as producing knowledge. Even though students use a variety of strategies to synthesize information and learn, there is an urgent need for teachers to adopt better pedagogies to facilitate meaningful learning. Adams (2015) established that Bloom’s taxonomy places emphasis on student’s ability to acquire prior knowledge before interpreting or applying it into a real-world scenario. It is of interest then to determine the Bloom’s levels in principles of economics textbooks.</p> <p><italic>Methods:</italic> This study utilized qualitative research to determine whether the aspects of Bloom’s revised taxonomy were utilized in end of chapter questions. The questions at the end of the chapters of the “Principles of Economics” by Gregory Mankiw (2021) were classified based on Bloom’s revised taxonomy.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> The study revealed that most of the questions utilized the apply level of Bloom’s cognitive domain. There were few questions regarding evaluation or creating.</p> <p><italic>Discussion: </italic> Faculty need to be aware of the different Bloom’s levels available to them and potentially focus more on the higher levels of Bloom’s revised taxonomy.</p> <p><italic>Limitations: </italic>One limitation is that only the leading Principles of Economics textbook was surveyed. Other textbooks may produce different results.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic> The leading Principles of Economics textbook had many end-of-chapter questions at the apply level of the revised Bloom’s taxonomy. There may be opportunities to develop more questions at the higher levels of the revised Bloom’s taxonomy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00192023-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Interdisciplinary Pictorial Material of Greek Religious Textbooks - A Chance to Meet the Othernesshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0018<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic>Religious textbooks are always at the front of the Greek educational reality, following the broader tendency of a school study grounded on textbook culture. The present paper focuses on the visual structure of the Greek secondary religious textbooks (in the three grades) and answers the following questions: What kinds of visuals are used in the textbooks? What exactly does the substance of these things consist of? Where can they go, exactly? Moreover, how do linguistic and visual structures relate to one another?</p> <p>On the other hand, the “otherness” problem is also analyzed through the results provided by the implication of the mixed method used. The latter is accumulated in the assumption of the dynamics of the visuals and their capacity to stimulate the participation of the students through their content. The otherness definition follows two main paths: one of an interdisciplinary approach during the learning process and another concerning the personal stimulation of all students through an inter-social and interreligious level. The hypothesis is confirmed through the interesting results of the present research.</p> <p><italic>Methods: </italic>For research purposes, it has been used Atlas ti. The software was available for the qualitative type of research. However, there are various accounts of interesting quantitative magnitudes for comparisons.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic>The primary outcome focuses on a frequency balance among the grades using traditional and more modern visuals in their textbooks.</p> <p><italic>Discussion:</italic>Pictures could offer an outstanding pedagogical service when used creatively and effectively. The latter means that the meanings of the day’s lesson could be conveyed through visuals to all the students (international students included). Then the religion teacher could initiate a debate in class or assign a related artful thinking activity (providing motivation and inflaming students’ participation.</p> <p><italic>Limitations: </italic>The first twenty pages of each religious textbook have been used for research. The above restriction consisted of a research choice to avoid a broader statistical data account, which was not the primary goal to achieve.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic>Disregarding the dominant research frequencies and locations and going further from the correlations issues between textual and visual formations as depicted, it might be interestingly argued that the modern and abstract tendencies and options of Grade A and B’s religious textbooks consist of a pole of appealing of the otherness in an individualistic and spiritualistic level of discussion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00182023-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Parameters and Models of Item Response Theory (IRT): A Review of Literaturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic> Item response theory (IRT) has received much attention in validation of assessment instrument because it allows the estimation of students’ ability from any set of the items. Item response theory allows the difficulty and discrimination levels of each item on the test to be estimated. In the framework of IRT, item characteristics are independent of the sample and latent traits of the person are independent of the test on the account that the selected models perfectly fit the data. Therefore, scores that describe examinee performance are independent on test difficulty. The scores of the examinee may be lower on a difficult test and higher on easier tests, but the ability level of the examinee remains the same over any test at the time of testing. The IRT model allows the estimation of item parameters. The line of difference between the models and parameters of IRT is not clear to many students in assessment.</p> <p><italic>Purpose:</italic>This paper reviews the parameters that are estimated using IRT and the models available in IRT. Also, the paper highlights the difference between the parameters and models and the various models under each set of data.</p> <p><italic>Methods:</italic>Various literatures on IRT relating to the parameters and models of IRT are reviewed.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic>There are four parameters estimated with IRT but the models are not four. Again, the models of IRT depends on the type of data. Dichotomous data has four models for the four parameters. However, polytomous data has two parameters: item difficulty and item discrimination for the models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00222023-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Opinions of Music Education Department Students on Web 2.0 Tools: The Case of Bursa Uludag Universityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0021<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic>Today, thanks to information technologies including Web 2.0 technology, educators can make their lessons more efficient and understandable. In addition, they can encourage active participation of students in this way. With the increase of online education applications during the Covid-19 epidemic in the world, the use of Web 2.0 tools in education has also increased.</p> <p><italic>Methods:</italic>Explanatory design, one of the mixed research methods, was used in this research. Within the scope of this research, a questionnaire was applied to the participants to determine their perceptions about Web 2.0 tools, and then interviews were conducted with interview questions created in line with the analysis of quantitative data. 69 pre-service teachers from a large Turkish state university participated in the quantitative stage of the research and five students participated in the qualitative stage.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> In line with the data obtained, it was concluded that the music teacher candidates’ perceptions of Web 2.0 tools were high.</p> <p><italic>Discussion: </italic>In the survey application, which forms the basis of the quantitative step of the research, it is seen that the majority of students gave the answer “I agree” or “strongly agree” to survey items. Especially in 2020, with the Covid-19 pandemic worldwide, distance education been implemented for a while thanks to technology, and this situation brought teachers and students closer to technology and improved their usage skills. In addition, these skills are supported by the use of Web 2.0 tools and it is seen that teacher candidates also have a perception towards this.</p> <p><italic>Limitations: </italic>The research was limited to 69 students who voluntarily accepted.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic> Although Web 2.0 tools have not yet been used effectively by music students, the importance of these tools in terms of the active role of students in the course has been understood.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00212023-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Musical Art Distance Education after Pandemichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0023<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic>The spread of the coronavirus brought necessary changes in education, including the abrupt transfer from classroom instruction to an exclusively online environment. The teachers and pupils/students adapted to the new conditions, and currently, virtual education elements are being implemented in face-to-face teaching to enhance its efficiency. The aim of our research was to monitor distant education in vocational music school environment, describe main difficulties in vocational music online classes, and identify elements of distance learning that can be implemented in music education after pandemics.</p> <p><italic>Methods:</italic>The study utilized a mixed research design. The primary method of collecting data was through questionnaires (2020, 2021 and 2022), and analysing essays written by students from the Faculty of Performing Arts at the Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica, Slovakia (2020).</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic>Student respondents strongly believe that while in theoretically oriented courses, online education can replace face-to-face learning, it is no viable option for practically oriented courses in higher music education. More than half of the students do not support the inclusion of elements of distance education in face-to-face teaching. In spite of several challenges, the positive aspects of online education support the implementation of some distance learning elements in face-to-face music education.</p> <p><italic>Discussion: </italic>Our findings about vocational music online education do not contradict other surveys (Yurdal, Sahin, Kosan, &amp; Toraman, 2021; Wang, 2023; Al-Mawee, Kwayub, &amp; Gharaibeh, 2021; Bakhov, Opolska, Bogus, Anishchenko, &amp; Biryukova, 2021; Martha, Junus, Santoso, &amp; Suhartanto, 2021).</p> <p><italic>Limitations: </italic>The main limitation is the sampling, as it only included participants who had internet access and were willing to participate in the survey. Future studies should encompass more music educational institutions in Slovakia to achieve a larger sample size. Furthermore, in analyzing questionnaires, we did not make difference between participants´ music study fields.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic>Although distance education has shown considerable improvement since 2019 and has undeniable advantages, students pursuing performing arts and composition at the Faculty of Music Arts at the Academy of Arts maintain rather sceptical attitude towards it. They strongly believe that in practical courses, the online teaching cannot fully replace the face-to-face instructions. However, teachers often incorporate certain online teaching elements into their regular classes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00232023-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigating the Relationships between Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) and Depression Symptoms and Intolerance of Uncertainty in Turkish Adolescents during Covid-19https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0024<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Introduction:</italic>This study aims at examining the direct and indirect mediating role of the intolerance of uncertainty (IU) variable in the relationship between COVID-19-induced OCS and depression in a Turkish adolescent sample.</p> <p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> The sample consists of 427 people (248 females, 179 males) between the ages of 14-18, living in Turkey and selected by convenient sampling method. The data were collected through the COVID-19 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Scale, Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale (DASS-21) and Intolerance of Uncertainty Index-A for Children (IUI-A-C).</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> The findings show that COVID-19-induced OCS have strong predictive effects on depression symptoms. The findings also revealed that IU directly and indirectly mediates the relationship between COVID-19 OCD and depression symptoms, as well as its negative predictive effect for depression symptoms.</p> <p><italic>Discussion: </italic>It can be said that OCS caused by COVID-19 trigger depressive symptoms in adolescents. In addition, it can be thought that IU, with its mediator effect, may play a triggering role in the emergence of COVID-induced OCS. Another research finding is that IU may be an important transdiagnostic construct for depressive symptoms.</p> <p><italic>Limitations: </italic>The current study has also some limitations. First, the study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. The fact that the sample group is non-clinical and a clinical group is not included can be considered as second delimitation. Third, the current study just used scales to evaluate the students’ self-report. At this point, a different perspective can be developed by taking the opinions of the parents.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions:</italic> The results show that COVID-19-induced OCS increase depressive symptoms in Turkish adolescents and IU has a mediating effect in this relationship. In addition, the results provide important data for the treatment of mental symptoms related to the pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00242023-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Music Education in Childhoodhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> From the second half of the 20th century onwards, studies on the transfer effects of music learning have become increasingly common. Both in the domestic and international literature, we can read research with a solid scientific background that supports the transfer effects of music education on different aspects of life.</p> <p><italic><bold>Purpose:</bold></italic> The aim of paper was to map the effect of learning music in childhood based on both the international and the Hungarian scientific literature.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> When analyzing the social impact of learning music in detail we distinguished five areas: 1. state of physical development, skillfulness, health; 2. cognitive skills; 3. personal development and emotional intelligence; 4. the role of compensating for deficit; 5. community building. In this study we present in detail the results of research studies in these fields.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> In our opinion music education institutions transmit several values and hidden curriculum to children the effect of which serves as a determining and formative factor throughout their whole lives. That is why it is important that, based on the research findings, teachers should be aware of it and consciously control it. In our view learning music can act as a supporting factor for the physical, spiritual and mental development of the children and apart from improving different areas of competence it can also influence their attitude to work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00122023-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Collaborative Mentoring as a Way of Meeting Teachers’ Inclusive Teaching Practices Needs: Investigating Learning Outcomeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> This article discusses a mentoring project that was aimed at improving the inclusive education practices of teachers.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> There were 10 mentors who were faculty members in science education and special education. Mentees were 59 teachers who have an inclusive student in their class or school. A qualitative approach was chosen.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> Reported learning outcomes referred to changes in knowledge related to “Basic Concepts”, “Educational Support and Legislation”, “Assistive Technology”, and “Educational Accommodations”.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion:</bold></italic> The results of this study points to the needs for more interdisciplinary collaboration studies in order to support teachers’ dealing with diverse students.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations:</bold></italic> The results of the study are bound to the project duration and the place of the study.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> The current collaborative mentoring study has several contributions for teachers in terms of their knowledge and skills in implementing an effective inclusive education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00112023-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Roma Mentor Project: The Roma Intellectual Friend Modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> The Roma Mentor Project has originally been the experimental educational model of Open Society Institute for multiply disadvantaged Roma and non-Roma youth in the period 2006-2013. Following the closure of OSI’s experimental and alternative educational projects, it has been run further, during the 2016/17 academic year, with the support of the Norway Grant, by the Bhim Rao Association (located in Northern Hungary).</p> <p><italic><bold>Purpose:</bold></italic> The Roma Mentor Project aims to establish the pedagogical model of the intellectual Roma friend in order to effectively overcome the sociocultural disadvantages of the Roma and non-Roma children with multiply disadvantages.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> Throughout the program a Roma mentor may be a Roma intellectual, artist or well-known figure from the media, whose primary goal is to act as a role model for the Roma children through presenting their own personal and professional life, as well as to become a friend of the mentored.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> A mentor from Roma origins appears during the project as a Roma intellectual friend in multiply disadvantaged Roma and non-Roma children’s lives, which is especially true considering that the Roma mentor draws tools of socialization from Roma culture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00172023-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Examining Types and Duration of Teachers’ Professional Development Activities and Their Relationship with Job Satisfactionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> The aim of the study was to describe the teachers’ views on the professional development activities, the frequency of the teachers’ participation to such activities and effectiveness of these professional development (PD) activities. What’s more, it was aimed to analyse the relationship between PD activities that the teachers participated and their job satisfaction (JS).</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> The sample of the study comprised of 357 teachers. In order to seek the answers to the research questions, correlational research models were used in addition to survey. The data was collected through implementation of two different instruments. These were Participation to PD Activities Questionnaire (survey) and Job Satisfaction (JS) Scale. These instruments were developed within the scope of the study.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> The findings of the study could be summarized as follows: the teachers’ frequency of participation to peer coaching-based PD activities, participated PD activities, number of individualized and self-directed PD activities was at a lower level; however, the teachers restated that they experienced positive effects at higher or moderate levels from PD activities in their teaching practices. Within the scope of the existing study the hypothesis was tested that PD activities would increase the teachers’ job satisfaction and the findings were supported. It was seen that there was a positive relationship between the PD activities participated by the teachers and the teachers’ job satisfaction.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion:</bold></italic> In the study it was noticed that more than one third of the participant teachers did not perform PD based peer coaching and observations, but more than one third of the teachers accessed virtual platforms and watched videos and related feed on lecturing and techniques for PD. In TALIS study done at OECD countries, it was noted that almost half of the teachers participated to peer coaching-based activities.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations:</bold></italic> Data were collected from teachers that research is limited with teachers’ perceptions. Research is limited with teachers’ professional development activities and their job satisfaction.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> It was found out that very few teachers attended educational congresses to present their activities/scientific studies. Therefore, it might be recommended to improve teachers’ study skills in terms of scientific studies, and they might be encouraged to present their studies at conferences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00162023-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Technology-Supported Educational Tools in General Music Education and Its Contribution to the Process of Music Educationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction:</bold></italic> In our current century, technology continues to exist in almost all domains of human life. In this day and age, technological changes and developments make a great contribution to the rapid production of information and easy access to it. As a result of rapidly developing and changing needs, it is considered essential to organize education in line with these needs and to incorporate technology within the education system. In the present study, it was aimed to identify the use of technology supported educational tools in general music education and their contribution to the process of music education.</p> <p><italic><bold>Methods:</bold></italic> The convergent parallel design, which is one of the mixed research methods, was used in this study. Based on this particular point in mind, it was attempted in this study to establish the opinions of music teachers about the level of use of technology-supported educational tools in general music education through both closed-ended and open-ended questions. In this study, homogeneous sampling was used and it was attempted to reach out the teachers who taught general music knowledge in Turkey. The study group of the research was formed with 59 music teachers teaching at different institutions who agreed to participate in the study on a voluntary basis.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results:</bold></italic> In line with the data obtained, it was concluded that teachers found themselves partially sufficient and willing to improve themselves in terms of using the technology-supported educational materials more effectively and efficiently in the process.</p> <p><italic><bold>Discussion:</bold></italic> From the results of the research, it is seen that technology-supported applications are used especially in the listening and expression stages of the teacher, and it is preferred in the sampling, song teaching and showing and telling stages.</p> <p>In addition, it was determined that these applications were used by only 1 participant during the evaluation phase. It has been determined that technology-supported applications contribute positively to learning speed, permanent learning and the realization of more effective lessons. Throughout the music education process, which includes abstract concepts, the students' acquisition of the knowledge and making sense of this knowledge will contribute positively to their academic success. It is believed that it is essential to draw students' attention and include them effectively within the education process by getting them to gain new experiences. In this sense, it is crucially significant that teachers have the competence to use different applications in today's age of technology.</p> <p><italic><bold>Limitations:</bold></italic> The research was limited to 59 music teachers who voluntarily agreed to work during the data collection process. The research was carried out in the spring term of the 2020-2021 academic year.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions:</bold></italic> In accordance with the findings obtained from the study, it was found that the participants utilized the technology-supported teaching tools especially in listening and lecturing, and they did not use these tools throughout the process. It was revealed that these tools had positive effects such as increasing students’ attention and contributing to their permanent learning, as well as negative effects such as the tendency (to expect everything to be handed to one on a silver plate) and reducing the teacher's remedial role.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/atd-2023-00142023-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1