rss_2.0Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica Tropica et Subtropica Feed profile as a health indicator in broiler chickens fed diets of different particle sizes supplemented with multienzyme<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluated the health effects of feeding diets of different feed particle sizes supplemented with multienzyme to broiler chickens. Cobb500 (n = 450) broiler chicks (as hatched) were randomly distributed to nine treatments, with each treatment consisting of five replicates of ten birds. The experiment was arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial (three feed particle sizes [3, 4, and 5 mm] and three multienzyme supplementations [0, 1, and 2 g/kg]). The blood indices of the chickens were evaluated. The data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and means were compared using the Tukey Test at a 5 % probability level. The correlation between the growth performance and blood indices was also calculated. Birds fed the 3 mm particle sizes had decreased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) and lymphocyte counts with increased multienzyme at the starter phase, while the other haematological indicators increased as the multienzyme supplementation increased. Feeding the 4 mm particle size yielded similar (<italic>p</italic> &lt; <italic>0.05</italic>) total protein, triglyceride, and uric acid for all multienzyme inclusions. An increase in the multienzyme inclusion increased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) the RBC of birds fed the 5 mm particles with a decreased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) and eosinophil counts. At the finisher phase, serum albumin increased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) decreased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), with increased multienzyme inclusion in birds fed the diet of 3 mm particles. Birds fed 4 mm particles had increased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) ALP and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with increased multienzyme, while those fed the 5 mm particle size had increased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST) as multienzyme supplementation increased. The correlation between growth performance and blood indices showed that feed intake (FI) has a significant (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) impact on the blood profile of broiler chickens. The study concluded that other growth performance indicators, except the feed intake, have no impact on the blood profile of broilers. Feed particle sizes impact feed intake in broiler chickens which consequently impacts their blood composition. Therefore, the size of broiler feed particles has an impact on the health and well-being of the birds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of land use impact on soil quality in Samaru College of Agriculture, Northern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Land use changes influence soil quality, which is of fundamental importance in sustainable crop production and environmental management. This study evaluated land use impact on soil quality at Samaru College of Agriculture farm, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The land use types were Tomato/Pepper, Grapevine/Fluted pumpkin, Mango/Orange, and Guava/Mango. A profile pit was dug in each land unit. Soil samples were collected from genetic horizons, prepared, and analysed in the laboratory using standard methods. Sand, silt, and clay differed significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) among the land uses. The soil texture varied from clay loam to clay. Bulk density (BD) was significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) higher under Mango/Orange and Guava/Mango than other land use types. The soil reaction (pH) ranged from 5.0 to 5.8 and was strongly to moderately acidic. Soil organic carbon was low (&lt; 10 g/kg), total nitrogen values of 0.19 – 0.24 g/kg were low, and available phosphorus values of 1.8 – 27.4 mg/kg were rated low to high across the land use types. Soils under the Grapevine/Fluted pumpkin land use type were significantly higher in organic carbon, exchangeable potassium, sodium, and effective cation exchange capacity than the other land use types. Soil quality under Grapevine/Fluted pumpkin was rated best (80 %), whereas soil quality under Tomato/Pepper land use type was the worst (40 %). The soils were low-to-high in quality and had a higher potential to support crop production if management practices that encourage the build-up of nutrients in the soil system were adopted. The application of manure, liming materials, and phosphorus-based fertilisers is advocated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of climate-smart agricultural practices and its impact on smallholder farming households in some rural areas of North-Western Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study determined the impact of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) adoption on crop yield, income, and food security status of smallholder farmers in north-western Nigeria using a sample of 377 farming households. Descriptive statistics, farm budgeting, probit regression model, and treatment effect model were used for data analysis. The result revealed that 82 % of the respondents are adopters of the CSA practices. Significant differences exist in the socioeconomic attributes of the adopters and non-adopters of CSA practices. More so, adopters had significantly larger farm sizes of about 4.0ha compared to 3.4ha for non-adopters. The major CSA practices adopted include crop rotation, application of organic and inorganic fertilisers, and multiple cropping. The major determinants of CSA practices adoption are age, membership of an association, and awareness of climate change impact. The result further shows that CSA adoption will increase technical efficiency scores by 21.9 %, crop income by ₦19,389 ($17.62) per hectare, while the household per capita expenditure on food will also increase by ₦21,938 ($20.0) This implies that the adoption of climate-smart agriculture significantly improved crop yield, income and food security status of smallholder farmers. To sustain the benefits of CSA practices adoption, farmers should be supported so that they do not discontinue its adoption. Credit availability should also be facilitated by the government to enable farmers to obtain relevant agricultural inputs to complement the adoption of CSA practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue beetles (Nitidulidae) of date palms of the Deglet Nour variety in the Ziban region (Algeria): distribution patterns and effectiveness of date bunch bagging<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to update the list of Nitidulidae species observed on date palms in Algeria (Ziban region), their spatial dynamics according to the development stages (larva, pupa, adult), and the effectiveness of the bagging operation. In 2020, we sampled and examined 1800 dates of the Deglet Nour variety from three palm groves managed with different protection modes: yellow bagging, white bagging, and no bagging. The results obtained mention the presence of nine species of Nitidulidae with five species reported for the first time on dates in Algeria. The highest relative abundance (RA) of Nitidulidae beetles was noted in the southern (28%) direction. However, the variation of infestation rate (IR) according to the direction was not very accentuated. The GLM analysis showed that, except for the adult stage, the direction presented a highly significant effect on the RA variation of the total Nitudilidae, the larva and pupa stages (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.0001), but there was no significant effect of direction on the IR in all studied cases. The highest RA of total Nitidulidae was found on the white plastic-protected dates (RA = 42%), the IR of the total Nitidulidae was higher on dates protected by yellow plastic (IR = 38%). The unprotected dates recorded the lowest RA and IR for all studied cases and the effect of bagging type on the RA variation of Nitidulidae, in all studied cases, was statistically highly significant (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.0001). This effect on the IR was very highly significant only for total Nitudilidae, larvae, and adults (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.0001). So, the southern direction presents the best conditions for sheltering the largest numbers of Nitidulidae. The latter also has a marked preference for bunches covered by plastic bags rather than for those left uncovered. This implies the ineffectiveness of the operation of protecting dates with plastic bags, especially the yellow-coloured ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue olive‑garlic extract oil supplementation: influence on performance and haematological indices of broilers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The use of antibiotic growth promoters in broiler production has been the norm in developing countries, however, the increased rate of antibiotic resistance in humans has resulted in the search for alternatives without negative residual effects. This study investigated the effect of dietary olive garlic extract oil (OGEO) supplementation on the performance and haematological indices of broilers. The experiment lasted for 42 days and broilers were fed varying levels of OGEO‑supplemented diets at the starter (0–21 days) and finisher (22–42 days) phases using two hundred and forty unsexed Ross broilers. Four experimental diets were formulated for the two phases and the diets were designated as diet 1(control (without OGEO)) while diets 2, 3, and 4 were supplemented with OGEO at 1 % (10 g/kg diet) 3 % (30 g/kg diet) and 5 % (50 g/kg diet). Each had four replicates containing fifteen birds per replicate. Performance was measured weekly and haematological indices were determined on days 21 and 42. Data collected were analysed in a one‑way analysis of variance (SAS, 2000) and significant differences were determined using Tukey’s test. Body weight (BW) increased linearly (L) (<italic>p</italic> = 0.003) and quadratically (Q) (<italic>p</italic> = 0.006) with dietary supplementation of OGEO at 1 % for broilers on day 21. Similarly, at day 42, BW increased (L, <italic>p</italic> = 0.006; Q, <italic>p</italic> = 0.029) for the broiler on the same treatment. Mortality reduced (Q, <italic>p</italic> = 0.035) for broilers fed 1 % OGEO‑supplemented diet at day 42. At day 21, Packed cell volume (PCV, 47.33 %) (Q, <italic>p</italic> = 0.033) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, 130.83pg) (Q, <italic>p</italic> = 0.008) increased for broilers fed 1 % and 3 % OGEO supplemented diet respectively. Supplementation of OGEO at 3 % increased (Q, <italic>p</italic> = 0.036) PCV (37.33 %) and haemoglobin (Q, <italic>p</italic> = 0.021) (137.30 g/L) at day 42. In conclusion, the supplementation of OGEO in the diet of broilers at 1 % resulted in improved WG and reduced mortality. The PCV and haemoglobin of broilers can be increased with the supplementation of OGEO up to 3 % in the diet of broilers; it is thus a suitable alternative to antibiotics for improved performance and immunity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of dietary manipulation on coping with stress in pig production<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pigs for commercial production are often housed intensively because of its benefits, such as proper management of the animals, record‑keeping, feed and water provision and management. However, intensive systems of production may also produce stress in animals, arising from operations such as weaning, feed reduction or manipulation, and vaccination. In Africa, pig farmers feed cassava peels to pigs to reduce the cost of production despite its low protein content and anti‑nutritional factor (hydrocyanide). However, little is known about the effect of this feed change in terms of stress on weaners. In this study, we replaced maize with cassava peels and supplemented the diets with a fixed amount of tryptophan (Trp) to investigate its effect on performance, haematology, behavioural response of pigs to weaning, and their response to metabolic stress. Crossbred weaner pigs were used and randomly assigned to three treatments in a completely randomised design. Each treatment had three replicates and each replicate had three animals. The feeding trial lasted for four weeks. Dietary manipulations did not influence the growth performance characteristics and behavioural response of the animals. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cell counts, and neutrophils were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher for 20 % cassava peel as a replacement for maize but lower for a 40 % cassava peel‑based diet when compared with the control group. Feeding cassava peels as a replacement for maize in weaner pigs may be carefully considered, although further studies in this direction are recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue African Rice Initiative: perceptions, utilisation and effectiveness of its practise among rice farmers in Kebbi State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agricultural extension service in Nigeria is largely public sector driven. Unfortunately, the sector is not operating at its maximum largely due to weak institutional structure and poor extension to farmers’ ratio. As such, smallholder farmers often suffer low productivity and poor product quality. The study therefore examined the perceptions, utilisation and effectiveness of the Competitive African Rice Initiative (CARI) extension practise in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 rice farmers enrolled under the initiative in the study area. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that the average age of the respondents was 47.8 ± 1.72 years, 76.7% were male and married (73.1%). The study further revealed that the respondents were smallholder farmers (5.6 ± 7.22 acres). Respondent’s perception of CARI was favourable at 72.5% (36 ± 2.8), Rice Advice (<italic>x</italic>̄ = 1.32) ranked highest at the CARI tool utilised most, while the deployment of CARI extension practise was effective 65.8% (48 ± 3.4). There was a significant association between marital status (<italic>χ</italic><sup>2</sup> = 3.242, p = 0.023), utilisation of CARI tools, and effectiveness of CARI in extension practise (r = 0.206, p = 0.001). The study recommends sustained capacity building for enrollees of the initiative to enhance utilisation and ensure optimum effectiveness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of credit use on profitability among cassava smallholder farmers in Southwest, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nigeria has large economic potential with high profitability but profitability is not increasing, and agricultural production is poor. This is hinged on the understanding of the impact of credit use on profitability, however, the influence of credit use on cassava production remains poorly understood, consequently affecting the profitability of cassava farmers. Thus, this study assessed the impact of credit use on the profitability of cassava farmers among smallholders in southwest Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 210 smallholder cassava farmers for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the socio-economic characteristics and profitability of cassava farmers. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), and <italic>t</italic>-test statistics. Results show that 60.0% of the farmers were male, 81.0% were married, 33.3% had secondary education, 70.5% had no contact with extension agents, 71.9% were members of a cooperative society, 61.9% had savings and 49.5% had access to credit. Furthermore, the mean age, farming experience, farm size, and household size of the sampled cassava farmers were 43 years, 19 years, 3.1 hectares, and 6 persons, respectively.</p> <p>Budgetary analysis shows that mean revenue per hectare from cassava production was ₦131,917.8 ($369.4)/ha for credit users with gross margin of ₦85,138.7 ($238.4)/ha and return on investment of 1.54, whereas ₦117,602.5 ($329.3)/ha for non-users with gross margin of ₦71,923.4 ($201.4)/ha and return on investment of 1.31, implicating that cassava production is a profitable and viable enterprise and that credit users are more profitable than non-users. Farm size (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), membership in cooperative society (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.10), and credit (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) significantly influenced the profitability of the cassava farmers. The test of the mean difference in revenue and net farm income was significant at 1%. The study concluded that credit had a positive significant influence on cassava farmers’ profitability. Hence, credits should be made available by relevant stakeholders like government and non-governmental organisations, to cassava farmers in the study area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and approaches to the conservation of the Nigerian local duck population: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research, development, and breeding of ducks in Nigeria are on the rise and continuous breeding of ducks needs basic information on their production environment, genetic background, and diversity. Nigerian local ducks (NLD) have been phenotypically characterised based on morphological characteristics which have provided a reasonable representation of their genetic difference. Morphological and morphometric variations exist among indigenous ducks of Nigeria and mottled plumage colour is preponderant. Low genetic diversity exists among Nigerian duck populations implying that ducks are in close genetic relationships irrespective of distinctive and varying phenotypic, biochemical, and physiological characteristics, whereas the phylogenetic tree revealed clustered relationships. Large-scale duck farming is uncommon; rather, ducks are kept as a pastime business. The scavenging feeding system is majorly practiced among small flock sizes which are highly predominant. NLDs lay between 100 and 125 eggs yearly when reared under an intensive system of management and also have a high hatching rate of above 70% even though high environmental temperature affects their reproductive performance. There are no organised duck markets in Nigeria. Duck eggs are rarely consumed or sold; rather they are majorly used for breeding purposes. Myths, poor funding, lack of standard laboratories, and lack of skilled workforce are among the factors affecting the development and conservation of indigenous ducks in Nigeria. Introducing improved breeds of duck and establishing conservation programmes will help promote greater duck production and conservation. Duck business is a profitable but seasonal business and can efficiently bridge the noticed protein gap in rural communities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue differentiation of growth traits in pullet breeds in Southwest Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aimed to characterise three breeds of pullets based on their biometric differentiation and the effects of age on their body linear measurement. The three breeds of pullets under consideration were Noiler (N), FUNAAB Alpha (FUN), and ISA Brown (ISA). This study used two hundred and five pullets raised from a day old. At the 19<sup>th</sup>, 21<sup>st</sup>, and 23<sup>rd</sup> week of rearing, the pullets were weighed individually, and linear body measurements were taken. There was no significantly different effect (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) between FUNAAB Alpha and Noiler breeds in all the traits considered at week 19, while a significant difference (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) was observed between ISA Brown and others in all the traits except in breast girth (FUN-11.57 and ISA-10.46) and wing length (N-7.45 and ISA-6.97). The significant effects of breed and age occurred especially on the body weight for all the three ages under consideration (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). There was a positive relationship between body weight and body measurements in all three breeds of pullets under investigation. The increase in the growth rate of any of the components increased live weight gain. The body weight of pullets could be determined accurately using body measurements such as wing length, wing span, and breast girth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, late blight and yield response of potato ( L.) to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation in West region of Cameroon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The crop protection system in Cameroon is mainly based on the use of chemical pesticides which can lead to human and environmental health problems. Biological control is a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative control method that could be used to boost the production of quality potatoes. This study aims to test a biological control approach for potato growth, late blight, and yield using arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) inoculants. To achieve this, a split-plot experimental design consisting of two factors: potato varieties (Pamela and Cipira) and AMF dose (0 g, 20 g, and 40 g per plant) was used. Results showed that the interaction between variety and AMF doses was significant for growth variables for the treatment Cipira × 20 g AMF/plant showing the highest plant height (48.0 cm) at the 4<sup>th</sup> week after sowing (WAS). In addition, the combination of variety and AMF doses significantly reduced late blight incidence and severity, with the best result exhibited by Pamela variety × 40 g AMF/plant (53% and 10%, respectively). The treatments also showed a significant effect on root colonization, with Pamela × 40 g AMF/plant exhibiting the highest arbuscular content in the root system (93%). In terms of yield, the interaction between variety and AMF doses had a significant effect on tuber yields, with a yield of 50 and 55 t/ha recorded for Pamela at 20 g of AMF/plant and 40 g of AMF/plant, respectively. These results show that farm management practices based on AMF inoculations could efficiently increase potato productivity in the Western Highlands of Cameroon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the decision to use healthcare facilities among farming households on labour productivity in Ogun State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Productivity of agricultural labour is central to the improvement of livelihoods of rural population. This study used an instrumental variable approach to examine the impact of healthcare facilities use on household labour productivity using distance to healthcare facilities as an instrument. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 200 households comprising 96 users and 104 non-users of healthcare facilities. The result revealed that the agricultural productivity of users of healthcare facilities was ₦652.34 (USD 1.65) per man-day higher than non-users. The result further showed that age (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.1), sex (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), contact with health extension worker (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01), incapacitation due to illness (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) and distance to healthcare facilities (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) significantly influenced the decision to use healthcare facilities while membership of cooperative society (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), area cultivated and use of health care facilities (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.1) significantly influenced labour productivity. The study concluded that increased distance to healthcare facilities reduces its utilisation while being member of cooperative society and utilisation of healthcare facilities increases labour productivity. This study recommended that health extension workers need to intensify their efforts in educating the households on the need to use healthcare facilities when they are sick; this is expected to improve the healthy time of the households which will invariably increase their productivity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue influencing choice of healthcare facilities utilisation by rural households in Ogun State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Understanding the choice of healthcare facility utilisation is essential to the provision of need-based healthcare services to the population. This study was carried out to estimate factors influencing the choice of healthcare facilities utilised by rural households. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 240 rural households comprising 1440 persons. Data were collected with the use of a structured questionnaire and analysed with descriptive techniques and a multivariate probit (MVP) model. The MVP result showed that households supplement public healthcare facilities with private clinics, support traditional medical treatment with self-medication, and replace self-medication with public healthcare facilities and private clinics. Similarly, age, gender, household size, cost of drugs, distance to public healthcare facilities, travelling cost, contact with community health workers, total income, awareness of public health facilities, quality of health facilities, and terrain of health facilities influence the choice of healthcare facilities utilised. The study concluded that increased total income, contact with community health extension workers, awareness of health facilities, and perceived quality of services rendered positively influence the choice of healthcare facilities sorted after while the increase in the cost of drugs, distance to health facilities, travelling cost and difficult terrain of health facilities negatively impact the choice of healthcare facilities utilised. The study recommended that public healthcare facilities should be located within the reach of the people and equipped with essential drugs at a reduced cost. Households should also engage in activities that will increase their income so that they can use better healthcare facilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of biopesticides extracted with a homemade solvent on stored maize protection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Synthetic chemicals continue to play an important role in reducing storage losses attributable to insect pest activities. However, the adverse effects associated with some patented chemicals make synthetic pesticides less attractive and have given the drive to search for alternative methods of pest control. This study evaluated the effects of a traditional gin, akpeteshie crude extracts made of four timber species, neem (<italic>Azadirachta indica</italic>), mahogany (<italic>Khaya senegalensis</italic>), teak (<italic>Tectona grandis</italic>) and cedrela (<italic>Cedrela odorata</italic>) on the maize weevil <italic>Sitophilus zeamais</italic> on stored maize grains in the laboratory. Home-made extracts of the test tree plants at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2% were tested as grain protectants or as insect poisons. All tested extracts in their respective concentrations performed well in the reduction of live insects during maize storage as compared to a non-extract treatment. The mode of action of all the extracts was generally concentration and time-dependent. On average neem extract was the most effective followed by mahogany, teak, and cedrela in that order. Neem and mahogany extracts performed well in reducing grain damage at a concentration of 2% and at 0.5% concentration of cedrela extract respectively. All extracts reduced progeny emergence and acted both as a repellent or a toxicant. The extracts performed better as compared to the untreated control in the viability of maize seeds leading to germination, and subsequent seedling emergence. The relatively low weight loss of the stored grains treated with these crude extracts during the 90-day experimental period at a maximum concentration of 2% is predictive that they can be adopted as safe and alternative grain protectants against weevils in store. The unknown phytochemicals in these akpeteshie hardwood extracts may be responsible for the insecticidal properties against the weevils. For some concentrations of the extracts, germination was inconsistent which led to the suspicion of allelopathy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of replacing soybean meal with shrimp waste meal in the diets of growing turkeys on nutrient digestibility and metabolisable energy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soybean meal (SBM), one of the main protein sources in turkey production is becoming expensive. Shrimp waste meal (SWM), a by-product of the shrimp industry is a good prospect as a cheaper alternative. It was hypothesised that Nigerian indigenous turkeys (NIT) should be able to digest and utilise SWM better than British United Turkeys (BUT) because of their hardy nature. A 56-day study was carried out to determine metabolisable energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of growing turkeys fed diets containing SWM. Four diets were formulated such that SBM in the control diet (diet 1) was substituted by SWM at 150, 300 and 450 g/kg (protein for protein) in diets 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Eighty (80) four-weeks-old male sex BUT and 80 NIT were allotted on weight equalisation into four dietary treatments replicated four times with five turkeys per replicate in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The total faecal collection method was used for determining apparent and true nutrient digestibility and metabolisable energy values. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomised design and data collected were analysed using ANOVA with SAS package. At the starter phase, NIT recorded (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) higher values for dry matter (DM), Ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) but lower true metabolisable energy corrected for nitrogen (TMEn). Turkeys fed SWM recorded higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) AMEn. At the grower phase, turkeys fed 300 g/kg SWM recorded higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) values for CF and ash. Ash and CP digestibility values were higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) in BUT ditto for TMEn. It was concluded that NIT could handle SWM better than BUT, however, only at the starter phase at 300 g/kg substitution for SBM.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue characteristics and microbial counts of silage as influenced by seeds and ensiling period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The fermentation characteristics and microbial counts of <italic>Megathyrsus maximus</italic> ensiled at varying inclusions of <italic>Moringa oleifera</italic> seeds at different ensiling periods were investigated. Factorial experiment consisting of 3 varying proportions of grass and seeds (100:0, 75:25, and 50:50) and 4 ensiling duration (30, 60, 90, and 120 days) was carried out. The pH was significantly highest (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) with the highest inclusion of seeds while pH decreased with increased ensiling duration. Colour and odour changed as the level of seed inclusion increased in the silage while the moisture content (9.10) was significantly higher (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) at 30 days of ensiling. Ammonia nitrogen was highest at the highest level of seed inclusion while lactic acid was highest at 60 days of ensiling. Crude protein and tannin contents of the silage increased (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) following the increased seed inclusion while there was a reduction as the ensiling duration increased. The total anaerobic bacteria count, total lactobacilli count, and total yeast count of the silage decreased following the increased inclusion of seeds in the silage. As the ensiling duration increased, a reduction in all the silage microbial counts was observed. Inclusion of 25 % of the seeds to 75 % of the grass for silage with ensiling up to 120 days supported improved fermentation characteristics, microbial and crude protein contents as well as a reduction in tannin content which implies that there will not be a detrimental effect on animals that feed on the silage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of social media on youth involvement in livestock production in Oyo State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Youths are the highest consumers of ICT and they are currently using Social Media (SM) to stir interest, ask questions, and solve constraints in agricultural enterprises. Youths’ participation in livestock enterprises through social media is increasing because they are not capital-intensive and can be practiced in their residences. Hence, the effects of SM on youth involvement in livestock production (LP) were investigated. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 150 respondents, and a questionnaire was used for data collection and analysis using percentages, mean, standard deviation Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), and t-test at <italic>p</italic> ≤ 0.05.</p> <p>Findings revealed that respondents had 1–5 years of experience (47.3 %), were efficient in computer literacy (53.3 %), and involved in LP before SM utilisation (6.7 %). Websites (<italic>X¯</italic> = 1.83), YouTube (<italic>X¯</italic> = 1.69) and WhatsApp (<italic>X¯</italic> = 1.65) were the most available SM platforms. Many respondents (88.9 %) were operating on a low scale of LP, while a few (11.1 %) were on a medium scale before SM utilisation. The deployment of SM increased respondents with a medium scale of LP (from 11.1 % to 53.3 %) and decreased respondents with a low scale of LP (from 88.9 % to 30.0 %), while 10.7 % of respondents were characterised by a large scale of LP. Power supply (<italic>X¯</italic> = 2.51) and cost of data (<italic>X¯</italic> = 2.43) were the major challenges to the use of SM for LP. A significant relationship (r = 0.531, p = 0.025) existed between the use of SM and the level of LP. Significant differences existed between the level of LP before (0.804 ± 1.021) and after the use (1.340 ± 1.000) of SM. Hence, SM boosted youths’ involvement in agriculture, raised LP, and consequently decreased unemployment rates. Solar energy, cheap data, and favourable financial schemes for young farmers should be made available.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of improved groundnut varieties adoption on income, food security and nutrition of farming households in Katsina State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Previous empirical studies on improved groundnut varieties in Nigeria have not focused on the impact of the adoption of improved groundnut varieties on monetary returns, food security, and the nutrition of farming households. It is therefore important to provide evidence to justify the expenditure on improved groundnut varieties development in Nigeria. Using observational data from 100 randomly sampled groundnut farmers, this study determined the impact of improved groundnut varieties (IGV) adoption on farming households’ income, food security, and nutrition in a rural area of Northwestern Nigeria. The Propensity Score Matching Technique was used for data analysis. The majority of the respondents (75%) are adopters of IGV. The likelihood of adoption increases with extension contact, labour, and the level of commercialization. Adopters of IGV had an increase of ₦ 48171.7 ($133.1) and 14.96 in Gross margin/hectare and dietary diversity increased by 14.96, respectively. There was also an improvement in the food security status of the adopters. The study concluded that adopting improved technologies can enhance farming households’ welfare. It was therefore recommended that farmers be encouraged to adopt IGV to increase the returns from groundnut production and household food security and nutrition status.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue variability of yield and yield-related traits among 27 drought-tolerant maize genotypes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Maize is a valuable crop with high genetic variability, and understanding this variability is essential for improving crop productivity and resilience to environmental stressors. This study evaluated the genetic variability and heritability of yield and yield-related traits among 27 drought-tolerant maize genotypes in a humid climate region of Southwestern Nigeria. The experiments followed rigorous agronomic, soil, and climatic requirements for maize cultivation. Our findings revealed significant genetic variability among the traits of the maize genotypes, particularly in the number of ears per plant, which had the highest genetic advancement as a percentage of the mean (68.25 % and 67.83 %) under both well-watered and drought conditions, respectively. This suggests that breeding programs targeting this trait could significantly improve maize productivity and resilience to drought stress. Additionally, most of the agronomic traits targeted were highly heritable with heritability values ranging from 0.76 to 0.99 under both environments where the genotypes were evaluated, thus indicating that selective breeding for these traits could lead to consistent improvements in maize yields over time. Overall, this study highlights the importance of evaluating yield-related traits’ genetic variability and heritability in maize breeding programs. Findings suggest that targeting the number of ears per plant in drought-tolerant maize genotypes as revealed in the study could be an effective approach for improving crop productivity and resilience in regions with variable moisture regimes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue attributes and antioxidant activities of meat of broiler chickens administered aqueous<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ban on antibiotics across the globe necessitated the need for an alternative in the production and management of animal health, and this made herbal medicines like <italic>Lagenaria breviflora</italic> validated to be an alternative. Two hundred and eight (208) day‑old Cobb 500 chickens were randomly assigned to four (4) treatment groups of <italic>Lagenaria breviflora:</italic> control (0g), 50, 100, and 150 grams per litre, with fifty‑two (52) birds each, having thirteen (13) birds per four (4) replicates. The meat was excised from the breast region of slaughtered birds on the 49<sup>th</sup> day of the experiment and evaluated for meat technological quality, oxidative stability, and sensorial profile. The data generated were evaluated using the One‑way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The highest water absorption capacity (WAC) (61.50%) and water holding capacity (WHC) (51.09%) were observed in groups 150 g Lb and 100 g Lb, respectively. Administration of 50 g and 150 g aqueous extract of <italic>Lagenaria breviflora</italic> affected <italic>(p</italic> &lt; 0.05) the intrinsic a* (redness) meat colour but had no significant effect <italic>(p</italic> &gt; 0.05) on its L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness). The data showed that administration of <italic>Lagenaria breviflora</italic> had no effect <italic>(p</italic> &gt; 0.05) on the sensory profile of the breast meat. Glutathione peroxidase (1.85U/L) <italic>(p</italic> &lt; 0.05) was highest and similar in the control and 150 g Lb group. In conclusion, to ensure improved meat quality and oxidative stability of meat from broiler chickens, the administration of aqueous <italic>Lagenaria breviflora</italic> at 150 g per litre of water is recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue