rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology Feed Influence of Pre-Treatment, Preservation Method, and Storage Time on Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Profile in Nettle Juices and its Relation to Colour Changes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most valuable health-promoting plants used in the production of functional, green drinks is nettle. Acidic environments, oxygen, high temperature, and enzymes can negatively affect the colour of green juices, which is an important aspect for consumers. Therefore, the study analyzed the effect of pre-treatment, preservation method (freeze-drying, freezing, sterilization), and storage on the profile of carotenoids and chlorophylls (HPLC) in nettles juices and its correlation with colour changes (CIELAB). All the examined parameters impacted the profile of both groups of compounds and their colour. The most significant unfavorable changes were observed after sterilization. Blanching positively affected the level of coloured compounds in canned juices, with a greater enhancement being observed after a longer pre-treatment time (90 s). After storage, in frozen and freeze-dried juices, and similarly in unpreserved juices, lutein, violaxanthin and chlorophyll a predominated. However, in sterilized juices, neoxanthin and violaxanthin were completely degraded, and β-carotene and chlorophyll b were found at a significant level. During the storage of canned and frozen products, chlorophyll a was degraded to a greater extent, while in lyophilizates chlorophyll b. The transformation of neoxanthin, violaxanthin and chlorophyll a in nettle juices was determined via analysis of a* colour parameter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Fatty Acid Profile, and the Content of Vitamin A, Vitamin E and Cholesterol in Beef () Stored Under Different Modified Atmospheres<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat and the content of vitamin A, vitamin E and cholesterol in samples of the <italic>longissimus lumborum</italic> (LL) beef muscles and stored for 7, 14 and 21 days under modified atmospheres (MA): vacuum, 80% O<sub>2</sub> + 20% CO<sub>2</sub>, 60% O<sub>2</sub> + 30% CO<sub>2</sub> + 10% N<sub>2</sub>, 40% CO<sub>2</sub> + 60% N<sub>2</sub>, 30% CO<sub>2</sub> + 70% Ar). The experimental factors, i.e., storage time (ST) and MA composition, had no significant effect on the proportions of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs), but they significantly modified the proportions of individual unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat (IMF). The study demonstrated that in order to minimize the loss of total UFAs, samples of the LL muscle should be cold-stored in MA 40% CO<sub>2</sub> + 60% N<sub>2</sub> for up to 14 days; MA 30% CO<sub>2</sub> + 70% Ar also effectively prevented the loss of total PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The losses of vitamins A and E were lowest when beef was packaged under oxygen-free MA, in particular MA 30% CO<sub>2</sub> + 70% Ar. Prolonged storage (21 days) did not contribute to significant vitamin losses, but it induced a decrease in cholesterol concentration, which was lower in vacuum-packaged samples than in those packaged in MA containing 60% O<sub>2</sub> and MA composed of 40% CO<sub>2</sub> + 60% N<sub>2</sub>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Sugars, Alcohols and Antioxidants on the Preparation Goat Milk Tablets Containing BB01<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of probiotic products has attracted more and more attention. Products made from goat milk powder and probiotics can combine nutrition and health care functions. In this paper, the effects of different sugars, alcohols and antioxidants on the preparation goat milk tablets containing <italic>Bifidobacterium bifidum</italic> BB01 were studied by single factor experiment. The results showed that the appropriate addition of sugars, alcohols and antioxidants were as follows: sucrose 5 %, glucose 1.5 %, xylitol 3 %, ascorbic acid 0.03 %, D-sodium ascorbate 0.09 %, sodium ascorbate 0.03 %, microcrystalline cellulose 0.5 %, D-mannitol 0.1 %. According to the formulation, goat milk tablets with high <italic>Bifidobacterium</italic> activity were developed, and had appropriate hardness, friability and good sensory quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study of Polish Sausage Drying Kinetics and Contraction by Image Data Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of this paper has been to add an experimental data set for drying a meat product and provide a comparison with well-established thin-layer drying models. This article presented experimental investigations on the convective drying of Polish sausage slices at a temperature of 40°C. Slices have been in the thickness of 3 to 8mm. Measurements of mass loss and size change were performed. The data have been presented in the form of standard drying kinetics. Additionally, the estimation of the diffusion coefficient according to the simplified graphical approach is made. Based on the best-fit approach the coefficients for typical semiempirical correlations for <italic>MR</italic> (moisture ratio) estimation have been calculated and presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Aging of Apple Wines with Oak Chips on the Quality and Sensory Parameters of the Wines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the effect of the oak chips added at different dosages and stages of apple wine production on its oenological, antioxidant and sensory properties. In the study, medium-toasted or heavily-toasted oak chips (at a concentration of 3 or 6 g/L) and ethanol extracts prepared from them (at a dose of 1 or 2 mL/100 mL) were used. Basic oenological parameters (OIV), total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), color (CIELAB) and organoleptic assessment of the wine were evaluated. Although the use of chips had no significant effect on the ethanol content and wine extract, it caused a significant change in volatile acidity. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the wines correlated closely with the concentration of polyphenolic compounds and these parameters were significantly higher after contact with medium-toasted chips. The apple wines had high values of lightness and yellow color, and the addition of chips did not significantly affect the color parameters (CIELAB). In the sensory assessment, the control wine (without chips) received the lowest scores, while significantly higher scores were given to the wine with the addition of 6 g/L of heavily-toasted chips, which was characterized by intense smoky, toasty, woody and vanilla notes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Phenolic Acid and Yielding of Hybrid Wheat in Response to Growing Year Under Integrated Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wheat grain has health-promoting properties that are related to the content of phenolic acids in its composition, among which ferulic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid predominate acting as potent natural antioxidants. The study evaluated the phenolic acid (PA) content and grain yield of hybrid wheat genotypes (Hyland, Hywin) compared to the common variety (Patras), grown under an integrated system at two nitrogen rates of 60 (N<sub>60</sub>) and 120 (N<sub>120</sub>) kg·ha<sup>−1</sup>, under varying hydrothermal conditions during three growing seasons. The effects of genotype, cultivar and the interaction of cultivar and hydrothermal conditions on the phenolic acid profile, except for synapic acid, phydroxybenzoic acid and salicylic acid, and grain yield were confirmed in favour of the hybrid cultivars. The concentration of total phenolic acids (TPAs) and ferulic acid in the grain of the hybrid cultivar Hyland was higher and, in addition, greater yield stability of this cultivar under varying hydrothermal conditions was shown in the analysed years of the study. The grain of the common variety Patras was characterised by advanced content of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and that of the hybrid variety Hywin by p-coumaric, caffeic and syringic acids. Higher TPAs content and lower grain yield of the varieties were observed in the 2018/2019 drought season. Higher nitrogen fertilisation (N<sub>120</sub>) compared to N<sub>60</sub> significantly increased TPAs content and grain yield of Hyland and Hywin hybrid varieties. Fertilisation with N<sub>120</sub> compared to N<sub>60</sub> increased TPAs content by 4.2% and promoted higher concentrations of ferulic and syringic acids in the wheat cultivars tested.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Gaseous Ozone to Reduce the Microbial Load of Rhubarb ( L.) Petioles as an Additive to Craft Wheat Beers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rhubarb (<italic>Rheum rhaponticum</italic> L.) is a valuable source of active components responsible for laxative, antibacterial, diuretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. On the other hand, ozone being an allotropic form of oxygen, due to its potential is a powerful antimicrobial agent. Treatment of rhubarb petioles with gaseous ozone, especially at a concentration of 50 ppm, for 30 minutes had a positive result on the microbiological stability and quality of the finished material. Sensory evaluation of prepared beers enriched without ozonated and ozonated rhubarb pulp showed that wheat beer with the addition of ozonated (50 ppm) rhubarb pulp was characterized by a balanced aroma and taste. The physico-chemical analysis of wheat beers demonstrated that the increasing concentration of ozone had an impact on, among others, increased the degree of final real attenuation (by 21.97%), decreased pH (by 18.43%) and energy value (by 36.30%), but had a negative impact on the content of ethyl alcohol (by 17.32%) compared to the control beer. Among the analyzed beers enriched with rhubarb, the beer product with the addition of ozonated (50 ppm) rhubarb was the most microbiologically stable. The research shows that wheat beers enriched with fragmented rhubarb can be a new trend to expand the range of wheat beers, and the use of gaseous ozone, especially at a concentration of 50 ppm for 30 minutes, can be a trend to extend the microbiological stability of beers, especially craft beers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Insights into the Efficacy of Darjeeling Himalaya’s Traditional Fermented Beverages To Combat Various High-Altitude Sicknesses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This <italic>in silico</italic> study has been designed to validate ethnomedicinal properties of some Himalayan fermented ethnic beverages against varied high-altitude sicknesses. Traditional beverages like <italic>tongba</italic>, <italic>chhyang</italic>, <italic>nigar</italic> and finger-millet <italic>raksi</italic> (supplemented with ethnomedicines like <italic>khokim</italic> and <italic>chimphing</italic>) were considered in this study which were sampled from villages situated in Singalila Ridge of the Himalayas. Seven major metabolites such as ethyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside; meranzin; auraptene; cis-vaccenic acid; cyclo(pro-gly); cyclo(leu-pro); and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one were investigated <italic>in silico</italic> to provide insights to their efficiency in alleviating major altitude illnesses (pulmonary edema and hypoxia); high-altitude respiratory infections; pain or inflammation; cardiovascular problems; gastrointestinal diseases and disorders; and high-altitude neurological diseases and disorders. Computational tools such as Molinspiration Chemoinformatics, SwissADME, Molsoft program and vNN-ADMET were employed to evaluate physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics and ADMET parameters. Binding affinities were computed using Auto Dock Tools. <italic>In silico</italic> pharmacokinetics and ADMET revealed bioactivity potentials of selected metabolites which are associated to treat high-altitude sickness. A total of 175 combinations of receptor-ligand docking interactions were considered out of which 141 combinations exhibited a binding energy score of ≤ -5 and 29 combinations scored ≤ -7. Outcome of this computational research affirm the effectiveness of high-altitude’s traditional drinks in healing high-altitudinal stresses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the Quality of Plain Yogurt Made From Cow’s, Goat’s, and Sheep’s Milk Within the Shelf Life<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to compare selected physicochemical properties, the fatty acid profile, and the content of vitamins A and E in plain yogurt (Y) made from cow’s (YC), goat’s (YG), and sheep’s milk (YS), and to monitor changes in these parameters within the shelf life of the analyzed products. The products were supplied by three manufacturers. Each group consisted of yogurts from three different batches, and each batch was represented by two products. The quality of the first product was analyzed in the middle of shelf life, and the quality of the second product was analyzed at the end of shelf life (E, last day). The products were stored at a temperature of 4<sup>○</sup>C until analysis. An analysis performed at date M demonstrated that YC had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) values of yellowness (b*) and titratable acidity, and the lowest (p ≤ 0.05) content of vitamins A and E; YG had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) values of redness (a*) and the lowest (p ≤ 0.05) value of b*; YS had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) values of lightness (L*) and pH, the highest (p ≤ 0.05) content of vitamins A and E, and the lowest (p ≤ 0.05) values of a* and titratable acidity. YC and YS were characterized by higher (p ≤ 0.05) values of chroma (C*) than YG. YC and YG were characterized by higher (p ≤ 0.05) values of UFA/SFA, MUFA/SFA, DFA/OFA, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, compared with YS. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was also higher (p ≤ 0.05) in YG than in YC. In comparison with YC, YG and YS had higher (p ≤ 0.05) values of the PUFA/SFA ratio and EFA concentrations, and the highest (p ≤ 0.05) values were noted in YS. Measurements conducted at date E revealed a decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the value of a* and vitamin E content in YC, an increase in the value of L* in YG, and an increase in the value of a*, a decrease in the values of b*, C* and pH, and a decrease in vitamin E content in YS. Titratable acidity increased (p ≤ 0.05) in all types of Y. Changes in the nutritional value of fat (a decrease in the values of UFA/SFA, MUFA/SFA, and PUFA/SFA ratios, a decrease in EFA concentrations, and an increase in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio) were significant (p ≤ 0.05) only in YC. The results of the study indicate that YG was characterized by the highest stability, and YC was characterized by the lowest stability during storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Extrusion Cooking Over Roasting on Retention of Nutritional Quality of Composite Flour Prepared From Soyabean, Millet, Corn and Rice Blend<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study was to compare the effects of extrusion cooking and roasting on the nutritional composition of the blend obtained from rice, soybean, millet and corn flours. Two different flour compositions with different proportions of ingredients were prepared. Roasting process was conducted at 160°C for a duration of 30 minutes, whereas extrusion cooking was performed at 129°C for approximately 5 minutes. Chemical analysis was carried out on all four samples. The findings revealed that the moisture and carbohydrate content in the extrusion-cooked samples (A and B) were higher than in the roasted samples (A’ and B’). In contrast, crude fat content, crude fiber content, and ash contents were higher in roasted samples (A’ and B’) compared to extrusion-cooked samples (A and B). The protein content of samples A, A’, B and B’ was found to be 10.67%, 8.47%, 14.64% and 9.18%, respectively. This proven protein content is higher in extruded composite flours (A and B). Additionally, calcium and iron contents were higher in the roasted samples, with sample B’ having the highest calcium and iron contents. Tannin content and phytic acid content was also higher in the roasted samples, with sample B’ having the highest tannin and phytic acid content. In conclusion, extrusion cooking increased nutritional content while reducing anti-nutritional components in the composite flour, suggesting its potential as a preferred processing method to maintain nutritional quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Intensity of Compounds Biosynthesis in the Petioles of Rhubarb ( L.) Induced by the Ozonation Process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rhubarb (<italic>Rheum rhaponticum</italic> L.) is a vegetable that, despite many health-promoting properties, contains large amounts of oxalic acid, which has a negative impact on human health. Treatment of rhubarb petioles with gaseous ozone is one way to improve their quality by changing their chemical properties. As part of the research, an analysis of the mechanical and chemical properties of rhubarb petioles was performed. The analyzes showed that the applied doses of ozone of 10 ppm during 1, 3 and 5 minutes lowered the concentration of oxalic acid during 5 days of tests performed after the ozonation treatment. The most favorable effect on the reduction of oxalic acid, amounting to 36%, was caused by gaseous ozone at a concentration of 10 ppm during 5 minutes compared to the control. In addition, it was noted that on the 1st and 3rd day after using ozone gas, the antioxidant activity of the tested raw material increased significantly. Also on the same days of testing, the total amount of polyphenols increased as a result of the use of ozone fumigation. The largest increase in the total amount of polyphenols, amounting to 12%, was observed for a dose of 10 ppm 5 minutes on the 1st day after the ozonation treatment compared to the control variant. In turn, no positive effect of the ozonation process on the content of vitamin C and the value of destructive force during three-point bending of rhubarb leaf petioles was noted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Ozon Treatment on Shelf-Life of Poultry Meat in the Logistic Chain<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A study was carried out to determine the influence of ozon treatment on the shelf-life of poultry meat. The following doses of gaseous ozone were used: 0 ppm for 0 min, 10 ppm for 1 min, 10 ppm for 5 min, 10 ppm for 15 min, 100 ppm for 1 min, 100 ppm for 5 min, and 100 ppm for15 min. Treated and untreated samples were stored at 4°C for a maximum of 3 days and microbiologically examined on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of cold storage. The textural properties and water content were also analyzed. The present study showed that the most desirable color change was recorded after the 3rd day of storage, on the samples treated with gaseous ozone of 10 ppm for 15 min. Regardless of exposure time and the gas dose used, ozone has been shown to effectively reduce meat hardness. Although the analyzes performed had non-significant effects on water content and microbiological load during post-treatment storage at 4 °C, our findings confirmed the effectiveness of the ozone gas used on extending shelf life of the examined poultry meat by influencing their texture profile and color parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Identification of an Antibacterial Agent-Producing Strain and its Application in Bananas Preservation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the development and progress of human society and the continuous enhancement of people's health awareness, lactic acid bacteria inhibitors as a natural biopreservative have an irreplaceable position, with the advantages of high efficiency, broad spectrum, stability, safety and other characteristics. This paper studied the antibacterial effect of 23 lactic acid bacteria; the strains with the best antibacterial effect was identified by 16S rDNA method as being <italic>Lactobacillus rhamnosus </italic>L57 and was applied to banana storage. Our study showed that <italic>Lactobacillus rhamnosus </italic>L57 has a broad spectrum, inhibiting <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic>, <italic>Vibrio alginolyticus</italic> and <italic>Bacillus nato</italic>. Excluding the interference of organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and extracellular polysaccharide, the salting out of ammonium sulfate preliminarily determined that the proteins or peptides are the antibacterial substances in the antibacterial agent. Physicochemical properties showed that the microorganism had good antibacterial activity after trypsin, pepsin and papain, with good tolerance to pH, temperature and UV light, and the pH optimal range of 2.0-4.0. The mixture of freeze-dried powder of <italic>L. rhamnosus </italic>L57, chitosan and natamycin was used for banana preservation, with the proportion of freeze-dried powder of 1.25%, chitosan 1.5% and natamycin 0.03%. The preservation period was extended by 4 days compared with the absence of either bacteriostatic agent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Kale ( L.) Leaves as an Enhancing Component in Gluten-Free Bread<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the research was to assess the impact of powdered kale (<italic>Brassica oleracea</italic> L. var. <italic>acephala</italic>) on the properties of starchy gluten-free dough and bread. Kale lyophilisate was added to the recipe as 3%, 6%, or 9%, replacing the starch. The addition of the kale resulted in a decrease in the dough's strength despite the optimisation of the water content. The presence of kale lyophilisate reduced the volume of the loaves, in comparison with control, resulting in a decrease in crumb porosity and pore density, and an increase in the quantity of large pores. The addition of lyophilised kale at all levels resulted in an increase in taste acceptability, while the 6 and 9% kale decreased the acceptability of the other sensory parameters. The presence of the kale lyophilisate led to a reduction in crumb hardness on individual days of storage compared to the control sample, and the decrease was greater the more kale powder was added to the recipe. Bread with the highest concentration of the kale lyophilisate showed lower enthalpy of retrograded amylopectin decomposition in subsequent days of storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Antioxidant Activities of Peel Essential Oils and their Application as a Natural Preservative in Fresh Cream: Effects on Oxidative and Sensory Properties<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to enhance the use of <italic>Citrus limon</italic> peel by utilizing its essential oil as a natural aroma and preservative in fresh cream. The essential oil was extracted through hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil were assessed at varying concentrations prior to its incorporation into fresh cream. Subsequently, the antioxidant and sensory stabilities of the fresh cream were evaluated. The essential oils were characterized by a dominance of monoterpenes with a high limonene content (61%), oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oils effectively reduced the DPPH° radical, which was confirmed by the β-carotene bleaching assay. <italic>Debaryomyces sp. </italic>and <italic>Rhodotorula sp.</italic> showed sensitivity to the essential oils and have MICs of 0.25% and 0.5% respectively. However, <italic>Zygosaccharomyces sp1 </italic>and <italic>Zygosaccharomyces sp2</italic> were resistant. Their MICs were 1 and &gt; 4%, respectively. The TBARS test showed that fresh creams with <italic>Citrus limon</italic> essential oils were resistant to forced oxidation. Incorporation into fresh cream at 0.125 and 0.25% did not alter the flavor of the product, which did not differ from the control. From all results; we can conclude that lemon essential oil can be used as an antioxidant and aromatic agent in fresh cream.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Nitrogen Sources and Inorganic Salts on Antioxidant Activity of Goat Milk Fermented by L60<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the effects of various nitrogen sources (peptone, casein hydrolysate) and inorganic salts (KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, MgSO<sub>4</sub> and NaCl) on the antioxidant activity (specifically, DPPH and superoxide anion scavenging rate), acidity, and pH of peptides in goat milk (GM) fermented by <italic>Lactobacillus plantarum</italic> L60 by individual factor experiments. The results indicated that nitrogen sources and inorganic salts significantly affected <italic>L. plantarum</italic> L60’s antioxidant and acid-producing abilities, and when the supplemental levels of peptone, casein hydrolysate, KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, MgSO<sub>4</sub> and NaCl were 0.7%, 0.3%, 0.3%, 0.15% and 0.9%, respectively, the scavenging ability of antioxidant peptides on DPPH radical and superoxide anion reached the maximum.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Polyphenolic Compounds and Biological Activity of Berries, Leaves and Flowers of L.<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, the berries, leaves and flowers of six species of hawthorn (<italic>Crataegus</italic> L.) were evaluated for bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, procyanides, UPLC profile) and their antioxidant activity (ABTS<sup>•+</sup>, CUPRAC, iron ion chelation, scavenging O<sub>2</sub><sup>·-</sup> and OH<sup>−</sup> radicals). Most of the analyzes were performed for the first time for this material. The content of bioactive compounds differed significantly both between the species and morphological parts studied. In particular, the highest content of polyphenols was determined for hawthorn berries (301.65 to 387.16 mg/100 g d.w.), including the highest concentration for <italic>C. x subsphaericea</italic>. The polyphenolic profile of this species was dominated by flavan-3-ols, with procyanidin trimer, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin dimer being the most numerous. Hawthorn berries were also characterized by the highest antioxidant activity, among which the species <italic>C. laevigata x rhipidophylla x monogyna</italic> showed the strongest antiradical activity (0.91 mmol TE/g and 294.96 µg/ml for tests with the ABTS<sup>•+</sup> and OH<sup>−</sup> radical, respectively) and chelating iron ions (700.28 µg/ml). In conclusion, the results explain the traditional use of hawthorn in folk medicine and indicate a potentially new wider application as a source of natural antioxidants in the design of functional foods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Profiling of Exposures to Potentially Toxic Metals PTM(S) Through Noodles Consumption. A Case Study of Human Health Risk Assessment<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to quantify levels of the toxic heavy metals metalloid arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in commercially available noodles. Analysis was performed via the acid microwave digestion method followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Furthermore, the potential health risks resulting from the consumption of noodles by polish consumers were evaluated using the estimated average daily intake of heavy metals (ADIHMs; µg·kg<sup>−1 </sup>bw·day<sup>−1</sup>). Additionally, to assess the potential health consequences due to noodle consumption, the total hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) were calculated. The average contents of Pb, As, Cd, and Hg in instant noodle samples were determined as 9.241, 8.483, 29.39, and 1.661 µg·kg<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. THQ values for heavy metal toxicity were found to be below 1, indicating that the consumer is not exposed to carcinogenic health risks associated with the analyzed metals. Additionally, the rank order of max THQ was Pb &lt; Cd &lt; As &lt; Hg, and the mean THQ was Pb &lt; Hg &lt; As &lt; Cd, while both the max and mean CR rank orders were Pb &lt; Cd &lt; As.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Compounds, Physico-Chemical Characteristics, and Sensory Analysis of Biscuits Enriched with Saffron as Natural Colorant<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recently, the primary focus of the food industry lies in replacing synthetic additives with natural ones. Saffron (<italic>Crocus sativus</italic>) is an agricultural product used by agri-food industries as naturel colorant. The aim objective of the present work was to explore the application of Saffron (<italic>Crocus sativus</italic>) crocin extracts as natural colorant in biscuits. Furthermore, a comparative study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the cookies during 45 days of refrigerated storage. Physicochemical analysis was carried out on the biscuits prepared during storage. In addition, total phenolics, flavonoids, and crocins content was assessed. The free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing power were also evaluated. All parameters studied were carried out after 15, 30, and 45 days of storage period. The obtained results indicate that the use of saffron in the manufacture of biscuits gives a product with a good physicochemical quality for a limited duration (45 days of storage). Indeed, the values of moisture content, pH, and acidity are in line with the cookie preparation standard. A variation in these values was recorded during storage. In addition, the saffron biscuit showed a high level of phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannin contents with a strong antioxidant activity. A difference in phenolic compounds level and in the antioxidant activity during storage period was also recorded for the biscuits prepared with synthetic colorant and those without colorant. A natural additives offer a more convenient alternative for consumers who prefer food products without synthetic additives. Hence, the biscuits enriched with saffron as natural additives can be developed as functional food with healthy benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Possibility of Using Rheological and Electrical Properties to Determine the Quality of Craft Wheat Beers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Beers are among the most popular drinks all over the world. The introduction of beers to the market must be preceded by lengthy physicochemical studies, which are essential to ensure the food safety of consumers. Studying the rheological and electrical properties of beers can not only speed up the product launch, but also improve technological processes. Craft wheat beers enriched with lemongrass and fruit (addition of kamchatka berry and haskap fruits) were used in this study. Beer samples were subjected to density, dynamic viscosity, conductivity and impedance analyses and the values obtained were compared with the results of physicochemical analyses. The coefficient of determination reflects the correctness of the proposed model describing the detected dependence in the best way. The closer its value is to 1, the more accurate the model. The addition of lemongrass extract was found to reduce density, and coefficients of determination had high values in the interval (0.9927 - 0.9961). Beers enriched with berry extract had higher density than the control sample, and coefficients of determination have very high values in the interval (0.9955 - 0.9976). The control beers have the highest conductivity. The lemongrass and fruit extract with which the beer samples were enriched introduced sugar into the beer and these samples had lower conductivity (R<sup>2</sup> for beers with lemongrass is situated in interval 0.7772 - 0.9256 and for samples of beers with berries 0.6884 - 0.9846). Based on the impedance, it was possible to distinguish between types of beers, mainly at 50 kHz or 100 kHz.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue