rss_2.0Architecture and Urban Planning FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Urban Planning and Urban Planning 's Cover Public Engagement in Spatial Planning through Digital Participatory Mapping: Experiences from Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digital participatory mapping is an emerging and largely unexplored practice in Latvia despite its potential to broaden and diversify public engagement processes. This study explores the spectrum of currently used digital participatory mapping tools through select examples from Latvian municipalities. Furthermore, the study examines the citizens’ participatory habits and preferences using a small-scale citizen survey and co-design activity. The obtained results allow reflection on the design, functionality, and engagement formats of the existing participatory mapping tools compared to the citizens’ expectations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Interpretation as a Bridge to Support the Sense of Place: “Lord Guan Online!” DaxiDaxi Website<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the context of coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, large-scale events have been forced to stop as well as movement of people between cities. At Daxi in Taoyuan, Taiwan, there is an event that lasts for over a century, <italic>Puji Temple Annual Celebration of Saintly Emperor Guan’s Birthday</italic>, held every summer on June 24 of the lunar calendar. It is not only registered as Taoyuan City’s intangible cultural heritage but also considered as the second Chinese New Year for local people. In order to express gratitude to Saintly Emperor Guan for his blessing, the local groups ‘She-Tou’, residents, shopkeepers and volunteers make a great effort on the preparations before the celebration. Local people who at the time do not live in Daxi because they are studying, working or after marriage are living in other cities would also come back to the town on this day. This traditional and cultural event bred from belief has become a mechanism of community cohesion and has shaped Daxi’s unique sense of place. Unfortunately, the traditional pilgrimage of the celebration in 2021 has been paused due to the pandemic situation. However, thanks to the long-term collaboration and participation of the local museum, the ritual of faith can continue in a new way. This article takes the DaxiDaxi “Lord Guan Online” website and its Facebook page as an example. By analysing how the Daxi Wood Art Ecomuseum interprets the traditional celebration and its culture in a digital way, we try to explore the possibility of digital tools as a powerful medium for connecting people and people and place during the pandemic period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Prospects of Intuitive Interaction Modeling in Automated Shape Generation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, authors discuss new possibilities for the spatial design universal aesthetic development. Creative artistic means are conditioned by the human ability to comprehend and interpret objects in a particular context. Ideas of arts and science coexistence have been relevant since antiquity. The 20th century, especially the Bauhaus movement, gave a rational basis for conjoining artistic inspiration with the parametric constraints. Contemporary digital technologies provide new possibilities to enhance human creative potential by employing scientific methods. In search of material environment evaluation reference points, it is important to establish a robust connection of human mind and physical world. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity of experiences raise issues in human perception studies, involving both phenomenal and material processes. Embodied cognition reveals itself as an intuitive experience or discovery which provides a new perspective for the creative application. The authors aim to investigate the creative opportunities of automated shape generation systems. The main issue is to find a universal application of creative process analysis. Parametric constraints offer the opportunity to use statistical tools in art practice. These constraints are based on embodied cognition capabilities. Combined methods of qualitative and quantitative evaluation help to assess the contextual relevance of the object and to determine the cultural and pragmatic effectiveness of automated design solutions. The study offers theoretical and applied cross-disciplinary research direction to discover new creative means in material environment design, including architecture and urban planning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Lithuanian Folk Architecture Research as a Repository for the Study of Urban Form<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite the increasingly global orientation of urban morphology, there still remain countries whose achievements in the field of urban form research are underrepresented. Although the attempts to study settlement form in Lithuania were rather early, the second half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century was the most productive period. The article presents context, process and findings of the folk architecture research, which became the nurturing environment for the establishment of contemporary urban form studies in Lithuania.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Public Spaces of Kaunas from the Inter-War Period to Contemporary: Content Analysis<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This research demonstrates the potential of content analysis method in urban research in the context of the study of modernization of Lithuanian cities during the Soviet period and its influence on contemporary urbanism. The content analysis of visual material (photographs, postcards and other images) is integrated as one of the methods of the study, allowing to identify the social phenomena in public spaces and their changes throughout the period from the inter-war era to contemporary. The descriptive analysis presented in this article demonstrates changes in people and activities, in scale and shape of public spaces, mobility and safety.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Empirical Study on Women Safety Concerns at Public Places: Case Study of Lahore City<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Changing trends of human settlements and urbanization have a significant impact on all segments of society. Lahore is the most crowded and urbanized district of Punjab. Women participate in the development of the city, they are required to visit workplaces, and experience public places. Subsequently, these public places are grounds of ferocity and discomfort. The study examines the female’s perception regarding safety at public places and the consequent factors contributing towards the insecurity of females. Regression analysis is carried out to interpret the causal relationship between public places and safety elements. In conclusion, it was established that safety elements should be kept in mind to achieve safer environment. The research necessitates urban planners and designers to introduce features for women safety, privacy and comfort in the design of public places.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary Challenges in Planning for Shrinkage of Historic Places: A Review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Urban shrinkage is among of the most dangerous current risks for the preservation of liveability (e.g. residential function) in formerly prosperous historical residential and industrial districts. The planning for shrinkage emerged only in the 21st century in order to manage and prevent growing urban decay, depopulation and housing crisis through the application of smart structural adjustment policies and planning instruments for formerly heavily industrialised North American and Asian cities. Both shrinkage and liveability planning are still very “fuzzy” concepts and have been applied in ways that are not always consistent (e.g. for measuring decline, migration, demographics). However, remains the question of what (methods or approaches) would prevent (control) this well-known but evidently “wicked” and still less explored phenomenon of “loss of liveability” in a historical built environment. This paper aims to review the urban shrinkage and liveability problematic and prevention solutions (methods) based on studies of theory and practice of urban planning.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Changes of Commuting Range in Riga Agglomeration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this paper is to characterise commuting trends in Riga agglomeration, while taking into account proximity to Riga and territorial accessibility. Changes of commuting range are looked at through literature analysis (historical context) and by using descriptive analysis and parametric tests (current situation). Results indicate that while both proximity to Riga and access to state level roads have a significant impact on commuting flows, it is the former which has a more significant impact.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Private Space in Soviet Cinema: Case Study of Riga<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this article is to discover the discourse of living spaces of Riga through the films of the Soviet period and to examine essential changes of private space in different residential structures. This study contributes to the field of human geography by conducting content analysis of a vast number of Soviet films with a focus on the development and spatial organization of apartments in Riga. The analysis of 264 films illustrates that living spaces are rarely portrayed in the Soviet cinema and they mostly provide intentionally formed idealistic information about the qualities and achievements of Soviet private space.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Architect Ludwig Melville and Art Nouveau Architecture in Liepāja<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article analyzes the works of Liepāja’s architect Ludwig William Melville, who was previously unknown but in fact is really remarkable and sets his place in the legacy of Liepāja Art Nouveau architecture. Several historical documents have been used in the study and L. Melville as a potential architect of many buildings has been identified through a broad formally-stylistic comparative analysis.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Architectonic Quality of Industrial Log Architecture in the Scope of Tectonics – Learning from Architectural Competitions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Log is a highly topical building material. Despite the current potential of log, large-scale log buildings of high architectonic quality are rare. By increasing understanding of the architectonic quality of industrial log building, the quality of future log buildings can be enhanced. Our research data is based on the outcomes of two recent architectural competitions and interviews related to these. Methodology combines semi-structured interviews with research by design. The results describe, in the scope of tectonics, architectonic features that are essential for architectonic quality of a log building and are revealing of log structures, acknowledging the preconditions of log in the design, and making secondary design solutions characteristic for log. The results are coherent with ideals of tectonic theory.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Commuter Satisfaction in the Usage of Bus-Shelters: the Ataköy Zone 5 and Beşyol Metrobus Stops, Istanbul<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Bus shelters, which form a part of daily lives of people, generally provide service as small areas of urban space created for short-term periods of waiting. From the perspective of spatial design, it is important that an environment of good quality is provided for users of bus-shelters. This study proposed hypotheses to research how the physical design of bus shelters (location-accessibility, anthropometric characteristics, roofing and walls, lighting, electronic information, seating, etc.) affected general satisfaction of their users. To establish users’ general satisfaction, direct observation was performed and the hypotheses were tested through surveys conducted at bus-shelters selected in two areas of Istanbul (Ataköy-Beşyol) with different economic levels, and an assessment was made of the users’ satisfaction analyses and related problems of bus shelter design. In the conclusion, it was established that there is a significant correlation between general satisfaction and, among other things, the perceived degree of difficulty in getting on and off buses, the harmonization of bus shelter design with the surroundings, the adequacy of a shelter for summer use, the comfort of a shelter, the adequacy of seating, and the extent to which the shelter is maintained.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-09-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Renovation of Wooden Buildings in Riga<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The wooden architecture of the 19th century is mentioned in the UNESCO World Heritage description of Riga among the criteria that makes the Capital city of Outstanding Universal Value. So far, 3 500 wooden buildings in the city have survived. This paper summarizes information on the renovation of four wooden buildings. The aim of this paper is to give a closer overview on the impact of ownership, funding source and location in the city of the building on the process of renovation and architectural change. The internationally approved renovation principles in the renovation of wooden buildings in Riga are not often taken into account.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00An Assessment of Architectural Stylistics and Functional Spatial Structure of Interwar Lithuanian Schools in the Global Context<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article analyses and compares general education and specialised schools built in Lithuania, Europe and the USA during inter-war years. The main problem analysed in the article is the correspondence between the architectural stylistics and functional spatial structure of interwar Lithuanian school buildings with the same typology buildings in the regional context. The aim of the article is to assess the essence of changes of architectural stylistics and functional spatial structure, what caused these changes. Interwar architecture in Lithuania has many of the main trends of the global architecture of that time, so undoubtedly interwar period is considered to be one of the most significant periods in the history of Lithuanian architecture, which has laid the foundations for the further development of Lithuanian architecture.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Palanga’s Modern Architecture on the Way to Heritage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper discusses particular aspects of the development of cultural identity through diverse, multi-layered architectural heritage and argues that by combining architectural expertise with community engagement the inclusive modernist heritage collection can be created. The research is based on the case of Palanga resort. The paper focuses on the issue of creating a list of cultural heritage of Palanga town as a coherent and continuous architectural collection and discusses the approaches to be used in engaging communities into the process of heritage making.</p><p>Considering the post-colonial society and its multiple relationship with the built environment of that time in Lithuania, the changed needs and requirements, and today’s high commercial interest, it is essential to find effective ways for the protection and further development of heritage of the recent past.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Urban Gardening as a Multifunctional Tool to Increase Social Sustainability in the City<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The concept of urban gardening varies a lot in terms of gardening forms and main purposes. Followed by changes in people life style, growing interest in healthy living and sustainable urban development, the aims of urban gardening become more complex. The product of urban garden, e. g. vegetables or ornamental plants, nowadays plays less important role, as the main focus is on societal issues, urban regeneration, education and health. Thus, this article provides evidence of multi-functionality of urban gardening to address the variety of societal issues across people of different age and cultural background. Case studies from Malmo, Birmingham and Riga show how urban gardening contributes to social integration, inhabitants’ well-being and urban regeneration.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Formants of Cityscape Identity using Fractal Analysis (Kaunas Case)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Cityscape identity might be objective and subjective. Still, it is more often analysed from person’s perspective, and analysis of urban fabric itself is not considered sufficiently. Thus, this research aims to find out if fractal analysis method could be used to fill that gap. Kaunas city was chosen for the case study. The research was conducted in three stages: qualitative assessment (designation of the zones with different semantic load in Kaunas), quantitative assessment (calculation of fractal indexes of panoramic and streetscape views from previously established zones), and comparison of these approaches. To sum up, the research confirmed that there is a relationship between the results of different approaches. Thus, fractal analysis could be used as one of the tools for quantitative assessment of cityscape identity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Tendencies of Recreational Landscape Formation in Southeastern Baltic Seaside Resorts after 1990. Case of the Palanga Resort<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The goal is to analyze the tendencies of the formation of recreational landscape of the Palanga resort and, after reviewing the planning experiences of other south-eastern Baltic resorts, present measures for landscape optimization. To achieve this, an analysis of changes of the seaside recreational landscape after 1990, the current state of resorts, scientific literature, and seaside resort planning was conducted. After assessing the changes in the recreational landscape, it has been noticed that for a quarter of the last century, planning of seaside resorts was aimed at attracting and accommodating an increasing number of holidaymakers, which caused an ever increasing need to intensify the construction in the territories, increasing the scale of buildings, and urbanizing natural territories without taking into consideration the existing natural and cultural environment. Natural, anthropogenic and social factors are affecting the recreational landscape of seaside resorts, which are important in the context of resort development and regional development. The article presents the means of Palanga resort optimization based on these factors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential for Transformation of Urban Open Public Spaces in Modernist Multi-Apartment Districts in Lithuania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper presents the methodology and results of the research aimed to identify the current and potential functions of open public spaces in post-Soviet modernist urban districts in the context of sustainable urban development. The research is based on the sociotope mapping methodology facilitating the identification and interpretation of functional characteristics of urban open public spaces. The data for this research has been collected in three selected pilot multi-apartment modernistic districts of Kaunas city (Lithuania) using two sociological research tools – site observation protocols and user questionnaires. The research results show the need for actors involved in planning and (re)development of modernistic districts to incorporate a larger diversity of space elements enabling different local area users (individuals, families, organizations) to use and experience more natural, social, economic and other values available locally at different time (year, day) periods.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Retracing the Architectural Heritage. The Works of Architect Eižens Laube in Jūrmala City, Latvia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This research explores the architectural legacy of Eižens Laube in Jūrmala city. E. Laube (1880–1967) was at those times one of the most influential Latvian architects both in praxis and in academic field. Nowadays, no significant overview on his architectural legacy in Latvia and particularly in Jūrmala has been done. The aim of this article is to provide an updated list of architectural works of E. Laube in Jūrmala, to explore the current condition of these objects and trace particular regularity in their development. The article actualizes the general necessity to explore the architectural legacy of architect E. Laube and illuminates the architectural exploration methods in Jūrmala up to the 1990s. The findings enrich the history of Latvian architecture and Jūrmala city and may serve for some architectural and touristic materials.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1