rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria Feed quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains. </p><p>The aim of our research was to determine the possible relationship between kernel hardness and various other parameters of the our (dough visco-elastic characteristics, wet gluten, water absorption, our recovery, alveograph). We used Perten SKCS 4100 to determine the kernel hardness, while the Perten 3303 mill was used to establish Particle Size Index (PSI). Registered and widely used Hungarian wheat varieties (7 of HRWW and 4 of SRWW) were applied in the study. Twin correlations were used to determine the relationship among the various traits. </p><p>According to the results, there is a very strong correlation between milling energy and kernel hardness (r = 0:99): The correlation between hardness index and the examined our parameters was also significant (r = 0:81–0:87). We found strong correlation between the milling energy and water absorption (r = 0:88) of our. The associations found in this study will help the better understanding of the technological aspects concerning wheat grain and our quality. </p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of drying methods for inner parameters of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In compliance with consumer expectations, careful processing and preservation are increasingly used with fruits and vegetables. The aim is that during these treatments the valuable nutritional characteristics of the raw materials change as little as possible. Drying has been used for the preservation of raw materials for a long time, which can distinguish two different groups based upon pressure. These are the atmospheric and the more careful vacuum drying.</p><p>During the research, Alto F1 beetroots were being dried in vacuum and under atmospheric pressure at different temperatures. Vacuum drying took place at 40, 50, and 60 °C, while atmospheric drying at 60, 70, and 80 °C. All drying processes lasted 150 minutes. During drying, changes of moisture content and water activity were monitored. After drying, colour measurement was realized and the inner parameters were investigated, such as polyphenol, betalain, and antioxidant capacity. These measured parameters were compared in the ease of atmospheric and vacuum drying.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue activity as indicator of UV radiation and other abiotic stress factors on Agaricus bisporus (Lange/Imbach) and Sedum hybridum (L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Investigation of stress level might be facilitated also in plant and horticultural sciences, but currently mainly morphological parameters are in use. Antioxidant activity routinely measured in food-oriented researches and several studies indirectly indicated that stress factors can influence this parameter. Our aim was to assess the potential direct indicator role of antioxidant activity in stress conditions. We measured the effects of UVB and soil-delivered stress on Agaricus bisporus and Sedum hybridum. Our results indicate that UVB slightly decreases, while the inadequate soil conditions increase antioxidant activity; hence these measurements are suitable for determining the level of stress in different living samples.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue orientation of the Hungarian SMEs working in the meat processing and dairy industries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level. </p><p>The marketing-oriented way of thinking still exists among the factors affecting entrepreneurial behaviour, which cannot be found at the level of clusters, according to our results. We could identify 8.3% of the enterprises as having satisfactory marketing activity.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.</p><p>The values of colour difference changed between 2 and 4.5 units. The initial paprika powder influenced the variation significantly, but the quantity of added oleoresin did not have a significant effect.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of wheat grits during storage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The change of the quality of wheat milling products was investigated in our work. We analysed different types of wheat grists that are used in household (BL-55, BL-196, BFF-55 and AD). The grists were stored in three type of packages (paper bag, transparent PE bag, and woven PP bag) and in two different places (bright/warm and dark/cool place) for 6 months. The titre and colour characteristics of samples were measured monthly. Colour measurements were performed with a Hunter MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The values of titre were analysed using ANOVA. The type of package did not have significant influence on the titre. In the case of the BL-55, BL-196, and BFF-55 type of ours, the storage conditions had a significant effect on titre: it was smaller for samples that were stored in the dark/cool place. The value of titre rose significantly during storage for all samples. </p><p>To determine the change of colour, we calculated the ΔE*<sub>ab</sub> colour differences between colour coordinates measured at the beginning and during storage. The colour of the BL-55 and BL-196 our samples did not change perceptibly. The variation of colour of the BFF-55 and AD type of ours was imperceptible for samples stored in the dark/cool place. The changing of the colour was well perceptible in the case of samples stored in the bright/warm place using paper bag or PP bag.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of DDGS-supplemented diet with or without vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the fatty acid profile of beef<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles) diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C), supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E), supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se). At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P &lt; 0.05) in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue utilization of lactic acid whey in dairy processing<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The use of ultra-filtered lactic acid whey retentate was investigated for the making of sour cream. The utilization of lactic acid whey is limited due to its special properties, so the logical utilization way is to use it in fermented products. First, we concentrated lactic acid whey collected from cottage cheese making by ultrafiltration (UF), then UF Whey Retentate (UFWR) was added (by 2, 5, and 10%) into fat standardized cream for sour cream making. We investigated the texture and sensory properties of the sour cream samples compared with the industrial products. Generally, we can state that the use of small portion of UF whey retentate did not result noticeable changes and did not reduce the sensory value of sour creams. Higher UF whey retentate addition improved some texture properties of experimental samples, but the summarized evaluation of UFWR addition was not unequivocal. Control samples showed better results. Based on our results, the sample, which contained 5% UF whey retentate, had good texture and acceptable sensory properties. Furthermore, more than 5% UF lactic acid whey retentate (coming from our own ultrafiltration process) resulted remarkably worse sensory properties than the other samples. Further investigation is needed to find the optimal composition and sensory properties of UFWR. Furthermore, we have to perform technological investigation to reach a higher concentration factor using pre-treatment of whey and to avoid the precipitation of whey proteins during the high temperature pasteurization of cream, cream mixed with UFWR or diafiltered whey retentate. We guess that the use of one-stage diafiltration would already decrease the unfavourable sensory properties of lactic acid whey retentate.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue grains in nutrition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Many people suffer from gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance. They have to avoid or limit their gluten intake. Sorghum and millet are gluten-free cereals, wherefore persons with gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance could consume them. Moreover, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds as phenol acid or flavonoid. Antioxidant activity in sorghum is especially high in comparison with other cereals. Our aim was to compare literature data about the chemical compositions of sorghum and millet with other grains.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue toxicity in winter wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM) were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H<sup>+</sup>-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue hydrostatic pressure: Can we trust published data?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> There are numerous new technologies whose implementation in food industry is hampered by the fact that people hesitate to invest in expensive systems which they cannot be sure will work or at least are questionable in terms of a given product. Until recently, preservation by HHP, high hydrostatic pressure, was such a technology, and still is today in some branches of the food industry. Investigations were conducted to answer the question of whether the literature, the laboratory, and the industrial (or at least pilot plant) measurements and results agree with one another. We compared the literature data with two HHP systems which were significantly different in terms of treatment capacity, but their efficiency in killing microbes was studied under the same treatment parameters. Our results show that in nearly all cases only minimal differences exist between the data in the literature and the measurements taken on the two appliances.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg) winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran) toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg), which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%), our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of colour agent content of paprika powders with added oleoresin<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is used often to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour agent content of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using two types of oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of the samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian and Hungarian paprika. The colour agent content of the samples was measured throughout 10 months. The measured values were analysed using ANOVA. The decrease of colour agent content varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The initial colour agent content of the paprika powder samples did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly. The effect of the quantity of added oleoresin did not influence either the colour agent content decrease significantly. The decrease of the colour agent content of the Hungarian paprika samples significantly differs from the Chinese and Peruvian paprika samples colour agent content decrease.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation. </p><p>After producing various products from the control milk (18 μg/kg selenium content) and the selenium-enriched milk (53 μg/kg) obtained from dairy cattle fed on a feed supplemented with 2 mg selenium/day, we concluded that the selenium content of selenium-enriched milk compared to the products produced from the control milk increased from the value of 18.6 to 58.5 μg/kg in the case of yogurt, from 66.0 to 138.1 μg/kg in the case of telemea, from 80.8 to 163.7 μg/kg in the case of orda (urdă) and from 88.6 to 200.0 μg/kg in the case of semi-hard cheese obtained by mixed-coagulation. The selenium content of whey also increased significantly (from 8.8-9.7 μg/kg to 20.1-25.8 μg/kg), which could also be used as a food for people or feed for animals. According to our calculations, the selenium requirements of the developing organism could be satisfied by the consumption of 2-3 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 8 and with 4-6 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 20.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue cell count of milk from different goat breeds<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> There is no standard limit value for somatic cell count (SCC) of raw goat milk in the EU despite that excellent hygienic quality milk is needed for the manufacture of fermented milk products or cheese varieties. Mastitis often results such high SCC - besides the potential risk for humans - that the clotting of milk will not be perfect, resulting slack curd with higher whey releasing; furthermore, wrong structure, ripening, bad sensory properties of cheese can also be its consequences. In this paper, we report the SCC of milk samples from five different goat breeds bred in Hungary, measured with two fast methods compared with the results from the reference method. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability and the accuracy of the MT-02 (Agro Legato Ltd., Hungary) instrument. We determined that the White Side test and the instrument MT were suitable for the estimation of possible risks and consequences in the case of the use of high SCC milk before production. The general summarized average milk SCC was 6.64 × 10<sup>5</sup> ml<sup>−1</sup>. The highest difference between the results from MT-02 and the fluorometric (reference) method was 5 × 10<sup>5</sup> ml<sup>−1</sup>, but it was a singular, extreme value. The r<sup>2</sup> of the calculated linear calibration equation was 0.7819; consequently, this method seems to be applicable in the measurement of SCC with MT-02 instrument. Furthermore, the SCC of samples did not differ significantly by genotypes and by seasons (spring: 5.85 × 10<sup>5</sup> ml<sup>−1</sup>, autumn: 6.22 × 10<sup>5</sup> ml<sup>−1</sup>).</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós) in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.). The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne). The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C*) showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece) we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of using the fruit waste of the modern Hungarian pálinka fermentation technology for the foraging of extensively kept grey cattle<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In this article, the authors report on the experiences of six years of foraging, describing how the fruit wastes generated in the Pannonhalmi Pálinkárium are utilized for foraging Hungarian grey cattle. The goal is not the control or improvement of the cattle’s growth indices but the problem-free, continuous and eco-friendly disposal of the fruit waste. They have found that the fruit waste or pomace is virtually nothing else than protein-enriched sugar-free fruit, and that during the utilization of this they have to maximally adapt to the cattle’s life-cycle, biological nature and environmental factors, and they will repay you by eating the pomace. They conclude that the grey cattle are a skin-and-hairs-covered bioreactor, which provides an economical service for the distillery through the utilization of the fruit waste. Nowadays, 150,000-200,000 tons of fruit waste is produced every year, and only a few percent of this is utilized in ruminant forage. By writing this article, the authors would like to expand our very scarce knowledge on this topic.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of oil-seed pressing residue on bread colour and texture<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Cold-pressing residue of walnut kernel (WKR) and brown linseed (BLR) was applied in wheat flour blends at 100:0, 95:5 and 90:10 ratios, of which enriched breads were baked, then stored for 3 days at ambient temperature. Colour parameters and firmness of bread crumb were measured daily. Bavarian rye-bread (BR) and wholemeal multigrain bread (WMMG) were used as competitive, marketable breads for comparing tests.</p><p>The studied oil-seed pressing residues (OSRs) resulted brown colour with different characteristics, depending both on the type of OSR and in comparison with marketed breads, too. The type and the ratio of OSR applied had no influence on the varying of crumb texture (P = 0.107). WKR and BLR enrichment provided stable texture for breads with a 3-day shelf-life, independently from their addition ratio. BLR resulted in softer crumb than WKR; however, this difference was considered to be negligible (P = 0.128). The WKR- and BLR-enriched breads stayed significantly softer at the end of storage time than the marketed breads (P = 0.000). Our results indicate that competitive bakery goods can be produced using oil-seed pressing residue/wheat flour blends.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag) were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012). We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012) during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the selenium content of wheat grasses produced in different soil types in Csik Basin<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In the course of the research, we determined selenium and dry matter content of 35 wheat grass and 35 wheat seed samples. The selenium content of the preparation plant probes was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (λ<sub>excitation</sub> = 380 nm, λ<sub>emission</sub> = 519 nm) of the resulted piazselenol complex. It was established that between the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p = 0.05 level, which indicates a medium-close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium-close correlation between the selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p = 0.02 level. Afterwards, beside the selenium content, we measured the selenomethionine content by ion-exchange chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, and the organic selenium content was calculated. A very close correlation was established between the total selenium, selenomethionine and calculated organic selenium content of wheat (the correlation coefficients were between 0.92 and 0.99 at p = 0.01 level). The correlation between the selenomethionine content of wheat grass and wheat seed was very weak (r = 0.23).</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue