rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria Feed of different types of flours available in the Romanian market based on the nutrition content<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Flour is one of the most widely used products typically derived from wheat, corn, and rye and is classified based on its nutrition content. The present study aimed to identify and classify the different types of flour (wheat, rye, maize) commercially available in Romania. The market research covered eight types of flour available on the Romanian market: 1. Wheat Flour 000 (N-19), 2. Wheat Flour 550 (N-11), 3. Wheat Flour 650 (N-13), 4. Whole-Wheat Flour (N-15), 5. Durum Wheat Flour (N-8), 6. Spelt Wheat Flour (N-8), 7. Rye Flour (N-15), and 8. Maize Flour (N-23). The classification was carried out by analysing the most important parameters: energy, protein, fat, saturated fatty acid, carbohydrate, sugar, and dietary fibre content, using different statistical methods: descriptive statistics, box plot, hierarchical cluster, and surface radar analysis. The results revealed that white wheat flour represented more than 50% of the analysed samples, and significant differences were found between the tested types of flour. In addition, white wheat flour is characterized with lower dietary fibre, fat and protein content, but it has higher energy content and carbohydrate content. In contrast, whole meal, durum, spelt, and rye flours are characterized by lower carbohydrate and higher fibre and fat content. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that, on the basis of nutritional similarities and differences, the flours studied in Romania can be grouped into three distinct clusters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue response in bacteria originated from dairy products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In some bacteria, the stress adaptation response, a defence mechanism against low pH, can also induce a number of physiological and genetic resistance mechanisms that provide advantages for bacteria to resist other environmental factors. This phenomenon is called cross-protection, which can potentially have serious consequences for food safety. In some fermented, acidified foods, low pH can provide a favourable environment for the growth of bacteria. Bacteria can adapt to acidic environments and become able to survive various factors that occur during storage and processing such as salt, antibiotics, or technological effects.</p> <p>The microbiota of dairy products includes beneficial microorganisms, spoilage bacteria, and foodborne pathogens. The most common bacteria on various dairy products are <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>, <italic>Enterococcus</italic> sp., <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> sp., and <italic>Bacillus</italic> sp.</p> <p>The aim of this research is to determine the resistance of the identified bacteria (16S rDNA-based bacterial identification) to antibiotics and osmotic pressure as a consequence of their possible defence mechanisms adapted to the acidic environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the effects of comminution level and natural antioxidant incorporation on the quality and oxidative stability of turkey meat system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to explore the effects of different comminution degrees and the incorporation of a natural antioxidant on the quality attributes and oxidative reactions of turkey meat. Four distinctive turkey meat systems were established, namely: 3 mm minced treatment (M), 3 mm minced treatment with the addition of 200 ppm gallic acid equivalent <italic>Aloe vera</italic> (<italic>Aloe barbadensis</italic> Mill.) extract (MA), fine-ground treatment (FM), and fine-ground treatment with the addition of 200 ppm gallic acid equivalent <italic>Aloe vera</italic> extract (FMA). The evaluation encompassed an in-depth analysis of various quality parameters and the assessment of lipid-protein oxidation reactions throughout the storage period. The inclusion of <italic>Aloe vera</italic> extract (AE) increased the pH and b* values while simultaneously decreasing the L* and a* values. Conversely, increasing the degree of comminuting manifested an elevation in L* values, concomitant with a decline in a* values. Increased comminuting degree ratios were found to contribute to an exacerbation of oxidative reactions. Nonetheless, the strategic utilization of AE demonstrated its potential to effectively mitigate oxidative reactions during storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue quality and health benefits of roselle calyces<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Roselle calyces (<italic>Hibiscus sabdariffa</italic> L.) were evaluated through a critical study of existing research works on health benefits, mineral compositions, bioactive compositions, mechanisms, and possible research gaps. The use of roselle calyces as an alternative to synthetic food dyes, addressing growing global challenges of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases, was evaluated and encouraged. Studies indicate the attenuation of obesity by chlorogenic acid (the predominant phenolic compound in roselle calyx) via mechanisms associated with the UCP-1 and PGC-1α pathways, resulting in reduced blood lipid levels, reduced fat accumulation in the liver, and increased thermogenesis through fat metabolism. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of known bacteria and fungi, such as <italic>Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium</italic>, <italic>Candida tropicalis</italic>, and <italic>Candida krusei</italic>, were studied. More research, however, needs to be conducted on organic acids present in roselle calyces to look into their possible applications and maximize their possible benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of postharvest management on the microbial quality of potato ( L.) tubers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This experiment was conducted to appraise the role of the curing phytohormone treatment and storage method in the postharvest microbial decay of ware potatoes during storage. The study was designed as a Split-Split-Plot Design (SSPD) in which the curing period was placed in the main plot, and the storage method and the phytohormone were put in subplot and sub-sub-plot respectively. Each treatment was replicated three times to form a 4 × 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Each treatment consisted of 20 potato tubers out of which decayed samples were counted for the calculation of percentage rot loss and identification of the causal agent, which was done fortnightly until the end of the storage period of 12 weeks. Temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity were monitored weekly. All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the GenStat Discovery Edition statistical software package. Means that exhibited significant difference were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMTR) at p = 0.05 level of significance. The results of the analysis showed that the phytohormone levels had highly significant influence (p ≤ 0.01) on percentage rot loss. Although there was a significant interaction between the curing periods and phytohormone concentration, storage conditions (p ≤ 0.05) were observed throughout the storage period of 2–8 weeks. <italic>Fusarium solani</italic>, <italic>Rhizopus oryzae</italic>, and <italic>Aspergillus niger</italic> were implicated in the rotting of potato tubers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue composition and sensory acceptability of cowpea-based pudding produced from cowpea cultivated using different weed control methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluates the effect of different weed control methods on the proximate composition and sensory properties of cowpea-based pudding produced from cowpea flour. Cowpea seeds of Ife Brown variety with three different treatments [(supplementary hoe weeding at 6 weeks after sowing, two hoe weeding at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing, and three hoe weeding at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after sowing (WAS)] were processed into flour samples and analysed for physicochemical properties using standard methods. The puddings were prepared from cowpea flour and were subjected to proximate composition, colour properties as well as sensory qualities using standard methods. The pH, total titratable acidity, water absorption capacity and amylose of cowpea flour were 4.85–5.10, 0.02%–0.05%, 276.00%–287.09%, and 22.04%–24.60% respectively. The ranges of values for moisture content, crude fat, total ash, crude fibre, crude protein, and total carbohydrate of cowpea based pudding were 74.26%–76.15%, 0.63%–0.71%, 0.75%–0.94%, 0.66%–0.75%, 16.70%–17.83%, and 5.11%–5.55% respectively. The colour properties of cowpea-based pudding were significantly affected (p &lt; 0.05) by each treatment. However, cowpea-based pudding prepared from treatment of supplementary hoe weeding at 6 weeks after sowing and three hoe weeding at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after were preferred most by the panelist.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue extraction of (Mast.) Kosterm. seed oil with different solvents, purified with membrane filtration<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The shortcomings encountered from the use of conventional methods of refining draw considerable attention when it comes to the processing of edible oils. The present invention to this effect is the usage of membrane technology, which stands out as a suitable alternative, as it offers significant advantages such as minimal chemical additions, low energy consumption, and the retention of nutrients and other desired components. This paper seeks to ascertain the quality of edible oil extracted by different solvents, refined via membrane filtration. Amounts of 25 mL of crude oil sample were extracted with three different solvents (n-hexane, ethanol, and n-hexane-ethanol blend) from seeds of <italic>Hildegardia barteri</italic> (Mast.) Kosterm. and were refined using a micro-filter of pore size of 0.45 µm and an ultrafiltration membrane with 50 kDa cut off before bleaching and deodorizing to obtain table oil. Proximate composition and elemental analyses were carried out on the table oil samples produced and compared with food-grade standards. Results obtained showed 0.133–0.53% moisture content, 0.04% ash, 98.90–99.67% ether extract, 0.23% carbohydrate, and elemental compositions of 51.60–55.00% C, 6.12–6.30% H, 6.21–6.28% O, 0.01–0.02% N, and 13.0–15.0% P for edible oil samples. The findings of this study indicate that edible oil produced from the seeds of <italic>H. barteri</italic> via membrane technology yields good-quality oil for commercial production, except for the need to enhance further reduction of phosphorus content.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and comparative analysis of protein-polyphenol-fibre bars as nutritional supplements suitable for healthy senior consumers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The number of elderly people is steadily increasing in developing countries though the specific age-related challenges of nutrition fail to get properly addressed in the case of senior citizens. Accordingly, we have developed protein-polyphenol dietary fibre (PPF) bars using two kinds of protein mixtures (1 and 2) and some food additives, such as the banana powder, freeze-dried strawberries, coconut powder, Dutch cacao powder, and vanilla cookies, as they can interfere with the texture of bars and the flavour as well. The used food additives are also a source of polyphenols and dietary fibres that would enhance the nutritive values of the bars. The texture properties, such as hardness and cutting force, were assessed, and the results indicated a significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) among the bars, offering important hints about their suitability for the elderly. Also, significant differences were observed for the polyphenol content of the bars that would stress their increased nutritional relevance too. On average, the sensorial evaluation showed the developed bars of moderate acceptability, while Bar 3 and 6 had the highest scores for colour, texture, flavour, and aroma. Conversely, Bar 1 recorded the lowest values for all assessed criteria.</p> <p>Interestingly, Bar 3 with freeze-dried strawberries and Bar 6 with Dutch cacao powder were the most appreciated flavours and contained in the range of 25–28% protein, 17–23% carbohydrate, 15–21% lipids, and 15–23% dietary fibre, which also indicates their nutritionally balanced nature. Furthermore, the above-mentioned macronutrient content ensures approximately 400 Kcal/100g per PPF bar, while through their polyphenol and flavonoid yield their health-promoting effect gets substantiated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and anti-nutritional properties of pearl millet and pumpkin leaf flour as affected by fermentation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was aimed at determining the mineral and anti-nutritional properties of naturally fermented millet and pumpkin leaf flour blends. The millet grains were allowed to ferment spontaneously for 24 hrs and 48 hrs and were processed into flour. Dried pumpkin leaves were blended into flour and substituted using D-optimal mixture design, which resulted in ten experimental runs. The mineral content and the anti-nutritional properties of the flour blend formulation were analysed. Duncan’s multiple range test was used to evaluate the mean at p &lt; 0.05 with SPSS version 21.0. Significant differences were observed in the mineral and anti-nutritional composition of the fermented millet and pumpkin leaf flour blends at 24 hrs and 48 hrs of fermentation time respectively. Calcium, potassium, and iron content increased significantly (p &lt; 0.05) with increasing the amount of pumpkin leaf flour in the flour blends. The values for tannins and total phenolic composition ranged from 0.089 to 0.162% and from 0.075 to 0.120% for 24 hrs and from 0.080 to 0.141% and from 0.060 to 0.120% for 48 hrs of fermentation time respectively. Results showed that fermentation technique could be used to enrich the nutritional and bioactive potential of millet.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains. </p><p>The aim of our research was to determine the possible relationship between kernel hardness and various other parameters of the our (dough visco-elastic characteristics, wet gluten, water absorption, our recovery, alveograph). We used Perten SKCS 4100 to determine the kernel hardness, while the Perten 3303 mill was used to establish Particle Size Index (PSI). Registered and widely used Hungarian wheat varieties (7 of HRWW and 4 of SRWW) were applied in the study. Twin correlations were used to determine the relationship among the various traits. </p><p>According to the results, there is a very strong correlation between milling energy and kernel hardness (r = 0:99): The correlation between hardness index and the examined our parameters was also significant (r = 0:81–0:87). We found strong correlation between the milling energy and water absorption (r = 0:88) of our. The associations found in this study will help the better understanding of the technological aspects concerning wheat grain and our quality. </p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of drying methods for inner parameters of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In compliance with consumer expectations, careful processing and preservation are increasingly used with fruits and vegetables. The aim is that during these treatments the valuable nutritional characteristics of the raw materials change as little as possible. Drying has been used for the preservation of raw materials for a long time, which can distinguish two different groups based upon pressure. These are the atmospheric and the more careful vacuum drying.</p><p>During the research, Alto F1 beetroots were being dried in vacuum and under atmospheric pressure at different temperatures. Vacuum drying took place at 40, 50, and 60 °C, while atmospheric drying at 60, 70, and 80 °C. All drying processes lasted 150 minutes. During drying, changes of moisture content and water activity were monitored. After drying, colour measurement was realized and the inner parameters were investigated, such as polyphenol, betalain, and antioxidant capacity. These measured parameters were compared in the ease of atmospheric and vacuum drying.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue activity as indicator of UV radiation and other abiotic stress factors on Agaricus bisporus (Lange/Imbach) and Sedum hybridum (L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Investigation of stress level might be facilitated also in plant and horticultural sciences, but currently mainly morphological parameters are in use. Antioxidant activity routinely measured in food-oriented researches and several studies indirectly indicated that stress factors can influence this parameter. Our aim was to assess the potential direct indicator role of antioxidant activity in stress conditions. We measured the effects of UVB and soil-delivered stress on Agaricus bisporus and Sedum hybridum. Our results indicate that UVB slightly decreases, while the inadequate soil conditions increase antioxidant activity; hence these measurements are suitable for determining the level of stress in different living samples.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue orientation of the Hungarian SMEs working in the meat processing and dairy industries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level. </p><p>The marketing-oriented way of thinking still exists among the factors affecting entrepreneurial behaviour, which cannot be found at the level of clusters, according to our results. We could identify 8.3% of the enterprises as having satisfactory marketing activity.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.</p><p>The values of colour difference changed between 2 and 4.5 units. The initial paprika powder influenced the variation significantly, but the quantity of added oleoresin did not have a significant effect.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of wheat grits during storage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The change of the quality of wheat milling products was investigated in our work. We analysed different types of wheat grists that are used in household (BL-55, BL-196, BFF-55 and AD). The grists were stored in three type of packages (paper bag, transparent PE bag, and woven PP bag) and in two different places (bright/warm and dark/cool place) for 6 months. The titre and colour characteristics of samples were measured monthly. Colour measurements were performed with a Hunter MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The values of titre were analysed using ANOVA. The type of package did not have significant influence on the titre. In the case of the BL-55, BL-196, and BFF-55 type of ours, the storage conditions had a significant effect on titre: it was smaller for samples that were stored in the dark/cool place. The value of titre rose significantly during storage for all samples. </p><p>To determine the change of colour, we calculated the ΔE*<sub>ab</sub> colour differences between colour coordinates measured at the beginning and during storage. The colour of the BL-55 and BL-196 our samples did not change perceptibly. The variation of colour of the BFF-55 and AD type of ours was imperceptible for samples stored in the dark/cool place. The changing of the colour was well perceptible in the case of samples stored in the bright/warm place using paper bag or PP bag.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of DDGS-supplemented diet with or without vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the fatty acid profile of beef<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles) diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C), supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E), supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se). At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P &lt; 0.05) in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue utilization of lactic acid whey in dairy processing<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The use of ultra-filtered lactic acid whey retentate was investigated for the making of sour cream. The utilization of lactic acid whey is limited due to its special properties, so the logical utilization way is to use it in fermented products. First, we concentrated lactic acid whey collected from cottage cheese making by ultrafiltration (UF), then UF Whey Retentate (UFWR) was added (by 2, 5, and 10%) into fat standardized cream for sour cream making. We investigated the texture and sensory properties of the sour cream samples compared with the industrial products. Generally, we can state that the use of small portion of UF whey retentate did not result noticeable changes and did not reduce the sensory value of sour creams. Higher UF whey retentate addition improved some texture properties of experimental samples, but the summarized evaluation of UFWR addition was not unequivocal. Control samples showed better results. Based on our results, the sample, which contained 5% UF whey retentate, had good texture and acceptable sensory properties. Furthermore, more than 5% UF lactic acid whey retentate (coming from our own ultrafiltration process) resulted remarkably worse sensory properties than the other samples. Further investigation is needed to find the optimal composition and sensory properties of UFWR. Furthermore, we have to perform technological investigation to reach a higher concentration factor using pre-treatment of whey and to avoid the precipitation of whey proteins during the high temperature pasteurization of cream, cream mixed with UFWR or diafiltered whey retentate. We guess that the use of one-stage diafiltration would already decrease the unfavourable sensory properties of lactic acid whey retentate.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue grains in nutrition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Many people suffer from gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance. They have to avoid or limit their gluten intake. Sorghum and millet are gluten-free cereals, wherefore persons with gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance could consume them. Moreover, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds as phenol acid or flavonoid. Antioxidant activity in sorghum is especially high in comparison with other cereals. Our aim was to compare literature data about the chemical compositions of sorghum and millet with other grains.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue toxicity in winter wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM) were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H<sup>+</sup>-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue hydrostatic pressure: Can we trust published data?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> There are numerous new technologies whose implementation in food industry is hampered by the fact that people hesitate to invest in expensive systems which they cannot be sure will work or at least are questionable in terms of a given product. Until recently, preservation by HHP, high hydrostatic pressure, was such a technology, and still is today in some branches of the food industry. Investigations were conducted to answer the question of whether the literature, the laboratory, and the industrial (or at least pilot plant) measurements and results agree with one another. We compared the literature data with two HHP systems which were significantly different in terms of treatment capacity, but their efficiency in killing microbes was studied under the same treatment parameters. Our results show that in nearly all cases only minimal differences exist between the data in the literature and the measurements taken on the two appliances.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue