rss_2.0Architecture and Urban Planning FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Urban Planning and Urban Planning Feed Architectural Education in Times of Crisis: Faculty of Architecture at the Baltic University in Germany, 1946–1949<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is based on the original manuscript materials and documents of the Faculty of Architecture and Engineering of the exile Baltic University (Baltische Universität), which operated in Hamburg and Pinneberg from 1946 to 1949. The Faculty of Architecture of the Baltic University was a unique establishment in exile where Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian refugees came together to maintain their architectural education. The documents (four boxes and one roll of papers) were discovered at the Manuscript Collection of the Uppsala University Library marked as “Lettiska Fonden” and were unknown to architectural historians up to this date. This common Baltic tangible and intangible architectural heritage is a unique source for discovering and understanding the destiny of Baltic architects in exile in times of geopolitical crisis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Urban Theories in Developing Participatory Planning Tools<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For successful and efficient participatory planning, continuous improvement and assessment of its tools is needed. The aim of this research is to summarize the methodologies, process, and results of the participatory workshops carried out within the framework of the Genius Loci project implemented in the Šančiai neighbourhood (Kaunas, Lithuania), and to draw conclusions and insights on the effectiveness, advantages, and possibilities of using urban theories and approaches, such as mental mapping, sociotope methodology, and pattern language in participatory planning tools. The possibilities of application of the design thinking approach in facilitating the process and improving user experience are also discussed. The article includes a brief introduction to the activities of the Genius Loci project with the following focus on workshops, their methodologies, processes, and outcomes from the point of view of urban theories applied. The main outcome is the summary table demonstrating features of participatory tools (workshop sessions), elements of urban theories applied, and their evaluation followed by conclusions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Architecture of Folk Schools in Latvia: Development and Stylistic Features in Kurzeme and Zemgale<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The analysis in this research focuses on folk schools, which are among the oldest educational buildings in Latvia. These schools played a significant role in the advancement of Latvian national culture and the initiation of Latvian education. Throughout history, the preservation and fate of this architectural heritage have consistently relied on socio-economic and political factors. Even in the present day, due to urbanization, school restructuring, and a lack of societal appreciation for their historical significance, these buildings remain vulnerable to complete deterioration and eventual disappearance. The historical form of folk schools as an educational network no longer exists, and today their architectural heritage serves as vanishing proof of the past, with its value primarily recognized within cultural and historical contexts. This study analyzes 114 identified folk school structures situated in two historical regions of Latvia. It delves into their construction history and architectural characteristics while elucidating the inherent risks and potential cultural significance these edifices hold in the contemporary landscape of Kurzeme and Zemgale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effectiveness of Housing Finance Policy Innovation for Low-Income Communities in Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The limited access to fulfilment of housing needs, inadequate availability of finance, and unaffordable housing prices are essential factors used to determine the effectiveness of housing finance policies for Low-Income Communities (MBR). This study aims to determine how <italic>SiKasep</italic>, a Housing Subsidized KPR Information System Application effectively improves housing needs fulfilment, provides access to finance, and ensures affordable houses for low-income communities. The strategies used include leadership approaches and effective communication, government support, community knowledge, participation, and policy impact. This is a quantitative and qualitative research with data collected from 55 respondents through questionnaires. The findings indicate the importance of the community’s knowledge factors, specifically on aspects of technology proficiency and economy for MBR, as an innovative approach to effective housing finance policy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Heritage Dimension of Industrial Landscape. Methodological Keys for Its Analysis and Identification<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The epistemological debate regarding the new industrial heritage paradigm from the landscape perspective has generated a number of uncertainties as well as new questions and challenges that need to be addressed, not only from a conceptual viewpoint but also via the definition of methodological approaches that facilitate the implementation in the territory in question of some of its axioms as an initial, unavoidable step towards the identification and characterisation of these landscapes. The purpose of this article is to develop a conceptual and methodological approach to the industrial landscape based on its heritage dimension. On a conceptual level, the article explores the study of these landscapes, addressing their heritage dimension and offering a synthesis of existent theories in this field with those practical instruments, regulations, recommendations, etc., that recognise their heritage value. On a methodological level, the article advances in the design of methodological keys for the analysis and identification of these landscapes by focusing on their specific nature and heritage dimension, a step that constitutes a priority task in terms of the enhancement and integrated management of the same in a manner that supports their protection and administration on the basis of heritage and cultural considerations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue a Modern Townscape in The City Centre Area: The Case of Vilnius<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of a contemporary townscape within the historical urban structures is a phenomenon of this period that has been going on in Lithuania for about 20 years. This is an ongoing process with an uncertain outcome, as the rapidly changing urban design trends require quick responses to current needs. It is necessary to modify, revise, and supplement the concepts and existing legislation accordingly. This article examines the factors leading to the emergence and formation of the modern townscape in Vilnius, as well as the documents governing the city’s development after gaining independence. It presents an evaluation of the newly established urban structures in the central part of Vilnius and identifies the challenges and problems in shaping the contemporary townscape. The results of the study allow us to identify what actions must be taken in order to form a high-quality modern townscape, starting with self-evaluation of what has been done and ending with the creation of a dynamic urban model that would respond to constantly changing needs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Scenarios for Post-War Concrete Architecture: The Case of Lithuania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Post-war concrete architecture is a valuable part of the 20<sup>th</sup>-century heritage spread worldwide with specific preservation challenges. This paper analyses three possible preservation scenarios: conservation, comprehensive upgrade, and adaptive reuse based on a broad legacy of post-war concrete architecture in Lithuania and the sustainability aspect. Even though several significant concrete objects are listed, they are protected very formally, and no comprehensive preservation is applied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Research for Aesthetic Quality of Residential Areas in Latvia and Finland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process of improving the residential areas in Latvia’s cities and their visual and aesthetic quality at the beginning of the 21<sup>st</sup> century is very slow. Legislation, lack of professionals in institutions, bureaucratic burden of decision-making and other factors create an unnecessary hierarchy. The current instability of the country’s economic and political situation contributes to an imbalance in the psycho-emotional state of society. The permissiveness of society and the desire of citizens to park their cars closer to their front doors are negative features. The construction of multi-storey garages and removing vehicles from courtyards are not a priority for city authorities. The courtyards of apartment blocks built in Latvia in the 1950s–1970s were planned in the post-war years when the number of cars was minimal. The only space in the courtyards was for footpaths, a small play area and a sports field. The rest of the courtyard was lawn and tree planting to provide easy access for emergency vehicles. More than half a century has passed, and today’s task is not easy, as the trees have grown to a great height and are forming shade. In turn, footpaths have lost the purpose to which they led many decades ago. As the political system collapses, the format of living space must change. A new generation is emerging with a new demand for quality. The socio-political and national economic fluctuations are far from easy to stop in the 21<sup>st</sup> century. There is an apparent lack of cooperation in several planning processes that would ensure the visual and functional quality of urban space at different levels. Latvia’s cities are currently on the path of developing new residential open spaces. Therefore, the study looks at several examples of residential neighbourhoods in Helsinki, Finland, and compares them with residential neighbourhoods in Jelgava, Latvia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Fine Art and Hand-drawing in Architectural Studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper proposes to analyse survey data among students about the role of drawing in architectural studies. It compares the results obtained by researchers on the role of fine arts and freehand drawing compared to digital tools in representing drawing. Architecture students have expressed their support for studying freehand drawing and the subsequent use of this competence in their professional careers. The article also presents the views of international students, and the authors compare the experiences and recommendations of Latvian and international students and experts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Street Network Attributes of Vibrant Urban Settings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines two crucial interlinked physical planning and design aspects with potential impact on pedestrian flow in urban settings. Mixed land uses and gridded/interconnected streets are invariably characterised in the urban design literature as the essence of vibrant cities and lively street environments. The study develops a critical approach that investigates some of the most popular algorithms utilised in assessing mixed-use characteristics and their impact on pedestrian movement. “Entropy,” “LUM,” and “dissimilarity” indices are critically evaluated in terms of their reliability in predicting pedestrian travel patterns. The study also examines street network measurement indices and spatial analysis tools that enhance urban vitality and aid in the design and development of active street environments. It bridges the gap between disparate approaches aiming at understanding and prescribing the built environment attributes that enhance urban vitality. The theoretical quest of this study provides a robust foundation for future case study research on the built environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Landscape Question in the Work of Rosa Barba: The Landscape Project and the Abstraction of Territory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An advocate of landscaping and landscape architecture as fundamental tools in the revitalisation of urban planning in the late 20<sup>th</sup> century, architect Rosa Barba both energised and modernised the discipline of landscape architecture in Spain by delving into previously unchartered waters and approaching landscape both from a perspective of conceptual innovation and in an effort to offer a response to the issues of the day. From a stance that was simultaneously theoretical, academic and professional, she offered a critical perspective of city, territory and landscape and envisioned new horizons for architecture and urbanism through landscaping, thereby broadening the scope of these disciplines. Her work establishes relevant, pioneering contributions to landscape design and transformation that are still relevant today. The purpose of this article is to offer, via analysis of some of her principal projects, an in-depth examination of the theoretical and disciplinary position from which she approached the landscape question and explored the possibility of improving the conceptual and technical instruments and models used for the analysis and interpretation of the same in a broad, complex manner that both offers a response to the concerns of the day and establishes a theory of landscape intervention.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Typologies for Experiential Nature Tourism Architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research analyses experience-oriented nature tourism architecture approaches to develop sustainable solutions for destination-oriented nature travel. Currently, the tourism industry mostly relies on a classical interpretation of recreational architecture. After analysing a set of 945 case studies, five main approaches for organising nature tourism architecture were proposed – classification by type, location, climate, relation to nature and grouping by main tourist attractors used: existing nature features, built environment, activity and story-oriented destinations, and a combined approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comparative Analysis of Different Urban Spaces Using Public Space Index<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The discussion of ownership of public space, which started with the privatisation of public spaces, especially after the 1980s, and the effects of this situation on the quality of public space, has become important in the literature. This study aims to measure the quality of public spaces that have different levels of ownership in Istanbul with the public space index based on observational and perceptual indicators. Inclusiveness, meaningful activities, comfort, safety, and pleasurability, which are accepted as the main quality dimensions of public space, are measured in different public spaces in Istanbul. Thus, the differences in the perceptual outcomes of the privatisation strategies as perceived at the geographical level and the causes of these differences are identified. It is important to reveal which indicators create differences or similarities in public spaces at different ownership levels in terms of improving public spaces and increasing their level of use. As a result of this study, it was obtained that the ownership of public space is not entirely effective in the perception of quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Development of Primary School Architecture in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s: Historical Overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the article is to disclose the architectural development of primary school buildings in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s. Based on historical material the architecture of these buildings is analysed chronologically in several important aspects. First of all, the peculiarities of the construction of primary school buildings in the country are reviewed. Furthermore, the stylistic changes of such buildings and the factors that led to it are analysed. Lastly, attention is paid to the pursuit of functional convenience and its analysis, which also influenced the development of this type of building. This aims to reveal the essential aspects that determined the development of the architecture of primary school buildings in Lithuania at that time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Modern Techniques in Preservation of Archaeological Sites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Archaeological sites have always suffered from loss and degradation due to many human and natural hazards. In recent decades, interest in preserving archaeological sites has increased dramatically. Many modern techniques have emerged from the different disciplines that can be used in preservation works, and a large number of the techniques and their capability made it difficult for decision-makers and specialists to determine the appropriate technique that gives the best results in preserving the archaeological site. The research aims to identify the project needed to preserve the archaeological site and then choose the appropriate technique for it, based on the opinions of experts using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, which helps decision-makers and specialists to choose the most appropriate technology. The archaeological site of Babylon was chosen as a case study. As a result of applying the AHP method, the priority weights of preservation stages for the archaeological site of Babylon were determined as follows: (diagnosis and monitoring 30.8 %), (intervention 21.2 %), and (tourism and media 16.6 %), while the appropriate technique was determined as follows: (infrared thermography 29.4 %), (maintenance 49.3 %), and (augmented reality 38.7 %).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Socio-Cultural Values of Stone House in the Cross-Border Region of Kosovo, Albania and Montenegro<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to assess the socio-cultural values of <italic>kulla</italic>, a traditional Albanian stone house found in the cross-border region of Kosovo, Albania, and Montenegro. Despite being recognized for its historical and cultural significance in respective countries, <italic>kulla</italic> as a vernacular heritage has not been commonly assessed for its distinct regional heritage values. To address this gap, the study draws on existing literature and field investigations in three countries. The findings suggest that <italic>kullas</italic> have retained much of their authenticity, and that its most distinguished regional values are historical, social, and traditional values, as well as architectural one.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Hospital Landscape Design Principles, Case Study of Five Hospitals in Baku<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to evaluate hospital outdoor design landscaping requirements. In addition to taking into account user groups such as adult and child patients, hospital staff and visitors, also such elements as hospital entrances and exits, parking areas, hospital roads, children’s playgrounds, rest areas, water elements, art elements, field furniture, planting and maintenance subjects were determined to be important in a successful hospital garden design. A checklist has been prepared that includes these identified issues. The checklist was tested on five selected hospitals in Baku, Azerbaijan. According to a comparative analysis of hospital outdoor designs, it was determined that the Liv Bona Dea Hospital topped the list, followed by the National Oncology Hospital as having the most successful open space hospital designs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Processes of Fisheries Cultural Landscape on Kurzeme Coast<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The cultural landscapes of the Baltic Sea coast in Rucava and Nica parishes consist of ancient fishing villages, lighthouses, natural objects such as seashore, dunes, pine groves, meadows, and others. They have been affected by transformation, especially in recent decades. During coastal surveys in 2019 and 2021, photo fixations, research of historical documents, interviews were carried out and it was found that cultural landscapes are losing quality under the influence of political, social and natural factors, especially coastal erosion. The aim of this work is to study the transformation processes affecting the landscape.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Urban Greenspaces in the Indian Context<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the increasing rate of urbanization and decreasing percentage of overall greenspaces in the cities, the urban areas are becoming vulnerable to various hazards and climate change. The presence of adequate and well-maintained greenspaces plays a vital role in society’s well-being and the creation of a healthy environment. Despite being such an essential feature of urban areas, Indian legislative &amp; regulatory documents still lack in terms of a standard working definition. Hence, this study aims to frame a standard working definition of “urban greenspace” in the Indian context. In order to achieve the goal of this work, a rigorous study of 237 research papers based on Indian scenarios was done. These papers were categorized based on the domain and the context of their study. From the literature review, the evolution of greenspace definition specific to the planning domain was traced and the criteria used to define urban greenspace in the various other domains were identified. The proposed definition of “urban greenspace” will incorporate the maximum criteria identified and shall best suit the heterogeneous nature of the Indian cities. This research is an initial attempt to trace the evolution of the definition of urban greenspace in the planning domain and to frame a standard working definition of urban greenspaces for the urban Indian context. The outcome of this work will help urban planners and policymakers to overcome the current issue of the dilemma about the standard definition of “greenspace”.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Art Nouveau Architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The north-eastern French city of Nancy is one of the centres of Art Nouveau. It has been analysed in detail in many classical reviews Art Nouveau, but mainly in relation to decorative applied art works produced at the Nancy School of Art. The study pays attention also to the Nancy architecture. The architectural and artistic qualities of the iconic Art Nouveau architectural monument Villa L. Majorelle are analysed in detail, and the basic data about works of É. André, H. Gutton, J. Hornecker, L. Weissenburger, and other Nancy architects are systematized, indicating their place both in the cityscape of Nancy and in the historical context of Art Nouveau architecture in general.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue