rss_2.0Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica Tropica et Subtropica Feed of cassava waste among processors in Akoko Southwest, Ondo State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a considerable gap in knowledge about cassava waste management among small-scale processors in Nigeria. This study investigated the utilisation of cassava wastes among processors in Akoko southwest, Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred processors were sampled in four communities, using a multistage sampling procedure. Data were analysed using frequency counts, and percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (at <italic>α</italic><sub>0.05</sub>). The majority of the processors were males (53.5 %), married (49.0 %), Christians (49.0 %), and with secondary education (22.0 %). Most respondents had knowledge that cassava waste could be sold to generate income (81.0 %), used to produce chemicals (78.5 %) and utilised as a source of energy (78.5 %). The major constraints to cassava waste utilisation included high cost of cassava waste processing (82.0 %) and the lack of processing equipment (82.0 %). The correlation analysis shows a significant correlation between the ages of respondents and cassava waste utilisation (r = −0.538 <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), years of education, and cassava waste utilisation (r = −0.073, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). However, marital status (r = −0.087, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) and income (r = −0.048, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) had hypothesised a positive relationship with cassava waste utilisation, but not significant. The study concluded that the majority of the respondents had a positive attitude towards cassava waste utilisation, but were constrained by inadequate finance, lack of processing equipment, high cost of hired labour, and high cost of processing. The biogas properties of cassava waste have transformational potential in addressing energy poverty in developing economies like Nigeria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue farmers’ coping strategies for mitigating conflicts with cattle herders: Evidence from Osun State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Farmer-herder conflict constitutes a severe threat to community peace, development, agricultural production and socio-economic life of rural dwellers especially crop farmers, thereby forcing them to utilise some coping strategies to survive the crises and cushion the effects. Therefore, the paper assessed the causes, effects, and coping strategies utilised by crop farmers to mitigate the effects of conflict with cattle herders in rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 120 crop farmers (the more vulnerable ones) were selected across the state and quantitative data were elicited from them using a structured interview schedule. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Results show that respondents had a mean age of 44.16 ± 14.77 years and farming experience of 20.16 ± 11.23 years, and 75.7 % had formal education. Loss of crops (mean = 1.63) and reduction in farmers’ output and income (mean = 1.52) were the major effects of conflict, while strategies adopted include tightening farm security (mean = 2.93), praying for peace (mean = 2.91) and seeking help from friends and relatives (mean = 2.91). About half (48.6 %) utilised the coping strategies at a high level to mitigate conflict with cattle herders. There was a significant relationship between the coping strategies utilisation and the years of residence (r = 0.224), farming experience (r = 0.201) and effects of conflict (r = 0.567). The study concluded that although crop farmers utilised different coping strategies to mitigate the effects of herders’ conflict problem-solving types were most adopted. It is therefore recommended that government and other donor agencies should provide relief materials to crop farmers during conflict situations to enable them to cope with the effects of the conflict and resume their normal economic activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue amended with carbonised rice husk and goat manure as a propagation medium<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tomato is an important horticultural crop as it provides income and contributes to food security for Rwandan citizens. Besides its importance, its production is hampered by the use of a soil-based growing medium which results in the production of low-quality transplants. This is mainly attributed to the unaffordability of peat moss to small-scale farmers in Rwanda. Hence, a greenhouse nursery experiment was carried out at the Rwanda-Israel Horticulture Centre of Excellence to search for an alternative growing medium to peat moss. Nine different growing media were formulated from a mixture at different ratios of sand, goat manure, and carbonised rice husks. The seeds were sown in propagation trays. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Tukey’s honestly significant difference test at <italic>p ≤</italic> 0.05. The data analysis was carried out using SAS software version 9.2. The results revealed that sand + goat manure + carbonised rice husk 50 %: 10 %: 40 % (T8) was comparable to T1 (peat moss 100 %) in producing higher quality seedlings during both trials with a mean quality index of 0.28 and 0.31, respectively, whereas T2 (sand 100 %) had seedlings with the poorest quality. Consequently, T8 can be adopted by nursery producers as an alternative to peat moss in the production of quality tomato transplants. More research on other locally available organic substrates is encouraged to find out alternatives to expensive media like peat moss because it was observed that the use of sand + goat manure + carbonised rice husk 50 %: 10 %: 40 % revealed in production of quality seedlings with no significant difference from the ones grown in peat moss.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of utilisation of tomato value addition technology among beneficiaries in Oyo State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Value addition is essential in the tomato value chain, especially in the wake of an increasing rate of tomato postharvest loss. Both governmental and non-governmental organisations have trained small-scale entrepreneurs on Tomato Value Addition Technology (TVAT). A dearth of information on the utilisation of TVAT necessitated this study. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 142 respondents. Data were elicited from respondents with the aid of a questionnaire and analysed using frequency counts, percentages, multiple linear regression, and multivariate probit model at <italic>α</italic><sub>0.05</sub>. The results revealed that most (54.9 %) of the respondents had a high level of knowledge on TVAT and a favourable attitude (60.6 %) towards TVAT. However, the level of utilisation of TVAT was low (69.7 %). Lack of funds (68.3 %), NAFDAC registration requirements (66.9 %), and high cost of processing equipment (57.0 %) were prominent constraints militating against utilisation of TVAT. Constraints to the utilisation of TVAT (<italic>β</italic> = −0.395), age (<italic>β</italic> = −0.022), and income (<italic>β</italic> = 0.095) determined the utilisation of TVAT. Membership in a cooperative society (<italic>β</italic> = 0.221), income (<italic>β</italic> = 0.375) and constraints (<italic>β</italic> = −0.213) predicted the utilisation of tomato paste. Educational qualification (<italic>β</italic> = 0.132), cooperative society (<italic>β</italic> = 0.059), income (<italic>β</italic> = 0.336), and knowledge of TVAT (<italic>β</italic> = 0.229) predicted the utilisation of ketchup. Age (<italic>β</italic> = −0.112), income (<italic>β</italic> = 0.026), years of experience (<italic>β</italic> = 0.031), knowledge of TVAT (<italic>β</italic> = 0.311), and constraints (<italic>β</italic> = −0.093) predicted the utilisation of puree, whereas factors associated with the utilisation of dry slice tomato technology, were age (<italic>β</italic> = 0.107), marital status (<italic>β</italic> = 0.050), household size (<italic>β</italic> = 0.042) and years of experience (<italic>β</italic> = 0.219). Adequate funding is a <italic>sine qua non</italic> to the sustainability of agricultural technologies. The study recommended the need for more training on the utilisation of the technology, encouragement to form cooperative groups to facilitate easy access to funds, and establishment of cottage industry among stakeholders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue utilisation of skill set: assessing ex-agripreneurial trainees of agricultural school programme in Osun State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Charitable organisations complement government efforts in training young Nigerians in sustainable agricultural practices. A potent means of assessing the effectiveness of this training outlet/effort is the assessment of the sustained utilisation of the skill set acquired by its ex-agripreneurial trainees. A multistage sampling procedure was used to capture sample subjects. The last five sets of ex-trainees were purposively and proportionately sampled, this gave a sample size of 97. Both quantitative and qualitative data were elicited from the sample subjects. The majority (74.2 %) of the ex-trainees were male, middle-aged (38 years), made a net average monthly income of ₦ 46,618, and had an appreciable length of experience (11 years) as agripreneurs. The results of this study were as follows: training on the skill set received by the ex-agripreneural trainees was effective (75.3 %). Inadequate finance (<italic>x̅</italic>= 3.0), economic instability (<italic>x̅</italic>= 2.40) and poor state of infrastructure (<italic>x̅</italic> = 2.23) were prominent among constraints associated with sustained utilisation of the skill set acquired. Enthusiasm about my enterprise (<italic>x̅</italic>= 1.72) was the attribute of an agripreneur possessed most. Sustained utilisation of skill set was high (61.9 %). A significant relationship was established between household size (<italic>r</italic> = 0,456), net average monthly income (<italic>r</italic> = 0.537), years of experience as an agripreneur (<italic>r</italic> = 0.509), perceived effectiveness of training received (<italic>r</italic> = 0.380), attributes of an entrepreneur possessed (<italic>r</italic> = 0.380), and sustained utilisation of skill set acquired. The study recommends that the training modules/templates are sustained and adapted by other training outlets/efforts owing to their effectiveness and the sustainability potentials it confers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of snail production and its contribution to food security of farming households in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The numerous resources in snail production have largely remained untapped in developing countries despite the increasing awareness of the many benefits and potentials embedded therein. This study was done to analyze the economics of snail production and to estimate its contribution to the food security of farming households in Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire that was administered to the snail farmers. Based on the discovery of this work, the result shows that 39.2 % of the sampled farmers were within the active age bracket (41–50 years). 92.5 % of the farmers were males indicating men were actively involved. The majority of the farmers were literate with (83.3 %) having tertiary education. The mean farming experience was about 7 years with most of the farmers (47.5 %) having experience of 5–8 years. Most (86.7 %) of the respondents were married. The majority (40 %) engage in farming as an occupation primarily. The result showed that the returns to snail production were high (net profit ₦317.88/0.75 USD per jumbo-size snail). Every naira investment generated about ₦1.96/0.0046 USD. This demonstrated a high economic return of the snail farming business for boosting the revenue of the farming household. It was revealed that the cost of breeding stock, stocking density, and labour cost had a significant effect on revenue generated from snail production. Snail production was also not seen to have a significant contribution to the food security of farming households in the study area. The result further showed that the major constraints faced by snail farmers in the study area include lack of financial capacity for business expansion, unavailability of collaterals for loan acquisition to aid farm activities, and lack of inadequate extension visits among others. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for the government to invest heavily in snail production and encourage people to venture into snail farming business.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue diversity and path analysis of seed yield in Bambara groundnut grown in rain forest agroecological zone<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bambara groundnut is a reliable source of carbohydrates and protein in rainforest agroecology, but limited research had been done and few varieties commercialised. The magnitude of phenotypic variability, character association, and contribution of characters to seed yield were investigated among 50 accessions received from IITA, Nigeria. Field evaluation took place during the 2017 – 18 cropping seasons. The accessions were allocated to experimental plots using a Randomised Complete Block Design with three replicates. Data were collected on phenological, agronomic, and seed yield characters. The main effect showed significant (<italic>p</italic> ≤ 0.05) differences for phenological, vegetative, and reproductive characters. The year effect influenced agronomic and seed yield characters while accessions by year interaction were insignificant for all characters. The stepwise discriminant analysis identified three redundant characters. The leaflet length and width, canopy spread, leaf/plant, seeds/plant, and seed weight showed high discriminatory ability and are efficient for morphological characterisation and conservation. Hybridisation between accessions dispersed in quadrants 1, 2, and 4 may evolve early and medium maturity types with improved seed yield and biomass. The number of seeds/plant and pods/plant are indices for seed yield. The contribution of pods/plant to seed yield was masked by canopy spread, peduncle length, and pod width indicating competition for photo-assimilates. TVSu 17, TVSu 277, TVSu 271, and TVSu 278 are donor parents for earliness. TVSu 261 performed best for seed yield and yield component characters. Hybridisation among TVSu 261, TVSu 587, TVSu 275, and TVSu 17 will evolve medium maturing and high seed-yielding varieties for further evaluation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the impacts of toposequence on soil properties and quality in Tula, Gombe State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil erosion and a decline in fertility are influenced by insidious topography, which results in the problem of food insecurity in developing countries. Tula is a slope terrain, thus, prone to soil degradation due to continuous cultivation, hence the need to assess soil variability and quality to guide on suitable management practices to adopt across the slope classes. Hence, this study was conceived to assess the effect of toposequence on soil properties and quality in Tula, Gombe state Nigeria. Three slope classes were selected (upper, middle and lower slope). Soil samples were collected from each slope class at depths of 0–15 cm and 15–30 cm and analysed for soil physical and chemical properties using standard procedures. The results show that the soil texture varies from loamy sandy to sandy. The bulk density ranges from 1.02 to 1.12−3 and were rated medium at &lt;1.6−3. Soils on the lower slope were significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) higher in soil pH. The soils were generally slightly acidic to neutral. Soil organic carbon was medium in the upper and lower slopes (&gt;10−1), while the middle slope was low. The exchangeable bases were rated medium to high across the slope. The soils in the upper slope were of high quality (17 = SQ1), soils in the lower slope were moderate in quality (22 = SQ2) due to low effective cation exchange capacity, and soils in the middle slope were poor in quality (26 = SQ3) due to low soil nutrients. The implication to farmers is that crop grown on upper and lower slope will grow better than those on middle slope due to variations in nutrients. The middle slope was more afflicted by denudation processes because its steep slopes favour erosion. In conclusion, our data show that soil nutrient and quality varies across slope classes and different management practices should be adopted based on slope classes for sustainable crop production. Farmers are therefore advised to add more organic manure and crop residues as well as practice terrace farming on the middle slope for sustainability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue induced conflict and socio-economic effects on crop and cattle farmers in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the socio‑economic effects of crop and cattle farmers’ natural resource‑based conflicts in Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 228 crop and cattle farmers were sampled in six communities (Ila, Faje, Esa‑Oke, Esa‑Odo, Patara and Adana), using a multistage sampling procedure. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics such as Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), Chi square and independent t‑test (at <italic>α</italic><sub>0.05</sub>). Majority (73.7%, 100%) of crop and cattle farmers, respectively, were male. Accessibility of natural resources and damage/stealing of crops were identified as major causes of the conflicts. Crime and criminality, and poor training on conflict prevention and resolution were rated as major constraint to conflict resolution. Sustainable land management practices and alternative fodder production for crop and cattle farmers, respectively, were identified as major climate smart training needs to mitigate conflicts. Reduction in quality of social relationships and interruption in education of children for crop farmers; and displacement and reduction in quality of social relationships for cattle farmers were the major social effects suffered. Reduction of agricultural outputs and inability to repay loan were the most common economic effects suffered by the respondents. Causes of conflict, farm/herd size and years of respondents’ experience significantly related with overall socio-economic effects, while constraints to conflict resolution mechanisms (t = −2.672, <italic>p</italic> = 0.008), methods of conflict resolution (t = −6.649, <italic>p</italic> = 0.000) and socio-economic effects (t = 3.317, <italic>p</italic> = 0.008) differed among the respondents. Furthermore, the effect of the conflict was more severe among the crop farmers than among cattle farmers. Based on these new findings it is essential that a coordinated effort between religious institutions, the government, and non-governmental organisations give the ongoing efforts more momentum and include convincing herders to consider other options for producing livestock under ranching system for a more effective and sustainable livelihood practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of mycorrhizal inoculation and organic fertiliser on bioremediation of spent engine oil contaminated soil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hydrocarbon-related environmental pollution is a major environmental hazard due to its toxicity and widespread presence in the environment, resulting in stunted growth of soil microorganisms, plants, and animals. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and compost made from Cocoa Pod Husk (CPH) and cattle dung in the bioremediation of Spent Engine Oil (SEO)-contaminated soil. About 2.5 kg of sterilised soil was contaminated with SEO at different concentrations: 0, 100, and 150 mL / pot. Compost was then added after two weeks of contamination at the rate of 10 g / pot. Inoculation for treatments containing <italic>Glomus mossaea</italic> (consisting of 20 g of root soil-fungal mixture) was blended into the soil samples as well. It was a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial experiment that was laid out in a completely randomised design and replicated three times. The incubation was allowed to last for twelve (12) weeks before the termination of the experiment. Data were collected on the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), bacterial and fungal biomass of the SEO-contaminated soil. Results obtained indicate that combined application of mycorrhiza with 100 mL / pot SEO resulted in significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) lower residual TPH content (54.50% degradation) of the contaminated soil compared to the other treatment combinations whereas significantly higher residual TPH content (20.43% degradation) of the contaminated soil was obtained from the interaction between 150 mL / pot SEO and without mycorrhizal inoculation. Interaction between mycorrhiza and 10 g / pot compost had a significantly higher bacterial colony (6.58 CFU / g) compared to other treatment combinations. Mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in a significantly higher fungal colony (5.844 CFU / g) compared with non-mycorrhizal inoculation (3.222 CFU / g). Therefore, it can be concluded that mycorrhizal inoculation and compost were effective in the bioremediation of SEO-impacted soil.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of maternal feed rationing during pregnancy on meat quality attributes of rabbit offspring<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Young rabbits does fed <italic>ad libitum</italic> diets often show parturition problems such as dystocia and abnormal presentation, resulting in reduced numbers of kits. This can be linked to excessive fatness of the does. Several studies have documented the effect of feed restriction on rabbits, but only limited information exist on the carryover effect of maternal feed restriction exerts on meat quality attributes of the offspring produced from such restriction. This study evaluated the influence of maternal feed restriction and vitamin E inclusion during pregnancy on meat quality of rabbit kits. Seventy-five rabbits, consisting of sixty 20-week-old does and 15 mature bucks, were used in the experiment. Treatments consisted of two levels of feed restriction (0 and 15 %) applied at three different periods during pregnancy (15 – 19, 20 – 24, or 25 – 29 days) with or without vitamin E dietary inclusions (0 and 300 mg/kg). The pregnant does were divided into twelve treatment groups, each containing five replicates of one rabbit each. The experiment was in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial layout in a completely randomised design. After kindling (between days 28 – 31 of pregnancy) the resulting kits (a total of 180 kits) were arranged on treatment basis of their mothers and managed for a period of 56 days; that is 15 kits per treatment, each replicated 5 times (each replicate contained 3 kits). After 56 days of experiment, the data were collected on meat pH, total cholesterol, crude fat, crude protein, thermal shortening and refrigeration loss. Feed restriction during pregnancy with or without dietary vitamin E (no addition and 300 mg/kg) resulted in a significant (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) influence on meat quality attributes of growing rabbits as total cholesterol (555.00 ± 6.06) decreased in the meat of rabbits whose mothers were feed-restricted during pregnancy. On the other hand, maternal feed rationing with or without vitamin E did not significantly (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) affect the crude protein and thermal shortening of their slaughtered offspring. In conclusion, maternal feed rationing during pregnancy can be adopted as a feeding strategy in manipulating meat quality indicators of growing rabbits as total cholesterol concentrations decreased which is a good indicator that the meat is safer and better for consumers in order to prevent health-related challenges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue food consumption among students in a Nigerian university: A demand modelling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Adequate consumption of protein is indispensable for human growth and health. Nigeria has a high burden of protein deficiency with attendant loss of economic productivity and high health bills due to ill-health. Owing to paucity of information on demand for protein foods among Nigerian youths, the study assessed the demand for protein foods among students of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The data collected from 300 students through a multi-stage smapling procedure were analysed using descriptive statistics and Quadratic Almost Ideal System model (QUAIDS). The results have shown that some of the price coefficients expectedly had a negative relationship with the expenditures. The youths also spent more on beans and chicken but spent less on groundnut. Furthermore, expenditure elasticities of all protein foods were positive. Moreover, expenditure elasticities for beans, eggs, beef and goat meat showed that they were necessities goods, whereas chicken, turkey, soy milk, pork, groundnut and milk were luxury goods. Both compensated and uncompensated elasticity showed that own-price elasticities for the selected protein food items were inelastic, with the exception of goat meat. Demand for protein foods was influenced by own-prices of the protein foods, prices of other protein foods and being a male student. In order to meet their daily dietary needs within a limited budget, students should substitute expensive protein sources like chicken, goat meat, beef and turkey with cheaper ones like groundnut, soymilk, beans and eggs in their diets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of poultry farmers’ information needs in Adamawa State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Information is a critical factor in the farming business as the survival of the participants relies on their ability to access innovations and meet the dynamic challenges of the sector. This study analysed the information needs of poultry farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design, and a multistage sampling technique to collect data (from 113 poultry farmers) for the study. Descriptive statistics, a three-point rating scale, and the Ordinary Least Square regression model were used to analyse the data collected. The findings of the study indicated that the prominent information sources among the farmers were: the internet, acquaintances/friends, and radio. Similarly, the study revealed that the respondents require information on various aspects of poultry production. Based on the results, age, household size, educational level, and membership in association negatively influence poultry farmers’ information needs, whereas gender, farm size, and farming experience have shown a positive influence on the farmers’ information needs. Hence, the study emphasised the need for the government and other actors in the agricultural sector to employ and also motivate agricultural extension workers to widen the scope of their reach using the internet.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue contract farming really matter in cassava farms productivity in Iseyin Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Improving the productivity of smallholder farmers particularly in developing countries has taken different approaches. Contract farming is one of the approaches employed to increase farmers’ productivity. However, agricultural outcomes have not been consistent with contract farming in developing countries. Hence, we examined the effect of contract farming on productivity of cassava farmers in Iseyin Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a multi-stage procedure to select the farmers. Descriptive and econometric methods were employed for data analysis. The findings revealed that farm size and years of education of the participants in contract farming in the area were significantly different from non-participants by 0.45 ha and 1.76 years, respectively. Years of education, farm size, planting improved cassava variety, price of cassava output and being a female cassava farmer were significant drivers of participation. The mean productivity of the cassava farmers was about 0.89. Non-participants showed a higher productivity than their counterparts in contract farming. Although farm size increased productivity of cassava farmers, household size and contract farming significantly reduced it in the area. Hence, it was concluded that contract farming does not always significantly improve agricultural outcomes. Planting high-yielding varieties coupled with best agronomic practices will better address the issue of declining productivity of the cassava farms in the area, alongside reduction in family size. Further, giving considerable attention to favourable technical supports and contract terms will improve contract farming effect on agricultural outcomes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue performance and blood indices of growing turkeys fed diets containing shrimp waste meal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fish meal (FM) is a major source of animal protein in the diet of turkeys but its high cost has been a major challenge to poultry practitioners in developing countries. Growth performance and blood indices of growing turkeys fed diets containing shrimp waste meal (SWM) as substitute for FM were investigated in a 56-day feeding trial using eighty (80) 4-weeks-old male British United Turkeys (BUT). The turkeys were allotted on weight equalisation into four treatments with four replicates of five turkeys each. Four diets were formulated such that FM in the control diet (diet 1) was substituted by SWM at 150, 300 and 450 g/kg (protein for protein) in diets 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomised design and data collected were analysed using ANOVA. Cost of feed consumed was highest (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) for turkeys fed the control diet and lowest for group fed diet 4. Weight gain decreased <italic>(p</italic> &lt; 0.05) with increasing SWM level in the diet at the grower phase (day 57–84). Turkeys fed the 450 g/kg SWM diets had the lowest (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) feed intake. At the grower phase, best feed:gain, cost of feed consumed, feed cost per weight gain and protein efficiency ratio were recorded in turkeys fed control and 150 g/kg SWM diets. Uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), haematocrit, and white blood count differed significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) among the treatments at the starter phase. In conclusion, the present study showed that SWM can serve as a potential replacement for FM when substituted at 150 g/kg in the diets of turkeys without any deleterious effect on their performance and haematocrit.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue determining adoption of smallholding rubber agroforestry Systems (RAFS) in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the factors determining adoption of rubber agroforestry decisions in Nigeria. Primary data on farming practices were collected from 200 samples of rubber smallholder farmers through a structured questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical procedures and the logistic econometric model. The results indicated that farmers’ participation in on-farm trial demonstrations, accessing agricultural knowledge through trainings, extension contact, education level, membership of farm organisation and attitude of farmers towards intercropping were positively associated with increased adoption of rubber agroforestry in Nigeria. Contacts with extension agents were significant at 1 % whereas other variables that were positively associated with rubber agroforestry systems were significant at 5 %. Adoption decision was based on the fact that rubber agroforestry would not only meet their food needs but also increase the household income. Variables such as off-farm income, average distance from rubber land to farmers’ residence, negatively influenced adoption of rubber agroforestry at 1 % and 10 % level, respectively. Social participation, household size, farming experience in growing rubber and other crops, did not significantly influence adoption. Based on these observations, policy inputs are provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of guinea fowls to dietary L-arginine supplementation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This experiment aimed at evaluating the influence of supplementing L-arginine in the diets fed to guinea fowls on growth response, haematological profile, serum biochemical indices and internal organs. A total of 300 one-day-old guinea fowl keets were allotted in a completely randomised design to three dietary treatments of basal diets (starter and grower) supplemented with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 g arginine/kg. Each treatment group was replicated four times consisting of 25 keets per replicate. At the starter phase, final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) improved as arginine level increased in the diet. However, feed intake was higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) in the group fed 1.0 g/kg arginine supplemented diet when compared to other treatment groups. Final weight at the grower phase increased linearly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) with arginine supplementation without corresponding effect on weight gain in birds fed different arginine levels. Red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts and lymphocytes (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) increased in the blood of guinea fowls fed diets supplemented with arginine. Creatinine and uric acid (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) were reduced in guinea fowls fed arginine supplemented diets at the starter and grower phases, respectively. Liver weight linearly increased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) with arginine in the diets of the guinea fowls. This study indicates that supplementing guinea fowl diet with arginine at 1.0 g/kg at the starter phase and 0.5 g/kg at the finisher phase improved their growth and feed conversion ratio. Birds fed arginine supplemented diets had higher lymphocyte and reduced heterophil counts which may suggest a better immune response.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue composition of two maize varieties at different levels of green manure application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluated the chemical composition of two maize varieties at different levels of green manure application. The bucket experiment was laid in 2 × 3 factorial arrangement comprising two maize varieties (Oba super 2 and Suwan I) and three green manure application levels (0, 6.3 and 12.6 t/ha). The results showed that Oba super 2 had a lower (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) Crude Protein (CP) (8.91 %) content, but had a higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) ether extract (8.83 %) and ash (9.83 %) contents as compared to Suwan I. Maize fertilised with 6.3 t/ha of green manure had the highest CP (10.13 %) and ash (9.96 %) contents. Interaction effect of variety and level of green manure application showed that the least CP content (7.61 %) was recorded for unfertilised Oba Super 2 maize, whereas the highest CP content (10.21 %) was recorded for Suwan I maize fertilised with 12.6 t/ha of green manure. There were no significant (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) differences in the Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), hemicellulose and cellulose contents of the two maize varieties evaluated. However, the Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) content was significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) higher (32.33 %) in Oba Super 2 variety. The rising amounts of green manure applied significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) increased both the NDF and ADF. There was no consistent variation in the NDF content as influenced by interaction of both factors with the highest (60.67 %) NDF content recorded for unfertilised Oba Super 2 maize. Calcium, potassium and phosphorus contents declined with the increasing amount of green manure added. Our results show that the green manure application improved the nutritional qualities of the planted maize and should be used in practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of catfish hatchery farmers and its contribution to household poverty alleviation in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fish and fisheries products are considered as one of the most substantial parts of Nigeria economy. Demand for these products is on the high side due to the rapid growth of human population, changes in lifestyle and eating habits. Fishery is thus serving as a source of employment, income generation and food security. This paper made use of the data gathered from the farm and household levels to analyse the economics of catfish hatchery farming and its contribution to household poverty alleviation in Oyo and Osun States, Southwest Nigeria, using profitability analyses, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index and Tobit regression models. The findings indicate that fish hatchery farming is profitable, altough 43.1% of fish hatchery farmers interviewed were above the poverty line. Thus, the enterprise significantly <italic>(p</italic> &lt; 0.05) reduced poverty in the study area. Furthermore, the effects of socioeconomic variables, gender, education level, and framing experience (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01); marital status and household size (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.1); labour employed, hatchery units, quality of fish seed produced and membership of cooperative society (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) indicating several interactions between poverty and the variables analysed. In conclusion, policy makers, government and non-governmental organisation should give the enterprise adequate attention and support as this could be adopted in lifting the country from poverty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of rural transportation networks on farmers’ income in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examined how the nature of rural transportation networks affects the income of local farmers. The study involved arable crop farmers in the Ilaje local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria. A structured interview was used to gather information from a total of 120 farmers in rural communities across the local government using a two-stage random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that farmers’ poor nature of transportation networks has a negative impact on their income. Gender (<italic>χ</italic><sup>2</sup> = 6.472) and marital status (<italic>χ</italic><sup>2</sup> = 9.745) positively influenced income generated by farmers at <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05. Additionally, there was a moderate and significant correlation between transportation systems used (r = 0.705, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), the perceived impact of rural transport (r = 0.267, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), and the farmers’ income on agricultural activities. The results have shown that the serious constraints faced by the farmers are high cost of transportation which has a great influence on their generated income. The study allows to conclude that the nature of transportation networks available in the communities under study has a significant impact on the level of income to be realised by farmers. The construction, development, and provision of more rural transport networks would not only boost the standard of living and reduce transport costs of the rural poor but could also be a solution for the prolonged deplorable and worsening situation of rural roads in the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue