rss_2.0Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica Tropica et Subtropica 's Cover determining adoption of smallholding rubber agroforestry Systems (RAFS) in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the factors determining adoption of rubber agroforestry decisions in Nigeria. Primary data on farming practices were collected from 200 samples of rubber smallholder farmers through a structured questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical procedures and the logistic econometric model. The results indicated that farmers’ participation in on-farm trial demonstrations, accessing agricultural knowledge through trainings, extension contact, education level, membership of farm organisation and attitude of farmers towards intercropping were positively associated with increased adoption of rubber agroforestry in Nigeria. Contacts with extension agents were significant at 1 % whereas other variables that were positively associated with rubber agroforestry systems were significant at 5 %. Adoption decision was based on the fact that rubber agroforestry would not only meet their food needs but also increase the household income. Variables such as off-farm income, average distance from rubber land to farmers’ residence, negatively influenced adoption of rubber agroforestry at 1 % and 10 % level, respectively. Social participation, household size, farming experience in growing rubber and other crops, did not significantly influence adoption. Based on these observations, policy inputs are provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Response of guinea fowls to dietary L-arginine supplementation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This experiment aimed at evaluating the influence of supplementing L-arginine in the diets fed to guinea fowls on growth response, haematological profile, serum biochemical indices and internal organs. A total of 300 one-day-old guinea fowl keets were allotted in a completely randomised design to three dietary treatments of basal diets (starter and grower) supplemented with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 g arginine/kg. Each treatment group was replicated four times consisting of 25 keets per replicate. At the starter phase, final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) improved as arginine level increased in the diet. However, feed intake was higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) in the group fed 1.0 g/kg arginine supplemented diet when compared to other treatment groups. Final weight at the grower phase increased linearly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) with arginine supplementation without corresponding effect on weight gain in birds fed different arginine levels. Red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts and lymphocytes (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) increased in the blood of guinea fowls fed diets supplemented with arginine. Creatinine and uric acid (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) were reduced in guinea fowls fed arginine supplemented diets at the starter and grower phases, respectively. Liver weight linearly increased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) with arginine in the diets of the guinea fowls. This study indicates that supplementing guinea fowl diet with arginine at 1.0 g/kg at the starter phase and 0.5 g/kg at the finisher phase improved their growth and feed conversion ratio. Birds fed arginine supplemented diets had higher lymphocyte and reduced heterophil counts which may suggest a better immune response.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical composition of two maize varieties at different levels of green manure application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluated the chemical composition of two maize varieties at different levels of green manure application. The bucket experiment was laid in 2 × 3 factorial arrangement comprising two maize varieties (Oba super 2 and Suwan I) and three green manure application levels (0, 6.3 and 12.6 t/ha). The results showed that Oba super 2 had a lower (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) Crude Protein (CP) (8.91 %) content, but had a higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) ether extract (8.83 %) and ash (9.83 %) contents as compared to Suwan I. Maize fertilised with 6.3 t/ha of green manure had the highest CP (10.13 %) and ash (9.96 %) contents. Interaction effect of variety and level of green manure application showed that the least CP content (7.61 %) was recorded for unfertilised Oba Super 2 maize, whereas the highest CP content (10.21 %) was recorded for Suwan I maize fertilised with 12.6 t/ha of green manure. There were no significant (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) differences in the Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), hemicellulose and cellulose contents of the two maize varieties evaluated. However, the Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) content was significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) higher (32.33 %) in Oba Super 2 variety. The rising amounts of green manure applied significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) increased both the NDF and ADF. There was no consistent variation in the NDF content as influenced by interaction of both factors with the highest (60.67 %) NDF content recorded for unfertilised Oba Super 2 maize. Calcium, potassium and phosphorus contents declined with the increasing amount of green manure added. Our results show that the green manure application improved the nutritional qualities of the planted maize and should be used in practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Economics of catfish hatchery farmers and its contribution to household poverty alleviation in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fish and fisheries products are considered as one of the most substantial parts of Nigeria economy. Demand for these products is on the high side due to the rapid growth of human population, changes in lifestyle and eating habits. Fishery is thus serving as a source of employment, income generation and food security. This paper made use of the data gathered from the farm and household levels to analyse the economics of catfish hatchery farming and its contribution to household poverty alleviation in Oyo and Osun States, Southwest Nigeria, using profitability analyses, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index and Tobit regression models. The findings indicate that fish hatchery farming is profitable, altough 43.1% of fish hatchery farmers interviewed were above the poverty line. Thus, the enterprise significantly <italic>(p</italic> &lt; 0.05) reduced poverty in the study area. Furthermore, the effects of socioeconomic variables, gender, education level, and framing experience (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01); marital status and household size (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.1); labour employed, hatchery units, quality of fish seed produced and membership of cooperative society (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) indicating several interactions between poverty and the variables analysed. In conclusion, policy makers, government and non-governmental organisation should give the enterprise adequate attention and support as this could be adopted in lifting the country from poverty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of rural transportation networks on farmers’ income in Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examined how the nature of rural transportation networks affects the income of local farmers. The study involved arable crop farmers in the Ilaje local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria. A structured interview was used to gather information from a total of 120 farmers in rural communities across the local government using a two-stage random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that farmers’ poor nature of transportation networks has a negative impact on their income. Gender (<italic>χ</italic><sup>2</sup> = 6.472) and marital status (<italic>χ</italic><sup>2</sup> = 9.745) positively influenced income generated by farmers at <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05. Additionally, there was a moderate and significant correlation between transportation systems used (r = 0.705, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), the perceived impact of rural transport (r = 0.267, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), and the farmers’ income on agricultural activities. The results have shown that the serious constraints faced by the farmers are high cost of transportation which has a great influence on their generated income. The study allows to conclude that the nature of transportation networks available in the communities under study has a significant impact on the level of income to be realised by farmers. The construction, development, and provision of more rural transport networks would not only boost the standard of living and reduce transport costs of the rural poor but could also be a solution for the prolonged deplorable and worsening situation of rural roads in the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Soil moisture levels affect growth, flower production and yield of cucumber<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Field trial to determine the optimum soil moisture level for enhanced performance of cucumber was conducted in polyethylene covered rain shelter for two seasons in 2017 and repeated in 2018. The research was conducted at Rongo University Research and Teaching field. Three seeds of cucumber ‘Ashley’ were sown directly in 3.5 litre plastic pots containing 8 kg of sterilised air-dried growth medium made up of sand and top soil in the ratio of 1:2. The treatments were four levels of water applied at 100 % (control), 80 %, 60 % and 40 % pot capacity. The experimental design was completely randomised block design replicated three times. Data on the plant growth, flower production and yield were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and mean separation tests at <italic>p</italic> ≤ 0.05 level of significance. There were significant differences on the vine growth, internodes length and diameter as a result of Water Stress (WS) levels. The treatments also significantly affected the Relative Leaf Water Content (RLWC) and Relative Leaf Expansion Rate (RLER) but did not affect the number of leaves per vine. Fruit firmness was also affected by water stress. To optimise the productivity of cucumber, the soil moisture level should be maintained to at least 80 % of the field capacity throughout its productive phase.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Examination of sexual dimorphism in New-Zealand White × Californian rabbits by morphological traits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rabbits provide a cheap source of high quality animal protein and thus have the potential to bridge the shortage of animal protein in developing countries. Data were collected on 174 New Zealand × California cross-bred rabbits (87 males and 87 females) for this study, to quantify the morphological characteristics and to determine the morphological parameters that contribute to body conformation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Data were collected on live body weight (LBW), body length (BDL), ear length (EAL), tail length (TAL), rump length (RUL), heart girth (HAG) and abdominal circumference (ADC). Data collected were analysed using the procedures of the PAST® 3.21 statistical package. Mean live body weight (± SE) for the females (0.980 ± 0.02 kg) and males (0.790 ± 0.02 kg) was recorded. There were positive and highly significant (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) correlation coefficients between live body weight and the linear body measurements. One principal component was extracted, accounting for 64.8% of the total variances in morphological indicators measured in the New Zealand × California rabbits. The extracted principal component in this study could be used as aid in selection programme. The results obtained revealed the occurrence of sexual dimorphism, where female rabbits recorded significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) higher values than males in all the traits measured. This information suggests that use of rabbit for meat production should skew towards raising female rabbits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Genotypic evaluation of cowpea germplasm for salinity tolerance at germination and during seedling growth<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil salinity represents a major constraint limiting crop production in arid and semi-arid countries. The effect of salinity induced by sodium chloride (NaCl) at five levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) was investigated on four germination traits and thirteen seedling growth characteristics in twenty cowpea [<italic>Vigna unguiculata</italic> (L.) Walp.] genotypes (ET11, KEB-CP004, KEB-CP006, KEB-CP009, KEB-CP 010, KEB-CP020, KEB-CP033, KEB-CP038, KEB-CP039, KEB-CP045, KEB-CP051, KEB-CP054, KEB-CP057, KEB-CP060, KEB-CP067, KEB-CP068, KEB-CP118, MTA22, NO74 and NO1036). The germination tests were carried out on Petri dishes in the laboratory while seedling growth experiments continued in plastic pots in the greenhouse, both setting up using a randomised complete block design with three replications. Genotypic responses were significant for all germination traits (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Germination percentage, germination rate index, and coefficient of velocity of germination were all decreased by salt stress. However, the mean germination time increased with increasing saline conditions. Significant differences were found between genotypes for most growth attributes. Growth rate (centimeter increased in height per week) decreased significantly with increasing salinity, starting at 100 mM NaCl (24.20% reduction, 2.66 cm / week) with maximum reduction (38.58%) corresponding to 2.16 cm/week observed at 200 mM NaCl, compared to control (3.51 cm/week growth rate). Also, significant decline in shoot weights, number of functional leaves and dry matter production were observed under salinity. Salinity also reduced water content in shoot and root and did not affect root weights. Under salinity, significant correlations were found between all germination variables (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Growth rate was significantly associated with ten out of the twelve other seedling growth traits. Also, the dry matter production under salinity was significantly associated with all other seedling growth characteristics with the exception of root water content. Given the effect of salt stress, cowpea genotypes, namely NO1036, KEB-CP004, KEB-CP038 and KEB-CP051, were the most tolerant while KEB-CP068 and ET11 were the most sensitive ones. The results confirm substantial genetic variation in salt stress tolerance among the studied genotypes. The most tolerant genotypes should be further explored in genetic improvement programs and should be promoted for culture in regions affected by salinity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of access to livelihood capitals on adoption of European Union (EU) approved pesticides among cocoa producing households in Osun State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cocoa producing households’ access to livelihood capitals would help them to adopt EU approved pesticides successfully. However, no empirical studies have addressed these issues. This study therefore investigated the effects of access to livelihood capitals on adoption of EU approved pesticides among cocoa producing households. A multi stage sampling procedure was employed to select 120 cocoa producing households for thestudy. The obtained data were analysed using descriptive statistics, multivariate probit regression and double hurdle regression model. The majority of cocoa producing households (92%) have access to natural capital, followed by physical capital (67.5%), social capital (62.5%), financial capital (58%), whereas only afew (50.8%) have access to human capital. Multivariate probit estimates showed that age (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), gender <italic>(p</italic> &lt; 0.05), farm size (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), years of education (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), farming experience (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), household size (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) and membership in cooperative society (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) significantly influenced cocoa producing households’ access to livelihood capitals. The majority of cocoa producing households (81%) adopt approved pesticides. The first hurdle estimates showed that gender (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), education (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), membership in acooperative society (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) and access to some livelihood capitals such as human (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), physical (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) and financial (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) capitals significantly influence theprobability of adoption of EU approved pesticides. In thesecond hurdle, gender (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.1), farm size (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), household size (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), membership in acooperative society (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01)and access to some livelihood capitals such as human (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), physical (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) and social (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) capitals are significant in determining theintensity of adopting EU approved pesticides. The study concluded that access to livelihood capitals has potentials of accelerating adoption of EU approved pesticides. Other factors include gender, education, farm size and membership in acooperative society. Therefore, this study suggests that government policy on uptake of EU approved pesticides should pay more attention on cocoa producing households’ access to all these factors. Most importantly, policy package to encourage access to livelihood capitals must be strongly advocated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Involvement of farm youth in cocoa plantation resources management practices in Ondo State, Nigeria: a factor analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study identified the factors associated with farm youth’s involvement in Cocoa Plantation Resources Management Practices (CPRMPs) in Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select a total of two hundred and four respondents for the study. The data were collected using a structured interview schedule and analysed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the average age of the respondents was 33.67 ± 6.50 years and that most (76.0 %) of the respondents were male. The CPRMPs respondents were involved and were categorised into soil, water, cocoa beans, cocoa tree, cocoa seedlings, and financial management practices. The majority (76.0 %) of the respondents were moderately involved in the CPRMPs in the study area. The factors associated with farm youth involvement in CPRMPs were economic pull (<italic>λ</italic> = 2.208), economic push (<italic>λ</italic> = 1.962), personal (<italic>λ</italic> = 1.785) and community-related (<italic>λ</italic> = 0.927) factors. The factors identified explained 83.314 % of the variance in farm youth’s involvement in CPRMPs. The study, therefore, recommends that there is a need to organise training on CPRMPs to farm youth to be able to optimise the potentials inherent in them for improving their livelihood.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic diversity in Bambara groundnut { (L.) Verdc.}<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bambara groundnut is a grain legume with enormous morphological variability. In order to genetically establish the variation that exists in this crop, an assessment of genetic diversity was therefore carried out with 20 accessions of Bambara groundnut collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan. The design of the experiment was randomised complete block design with three replications. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) showed outstanding genetic diversity among the collections. The first four principal components accounted for 91.89% of the total variability. Cluster analysis and the dendrogram discretely grouped the accessions into four genetically distinct groups. One accession TVSU 353 singly formed a group in cluster analysis and dendrogram, which implies that TVSU 353 was genetically distinct from the rest of the accessions. Morphological characters assessed provided a useful measure of genetic differences among Bambara groundnut accessions, which can facilitate identification and selection of potential breeding lines for crop improvement as well as germplasm conservation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Some scale insects and fungi infesting mango trees in Ismailia, Egypt<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the present work was to largely identify the scale insects and fungi living on mango leaves in order to find out from their biology whether there is a possible relationship between the two groups of organisms so that specific recommendations for their control can be made. A white hard scale insect <italic>Aulacaspis tubercularis</italic> Newstead (Diaspididae) and a green soft scale insect <italic>Kilifia acuminata</italic> Signoret (Coccidae) as well as four saprotrophic fungi belonging to the genera <italic>Alternaria</italic> Nees: Fr., <italic>Cladosporium</italic> Link., <italic>Helminthosporium</italic> Link ex Fr. and <italic>Stemphylium</italic> Wallr., were detected based on their morphological features in accordance with the identification keys and descriptions of scale insects and fungi. The infestation of mango leaves with the saprotrophic fungi was interpreted as a secondary infection due to the primary infection with the scale insects as honeydew producers on which the fungal spores develop and reproduce. Therefore, it is recommended to control the scale insects at an infection rate of 10% or more by means of which the application of fungicides could be dispensed. Furthermore, it cannot be ruled out that the climatic changes (e. g. fluctuating temperatures, increased relative humidities and greenhouse gases) as well as the increasing use of pesticides with their associated changes in the build-up of resistance, entomological and fungal biodiversities and in the balance sheets to the natural enemies are of greater importance as to provide a possible explanation for the seasonal fluctuations in the qualitative and quantitative mango crop failures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Dietary supplementation of Vitamin E and selenium on performance and oxidative stability of meat of broiler chickens in a hot climate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the increase in consumers’ concern for safe food, it is highly imperative for livestock farmers to adopt feeding practices that enhance good health and high-quality products. A 49-day trial was conducted to ascertain effect of vitamin E and selenium (VE + Se) on performance, haematological indices and oxidative stability of chicken meat. A total of 150 Ross 7-day-old chicks were weighed and allotted to five treatments comprising dietary levels of 0 mg VE + 0 mg SE (Control), 100 mg VE + 0.05 mg Se, 200 mg VE + 0.1 mg Se, 300 mg VE + 0.15 mg Se and 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg Se per kg of feed in a completely randomised design. Feed and water were provided <italic>ad libitum</italic>. The data collected on performance, haematological indices and oxidative stability of meat were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance in a completely randomised design. Performance indices were significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) influenced by VE + Se supplementation. Mean daily live-weight gain (48.68 g /bird /day) was highest (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) in the 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg group. The mean daily feed intake (g /bird / day) was highest in birds fed the diet containing 200 mg VE + 0.1 mg. The least or best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in the group fed 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg SE. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased as the level of VE + Se increased with the highest activity in 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg Se group. The highest packed cell volume, haemoglobin and red blood cell values were observed in birds fed the diet containing 400 mg VE + 0.20 mg Se. In conclusion, to ensure good performance of the chickens and improved oxidative stability of chicken meat in hot climate, feeding broilers VE + SE at 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg Se is recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Socioeconomic correlates of catfish production status in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of fish farmers is crucial for increased output in fish production so as to bridge the gap between the current level of production and ever-increasing demand for fish due to its contribution to human population growth and development. The study examined the relationship between farmers’ socioeconomic characteristics and output in catfish production in Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used in the selection of 120 catfish farmers. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire from the selected catfish farmers. The data obtained from the farmers were analysed using descriptive statistics and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. Findings revealed that majority (63.3 %) of the farmers were male, 65 % were within the active and productive age of 31 – 40 years, capable of withstanding the stress in catfish production. Majority (82.4 %) of the farmers were married with an average household size of five individuals. The fish farmers were highly educated with most (91.8 %) of them having tertiary education. Two-thirds of the farmers were members of a cooperative society out of which 52.5 % were loan beneficiaries. Most (62.5 %) of the farmers operated on a part-time basis and managed between 1 – 2 ponds with output worth below N 500,000 ($1,315.79) per production cycle. The OLS regression result revealed that fish output was significantly determined by age (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), marital status (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) of fish farmers, education (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), and cooperative membership (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). Although there were indications of economic prosperity in catfish production in the study area, efforts to promote access to education and participation in cooperative society are critical to output expansion. This will engender knowledge acquisition and sharing, promote capacity building and synergies that will advance production outputs and business performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender analysis of vulnerability of smallholder farming households to climate variability and change in North-central Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The frequency and intensity of climatic variables as indicators of climate change have been increasingly recognised as global crisis with significant impact on biodiversity, household food security and gender roles. This study therefore analysed gender vulnerability of smallholder farming households to climate variability and change in North-central Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 768 respondents from the study area. Indicator-based approach was adopted for this study and a structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from 3, 6, and 8 indicators of three components of vulnerability: exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Data obtained were subjected to linear normalisation, non-weight vulnerability index, and both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results show that both male- and female-headed households were vulnerable to changing climate and the female-headed ones were more vulnerable (0.410) compared to their male counterparts with an index of 0.321. The high vulnerability of female-headed households was due to their extent of exposure (0.839) and sensitivity (0.658) to climate change with low adaptive capacities (0.189). Also, there was a positive and significant difference between male (t = 5.142) and female (t = 5.079) headed households’ in their level of vulnerability to climate change (<italic>p</italic> ≤ 0.05). This study recommends access to technology that helps farmers receive timely information on climate variables, and farmers’ access to agricultural insurance scheme would help improve adaptive capacity and reduce their vulnerability. Also, gender-sensitive framework that could bridge the gaps between male- and female-headed households are needed to form a policy development agenda by the government in order to encourage more female households’ to participate in climate change mitigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Nutritional potential of kenaf grain meal as a replacement for palm kernel cake in cassava peel-based concentrate for sheep<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study evaluated the nutrient intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, performance and nitrogen balance of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep fed cassava peel-based diets containing kenaf grain meal (KGM) in replacement of palm kernel cake (PKC). Sixteen female WAD sheep with an average initial live weight of 9.71 ± 0.05 kg were selected for four dietary treatments, having four animals per diet. The diets comprised wilted guinea grass (<italic>Panicum maximum</italic>) as basal diet and cassava peel based diets with levels of replacement of PKC by KGM at 0 %, 15 %, 20 % and 25 %, respectively, as: 1) (25 % PKC + 0 % KGM), 2) (10 % PKC + 15 % KGM), 3) (5 % PKC + 20 % KGM), and 4) (0 % PKC + 25 % KGM). Increasing levels of KGM in the dietary treatments significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) influenced the total feed and nutrient intake (g / kg W<sup>0.75</sup>), digestibility and weight gain. Total feed intake (108.48 g / kg W<sup>0.75</sup> or 662.82 g / day), nutrient intake, feed conversion ratio (21.47) and daily weight gain (30.95 g / day) were outstanding (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) when PKC was completely replaced by KGM. Similarly, nutrient digestibility coefficients and nitrogen utilization values differed with increasing level of KGM inclusion, with the peak effects recorded in sheep at 5 % PKC and 20 % KGM inclusions than the other dietary groups. Thus, kenaf grain meal can successfully be used to replace palm kernel cake as an unconventional protein and energy source in cassava peel based diet for WAD sheep without causing any negative impact on nutrient intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and growth performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic analysis of two giant land snail marketing in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study examined the marketing and uses of two species of Giant African Land Snails (<italic>Archachatina marginata</italic> and <italic>Achatina achatina</italic>) in four (4) different market locations in Ibadan Oyo state, Nigeria. The data were collected using a structured and validated questionnaire administered interpersonally to 160 snail marketers in four randomly selected markets in selected Local Government Area (LGA) situated in Ibadan. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools; these include frequencies, mean, median, mode and multiple regression. Findings from the socioeconomic characteristics revealed that majority (98.1 %) of the respondents were female and only 1.9 % were male. Majority (91.9 %) of marketers were married with 27.5 % in the 31–40 years age group. Majority (89.4 %) raised their capital through personal savings and had over 16 years of marketing experience. All respondents (100 %) were involved in wholesale marketing of different species of snail whereas 65 % of them were into both wholesale and retail marketing. Also, 88.8 % were engaged in marketing of both species only. Most (70 %) of the respondents’ generated income per year was between ₦10,000–₦49,999 ($26–$130). All marketers ascertained that the major purpose of snail is for consumption. Also, the budgetary analysis (costs and returns) revealed that marketing of <italic>Archachatina marginata</italic> and <italic>Achatina achatina</italic> is a profitable business among the marketers with a high rate of return on investment. The most efficient market for both snail species was Sango market with efficiency values 1.77 and 1.82 for <italic>A. achatina</italic> and <italic>A. marginata,</italic> respectively. The coefficient of multiple determination, R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.689 indicated that 68.9 % of the variation in the marketing price of snail is explained by transportation cost, cost price of snail and market tariff. The marketing efficiency was greater than one in all markets which showed that the markets were efficient in the marketing of <italic>Archachatina marginata</italic> and <italic>Achatina achatina.</italic> The study concluded that snail marketing is profitable given the market efficiencies and rate of returns on investment. Policy recommendation towards reduction in cost of transportation and market tariff is suggested as this would bring about improved market efficiencies and more returns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical characterisation and assessment of two mushroom stalks as prebiotics for (Burchell, 1822)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The potentials of mushroom stalks as supplements in aqua-feeds have been grossly underutilised. Stalk meals of two <italic>Pleurotus</italic> species were analysed for proximate composition, fibre fractions, mineral and phytochemical constituents. <italic>In vitro</italic> digestibility and fermentability were assessed using caecal digesta from <italic>Clarias gariepinus</italic> (n = 108; weight: 138 ± 10.8 g). Stalks of <italic>Pleurotus pulmonarius</italic> and <italic>Pleurotus ostreatus</italic> were air-dried at ambient room temperature and milled. <italic>Pleurotus ostreatus</italic> contained higher (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) moisture, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre than <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic> stalks which had higher (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) nitrogen-free extract. <italic>Pleurotus ostreatus</italic> had higher (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin and cellulose but lower (<italic>P</italic> &gt; 0.05) hemicellulose than <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic>. Except in manganese and iron content, <italic>P. ostreatus</italic> contained higher (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, copper and zinc than <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic>. Both stalks contained flavonoids, phlobatannin, terpenoid, cardiac glycosides, steroids and antraquinone. Substrate loss was higher (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) in <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic> (0.20 g) than <italic>P. ostreatus</italic> (0.15 g). Maximum rate of gas production was more (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) for <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic> (0.16 mL/h) at 4.96 hours compared to 0.04 mL/h at 6.04 hours for <italic>P. ostreatus</italic>. Both stalk meals were partially resistant to <italic>in vitro</italic> digestibility and were fermentable. Hence, they possess favourable prebiotics characteristics and can be used as supplement in aqua feed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Agronomic response of soybeans ( (L.) Merrill) to organic soil and foliar fertilisation in a forest savanna transitory location<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Organic soybean is presently less than 0.1% of total world production partly because of inappropriate fertiliser regime on degraded tropical soils. Therefore, two field trials were carried out during the late cropping seasons (June – November) of 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the agronomic performance of three soybean varieties: TGx 1448-2E, TGx 1835-10E and TGx 1989-9F as affected by foliar organic fertilisers: Arati Baja, Arati Nawoz, DI Grow, and soil applied organic fertiliser (Aleshinloye Grade B), and the control. The experimental design was Randomised Complete Block Design in a 3 × 5 factorial arrangement with three replications. Data were collected on yield attributes and seed yield of soybeans. Significant varietal difference (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) in both years was recorded for number and weight of pods and seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, harvest index, and grain yield, except number of seeds per plant in 2018. Fertiliser × Variety interaction effect significantly (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.05) affected above-ground plant weight and pod weight per plant in both years. On average, application of organic fertilisers resulted in grain yield (1.30–2.28 t/ha) comparable with Nigeria’s (0.97 t/ha) and Africa’s (1.37 t/ha) but lower than the world’s (2.85 t/ha) average values. The three foliar fertilisers and soil applied organic fertiliser enhanced seed yield of soybeans and are therefore recommended for soybean cultivation in the tropics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Improving the efficacy of extract in management of foliar diseases of sesame intercropped with maize under tropical conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) and Alternaria leaf blight (ALB) diseases are major constraints to sesame production. Although disease management through intercropping of sesame with maize and foliar-spray with extracts of <italic>Tithonia diversifolia</italic> have been found to be effective, the frequency of application of the extracts required to achieve optimal disease control have not been determined. Therefore, a study was carried out to determine the effect of frequency of application of <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> extract on CLS and ALB diseases of sesame intercropped with maize during the early (June – September) and late (August – November) cropping seasons of 2011. Field experiments laid out in a Randomised Complete Block design and in a split plot arrangement with three replications were conducted in Ejigbo, Nigeria. Treatments consisted of aqueous <italic>Tithonia diversifolia</italic> leaf extract applied at 7.0, 7.5 or 8.0 % (w/v) in one-, two- or three- spray regimes at 2-week intervals from three weeks after planting (WAP) to plots of sesame intercropped with maize; Unsprayed sesame/maize intercrop; sesame/maize intercrop sprayed with Carbendazim (50 %)WP and unsprayed sole sesame plots. Results revealed that CLS and ALB incidence, severity and defoliation were significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) reduced by three-spray regime of 7.5 % (w/v) <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> extract. The efficacy of 7.5 % (w/v) <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> extract was comparable to that of 8.0 % (w/v) <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> extract or synthetic fungicide (Carbendazim 50 %WP). This study showed that the three-spray regime of 7.5 % w/v <italic>T. diversifolia</italic> leaf extract is sufficient to control foliar diseases of sesame intercropped with maize.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-09T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1