rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment 's Cover of quality parameters of different lettuce ( L.) varieties under unheated plastic tunnel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The plastic tunnel can ensure a positive effect on the yield and quality of vegetables. In our experiment, we evaluated the following types and varieties of lettuce – heading type (‘Great Lakes 659’, ‘King of May’), non-heading type (‘Lollo Rossa’, ‘Lollo Bionda’), and cos type (‘Romaine lettuce’). The highest head weight was detected in ‘Great Lakes 659’ (373.97 g plant<sup>−1</sup>) and ‘Romaine lettuce’ (266.79 g plant<sup>−1</sup>) under an unheated plastic tunnel in springtime. Higher nitrate content (565.0 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>) was measured for ‘cos lettuce’, while lower values (425.50 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>) were measured for ‘Lollo Bionda’. Among the varieties, one of the highest dry matter content was also measured for ‘Great Lakes 659’ (8.52%). According to our results for lettuce production, ‘Great Lakes 659’ was detected as having a higher yield and dry matter content and a lower nitrate accumulation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of municipalities and landscape architects in the public involvement processes related to green infrastructure developments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While urban green infrastructure has a great importance with regard to the urban climate, human welfare and well-being due to the positive impact of ecosystem services, it also offers opportunities to practice democracy. The quality of a green infrastructure development process depends on the quality of the partnership between the many stakeholders. Municipalities have a permanent task and a role to play in building partnerships. Landscape architects often go beyond their engineering tasks to give priority to their professional vocations in public involvement processes. In our research, we examine the roles and responsibilities of these main stakeholder groups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Preliminary study on species variability and evolutionary status of African walnut ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An analysis of the biochemical composition of African walnut seeds collected from two different geographical areas, Nigeria and Cameroon, was used to conduct the primary assessment of varietal differences and evolutionary status of <italic>Plukenetia conophora</italic>. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Department of Biochemistry and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The experimental design was completely randomized design with five replications. Significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) was not observed with the proximate properties of the seeds of the two lines except for carbohydrate. However, higher values in protein (28.32%), crude fat (5.67%), ash (4.33%), and moisture (38.44%) content were obtained for the line from Nigeria, while the line from Cameroon had higher values for carbohydrate (20.87%) and crude fibre (9.32%). With regard to mineral composition, significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) was observed in some mineral elements such as manganese, sodium, and chromium. Anti-nutritional composition such as proximate properties did not show any significant difference between the two lines. However, the line from Nigeria had higher values of phytate (6.27%) and oxalate (0.11%), while a higher content of tannin (0.36%) and saponin (0.27%) was obtained for the line from Cameroon. Evidently, the result obtained was not substantial to establish varietal differences between the two lines; nevertheless, it showed some level of evolutionary changes in the crop over the years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Preliminary results regarding the seed yield of pot marigold ( L.) plants harvested at different stages of seed maturity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the study, the characteristics of flower heads and seed yield of marigold (<italic>Calendula officinalis</italic> L.) plants harvested at different stages of seed maturity (achenes from different types of heads – primary, secondary, and tertiary ramifications) were measured. The number of total flower heads (inflorescences), heads with mature seeds, and the diameter of heads with mature seeds and weight of seeds of the above mentioned fractions per plant were calculated. The results show that there are significant differences among treatments regarding several parameters. The plants were harvested when 90% of the heads formed on the primary ramifications and 75% of the heads formed on the secondary ramifications, having mature seeds superior to plants with 50% of the secondary heads with mature seeds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Insecticide efficacy on ticks () – Case study from an infested territory in Transylvania, Romania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ticks can be a major concern for humans and animals alike through the transmission of various viral and bacterial diseases. Ticks have also developed tolerance to several active compounds due to intensive insecticide treatments. The excess use of insecticides against ticks worldwide is mostly environmental contamination rather than effective control. Thus, information about the useful chemicals is essential. <italic>Dermacentor marginatus</italic> and <italic>Dermacentor reticulatus</italic> individuals were tested, being collected in Transylvania, near the city of Târgu-Mureş, Romania. The experiment was performed under laboratory conditions in two replicates, using a total of 420 ticks and 19 insecticides. The best results were achieved with alpha-cypermethrin and pyrethrin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Understanding the influence of maize () and cowpea ( L. Walp) growth period on some thermal and hydrological properties of two soils with textural class variation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Adequate knowledge of soil processes is key to ensuring sustainability. Towards a better understanding of some thermal and hydrological processes that take place in the soil as a result of the growth period of maize and cowpea, a concurrent research was carried out in two different locations with soil textural variation (sandy clay loam and clay loam) at the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The treatment consisted of bare soil plot, cowpea plot, and maize plot arranged in a randomized complete block design in three replicates. The same weed management practice was carried out on all treatment plots throughout the duration of the study. Data were collected at 4 weeks after planting (WAP), 8 WAP, and 12 WAP, during which the dry bulk density, mass wetness, volumetric infiltration rate, saturated hydraulic conductivity, sorptivity, soil temperature, total energy emitted, wavelength of maximal radiation intensity, and energy flux were determined. The results showed that growing maize and cowpea had no significant influence (P &gt; 0.05) on the soil properties measured in the SCL soil. However, significant difference was noticed in the CL soil at 8 WAP; the crops grown prevented the formation of excess soil seal and crust when compared to the bare soil plot. This study shows that soil textural property greatly influences hydrological and thermal processes in the soil during the maize and cowpea growth period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Field performance and survival of cocoa seedlings raised in different growing media<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The medium from which seedlings are transplanted influences seedling growth and survival on the field. The objective of the experiment was to compare how growing media affect the growth and survival of cocoa seedlings under field conditions. The seedlings were raised in both soil and soilless media and were transplanted on the field in June, when they were six months old. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three different growing media: 1. top soil, 2. sawdust + poultry manure + rice husk biochar (70%:25%:5%), and 3. sawdust + poultry manure + municipal solid waste compost (50%:35%:15%). The cocoa seedlings were transplanted at a spacing of 3 m × 3 m at 12 plants per plot and each plot size measured 45 m × 45 m. Data were collected on plant height, leaf number, stem girth, leaf chlorophyll content, percentage of plants that shed their leaves, and percentage of survival. Results indicated that seedling survival at the onset and end of the dry season was significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher for seedlings transplanted from soilless media compared to those from the top soil treatment. Irrigation will be necessary to maintain high seedling survival when seedlings are transplanted from the top soil for a well-established plantation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of two bacterial inoculants and biostimulants on the growth performance of Amaranthus cruentus at different levels of spent-engine-oil-contaminated soil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was conducted to assess the growth performance of <italic>Amaranthus cruentus</italic> on spent-engine-oil- (SEO) contaminated soil bioremediated with bacterial inoculants and processed biostimulants: compost, sole cocoa pod husk (CPH), and sole cow dung (CD). SEO with 5%, 10%, and 15% densities was artificially contaminated with sterilized soil. Subsequently, biostimulants and bacterial inoculants, <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> and <italic>Bacillus cereus</italic>, were applied. The treatments were replicated three times, adopting a completely randomized design<italic>.</italic> After the biodegradation assay that lasted for 70 days, <italic>Amaranthus cruentus</italic> seeds were sown, while its growth parameters, plant height, number of leaves, and stem girth were monitored for 6 weeks after sowing (WAS).<italic/> The results generated indicate that the applied biostimulants and bacterial inoculants accomplished significant (P &lt; 0.05) reclamation of the SEO-contaminated soil as the test plant recorded substantial growth compared with the controls that recorded no growth. At 2 WAS, compost influenced the highest plant heights (6.5, 7.4, and 7.5 cm) compared with other biostimulants at 5%, 10%, and 15% SEO contamination levels respectively. At 4 WAS, all biostimulants produced the same number of leaves (5.0) at 5% SEO contamination level, the compost recorded the highest number of leaves (6.0) at 10% SEO contamination level, while all biostimulants produced the same number of leaves (4.0) at 15% SEO contamination level. The study showed that the combination of biostimulants and bacterial inoculants significantly reclaimed SEO contaminated soil. Therefore, reclamation of petroleum-impacted environments with the combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation is recommended.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable and preservative historic garden management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The restoration of historic gardens in Hungary puts an increasing responsibility on the shoulders of management. The use of what might be termed as “traditional horticultural approach” significantly increases the needs and costs of garden maintenance. But if we do not fulfil this task, heritage value can be lost and the former restoration efforts can become futile. Today’s challenge is to find a balance between these two issues. This study aims to develop the scientific foundations for practical solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of triacontanol and salt stress on the growth and metabolism of spinach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A cost-effective enhancement of leafy vegetable yield and health-promoting quality may be achieved by combining moderate stress conditions with the application of bioactive compounds. The aim of this work is to study how salt stress and triacontanol interact with each other in modulating vegetative growth, photosynthetic light use efficiency, carbon dioxide uptake, and chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment content of spinach plants grown under controlled conditions. Besides stimulating metabolic processes related to growth and photosynthetic production, treatments with 1 μM triacontanol once in three days significantly compensate for the deleterious effects of salt stress induced with 250 mM NaCl.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Inadvertent implications of climate change for butterflies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change is one of the leading challenges of this century with an impending threat to wipe out more vital butterfly species than ever before. Climate shift has the potential to affect their life cycles, flight times, essential bio-interactions, and ultimately survival. As the first such study in India, this case study highlights the inferential discussion on the importance of butterflies in maintaining the earth’s fragile ecological balance and consequently the impact of climate change upon them with inadvertent implications. Due to the shifting climate, a number of butterfly species are now migrating to newer places in their search for comfortable temperature and availability of food, as the reduction/loss/change of habitat lowers the diversity of microclimates and availability of food plants for larvae and adult butterflies. Consequently, the butterflies become even more vulnerable to natural perturbations and susceptible to predators and local extinctions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Retraction and biological nitrogen fixation in soybean ( L.) as influenced by phosphorus fertilization and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be used to promote the productivity of legumes on phosphorus- (P) deficient soils. The present study investigates the inoculation effects of three AMF species (<italic>Funneliformis mosseae</italic>, <italic>Rhizophagus intraradices</italic>, and <italic>Claroideoglomus etunicatum</italic>) and the control (uninoculated) on nitrogen fixation efficiency and growth performance of tropical soybean cultivar (TGx1448-2E) under varying P fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>−1</sup>) in a derived savannah of Nigeria. The results showed that shoot and root dry matter, number of nodules, relative ureide abundance (RUA), nitrogen derived from atmosphere (Ndfa), total N fixed, shoot P uptake, grain, and biomass yield significantly increased with AMF inoculation, with better performance observed in plants inoculated with <italic>Rhizophagus intraradices</italic> and <italic>Funneliformis mosseae</italic> compared to <italic>Claroideoglomus etunicatum</italic>. Similarly, the soybean growth variables, P uptake, and nitrogen fixation activities increased with increasing P application rates. Conversely, AMF root colonization significantly reduced with increasing P rate. Interaction of AMF inoculation and P rates significantly influenced soybean growth and nitrogen fixation. <italic>R. intraradices</italic> inoculation with 20 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>−1</sup> resulted in the highest amount of RUA, Ndfa, N fixed, and grain yield. It could be concluded from this study that <italic>R. intraradices</italic> with moderate P rate could be used to enhance nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and soybean yield in P-deficient soils.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The analytical assessment of the weaknesses of the agriculture of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County based on empirical research results<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In our empirical research, we examined the agriculture of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. We surveyed the situation of agriculture through farmers using certain criteria to rank the situation within the framework of a SWOT analysis. The responses received from farmers in the county were quantified and evaluated on the basis of what these farmers have considered to be true. The interdisciplinary study of agriculture is a timely and important task. It can be enforced on the basis of systemic contexts studying not only food production but also environmental issues, preservation of rural habitats, employment, and regional development.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Seedling and adult plant resistance to in Ethiopian rice cultivars<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Two separate experiments were done for seedling and adult resistance in rice varieties against blast. Each experiment consists of 20 varieties and is evaluated under artificial inoculation with blast. The result of the study confirmed that NERICA varieties have shown low disease infection at the seedling stage whereas the varieties Chewaka and Edget have shown adult plant resistance. Severe yield reduction and highly diseased grain were obtained from Superica-1, which is highly susceptible at adult plant stage. In contrast, the maximum grain yield was obtained from the Chewaka and Edget varieties, these having a high level of adult resistance. Therefore, Chewaka and Edget are promising candidates for utilization in yield and blast resistance in rice improvement.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00PM concentration reduction due to the wet scavenging in the Ciuc Basin, Romania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The PM<sub>10</sub> concentration reduction caused by large-scale precipitation in the Ciuc Basin was studied under no-wind conditions. The PM<sub>10</sub> concentration changing before, during, and after the rainfall was followed up from 2008 to 2019. After the rainfall episode, the PM<sub>10</sub> concentrations were lower in the cold and warm periods with 2.8 μg/m<sup>3,</sup> and 2 μg/m<sup>3</sup> respectively. The highest PM<sub>10</sub> concentration reduction was detected in the cold season, by the moderate and light rain intensity, after 6 hrs of continuous rain (35.61%, 32.46%), and the average PM<sub>10</sub> concentration reduction in the cold and warm periods was 22.3% and 16.1% respectively.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative analysis of relevant climate change, landscape and regional development strategies regarding the areas pertaining to Debrecen (Hajdú-Bihar County)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Today, the countries of the world have to face several global challenges with regard to the plans they have developed together. The protection of the natural values of our country and their sustainable use is receiving more and more attention in today’s society. In order to achieve the above, a change of perspective in social strategy built on knowledge and professional training is inevitable. An environmental strategy paradigm shift emphasizing the protection of biodiversity, resources, and landscape cultivation is also necessary. The need for documents providing a basis for the paradigm shift is indubitable; however, more efforts are needed to induce fundamental changes by plans detailed in the documents.</p><p>The aim of this study is to review the current environmental protection initiatives in Hajdú-Bihar County and to assess the degree to which the relevant plans are harmonized and that the objectives outlined in the documents overlap.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of slope aspect on soil moisture<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this research, we investigated the variability of soil moisture on two slopes of opposite aspect (a northern slope and a southern slope) but with the same soil type. To identify the spatial disposal of the soil type on both slopes, we georeferenced the paper-based soil map of Sfântu Gheorghe, using the QGIS platform. In order to use the correct slope aspect, we used a numerical model of the terrain (relief). The research plot was soil sampled at the depth of 10 cm on two different dates: on 7 November 2019 and on 3 March 2020, using a Buerkle soil sampler.</p><p>Gravimetric method was used to determine the soil moisture values that proved to be the most accurate for our purpose.</p><p>The soil moisture values, obtained in weight percentage, were assigned to the coordinates of the sampling points, and soil moisture maps were generated in QGIS for both slopes and for both sampling dates. These maps gave us the opportunity to evaluate the variability in time of the soil moisture distribution on the sample plots.</p><p>The water holding capacity of the soils is mostly influenced by their organic C content. So, the total organic carbon content of the soil from the sampling plots was measured using the Tyurin method.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic variation in common bean ( L.) using seed protein markers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The genetic diversity of common bean accessions were assessed using seed storage protein markers. At regional level, accessions from the two major growing regions showed the highest level of gene diversity (H = 0.322, I = 0.485, and H = 0.312, I = 0.473), which can be exploited for the future improvement of the crop. Based on phaseolin, the major storage protein in common bean, the majority of the accessions (86%) were grouped under Mesoamerican gene pool. Seed proteins were also used to differentiate various Phaseolus species, indicating the usefulness of seed storage proteins in species identification in this genus.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Current status, challenges, and prospects of biopesticide utilization in Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The toxicity, persistence, and non-biodegradability of chemical pesticides have increased calls for the adoption of sustainable and cost-effective pest control measures. Biopesticides present a sustainable alternative to synthetic pesticides. However, the biopesticide utilization in agrarian countries like Nigeria remains low, resulting in increased chemical pesticide utilization. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the current status, challenges, and prospects of biopesticides in Nigeria. The findings revealed that biopesticide utilization in Nigeria is low due to high costs, poor infrastructure, skilled manpower alongside inconsistent field performance and government policies. The solution to these challenges will significantly boost crop protection, food security, and sustainable agriculture in Nigeria.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1