rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Communicatio FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Communicatio Universitatis Sapientiae, Communicatio 's Cover“You are a Champion and Will Always Be!” – Sports Fans, Influencers, and Media Consumption in 2021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The spread of digital media culture can be seen in action in almost every walk of life. The use of online media results in new solutions even in the most common practices, and the field of sports and related fan cultures are no exceptions to that. From the mid-2010s, the trend of sports events, athletes, and their fans becoming more and more connected to online space can be well observed. This transformation generates significant changes, which can often have far-reaching effects. One such phenomenon is that excellent athletes can appear in the role of online opinion leaders or influencers. In the following study, I present these processes based on the results of a recent study that examined changes in Hungarian fan habits in connection with the 2021 European Football Championship. The second half of the study then focuses on how changes in fan practices contribute to making athletes the most valuable players in the influencer market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Beyond Netiquette: Digital Citizenship as Participation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digital citizenship research has been on the agenda of scholars and practitioners since 1999 and has been trending since 2015. A plethora of approaches and definitions have been arising, with two major directions: a theoretical-methodological and a practical-educative. The present critical literature review is aimed at advocating for a more civic approach to the issue of digital citizenship and at presenting arguments in favour of <italic>a research agenda focused on the participatory components of digital life</italic>. Our desk research operated with both original studies and meta-analyses related to the concept of digital citizenship. While being technically savvy and well-behaved online is a key requirement for today’s netizen, becoming a citizen in virtual spaces requires more. Beyond netiquette, civic participation online is becoming a core competence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00New Digital Cinema: How Platforms Are Changing the Audiovisual Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digitalization has been changing the methods of production, distribution, and use of written and audiovisual products, according to a process of “platforming”. Most audiovisual content is available via streaming platforms, through a lot of devices (PCs, tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, and videogame consoles), which have empowered the process of media convergence. Based on a theoretical framework related to the impact of the platforms on the ongoing process, we intend to analyse how platforms are changing the identity of the audiovisual industry and how they represent themselves online. In order to analyse the ongoing process, we intend to examine some platforms that could be considered as best practices in the audiovisual field: Netflix, MUBI, and Festival Scope. On the one hand, using these platforms as case studies will enable us to highlight some beneficial aspects of the ongoing process of digitalization and platforming: holding many gazes and points of view; catching market niches; building a peer-to-peer network. On the other hand, we intend to emphasize some risks connected to the intermediation of platforms in the audiovisual field in terms of economic, cultural, and social effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The Social Media Communication of Hungarian County Seats: Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube Presence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The communication toolkit of urban marketing has changed significantly in recent years, with online solutions and social media becoming the focus of attention besides (and, in a way, instead of) classic offline tools. In our study, we explore how this toolkit can be effectively applied to cities and how cities should communicate through different platforms. For this purpose, we have created a kind of social media tutorial regarding Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube. In our own primary research, we used data from the first quarter of 2021 to investigate the presence of Hungarian county seats on the abovementioned three platforms. For this purpose, in addition to the usual social media data, such as page likes, subscribers, number of views, or even the activity rate, we created a much more complex, professional but also – inevitably – somewhat subjective analysis system. It would be also worthwhile for other cities to use this criteria system as a checklist or to adopt good practices from the cities at the top of the list.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Public Service Media in the Age of Social Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digital transformation and the expansion of social networks have essentially modified journalistic practice, facing challenges concerning its essential operation and boundaries. The traditional business models have collapsed, young people’s media consumption habits have changed, and more non-professional journalists participate in news production. Social media platforms have an immense effect on journalistic work, especially journalists’ professional and ethical standards. Perhaps traditional public service media are the ones that stand the farthest away from participatory practices and platform logic, characterizing today’s media environment. What are the public media services’ opportunities to fulfil their commitment of authentically and objectively informing citizens, including young people, about public affairs? This study aims to picture the boundary work of journalism currently underway by reviewing the phenomena emerging on the border of journalism and social media. Additionally, the study attempts to answer what a successful social media strategy looks like in public service media by presenting the social media activities of “tagesschau”, the newsmagazine of ARD, a German public-service channel.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Online Identities in Politics. Technological and Content-Based Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, we examine a particular form of organizational identity, the issue of political organizational identity. We have chosen a technology and content-based approach and are looking for the answer to how technology influences identity formation, what role social media plays in shaping online political communities, and what characterizes a definable and strong online political identity. The impact of new communication technologies and media platforms has now reached all levels of society. It has influenced many aspects of everyday life, transformed politics, the economy, and culture, and has an impact on institutional identities as well. To identify the forces shaping institutional identity, we examine the role of digitalization, network technologies, and algorithms and the presence of social media and, finally, bring the <italic>Occupy Wall Street</italic> movement as an example of reshaping online identities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Measuring Reactance to Camcorder Symbols Linked to Online News<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to test the validity of a short-scale measuring reactance to a camera symbol associated with online news, indicating the possibility of viewing video footage. The operationalization of reactance means a mixture of anger and negative cognitions preceded by the sense of danger of losing one’s freedom (Reynolds-Tylus, 2019). As the brief reactance scale elaborated by Hall and colleagues (2017) contains these elements, we assumed that it would constitute the appropriate basis for the elaboration of further brief reactance scales. Thus, we elaborated a brief reactance scale adequate for measuring reactance to camcorder symbols linked to online news. Data collection took place among the students of Sapientia University (Romania). For analysing the adequacy of the scale, we used confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and convergent validity analysis. We also checked to what extent the elaborated measuring tool could predict the avoidance of news linked with camcorder symbols. The results of this analysis show that in the case of people with high reactance to camcorder symbols, the increase of reactance leads to these people choosing less and less news linked with camcorder symbols. All these prove that despite its limitations the scale constitutes an adequate tool for the measuring of reactance to camcorder symbols.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Best Practices of CSR Reporting in Romania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to examine the content and quality of online CSR reports of the eight large companies with the highest CSR index scores in Romania in 2020. The CSR reports of the eight large companies examined were analysed on the basis of two types of web content: on the one hand, on the basis of CSR content published on the company website and on the other hand on the basis of data published in sustainability or CSR reports uploaded to the website. The research method was thematic content analysis. The analysis criteria of the mentioned content were developed on the basis of the reporting principles of the GRI framework and the ISO 26000 standard. The findings showed that the principles of content and quality of non-financial reporting prevailed in the sustainability reports, while the data published on the websites was more for wider information.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Global Stars on Local Screens: BTS and Its “Army”<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This research note is aimed at exploring the opportunities and challenges faced by teenagers living in an underprivileged region in Romania as fans of an internationally popular K-pop band. We used desk research and netnography to explore similarities and differences between the local and international BTS (Bangtan Sonyeondan) fandom, also called “Army”. Which are the barriers a Hungarian “Army” from Romania encounters when engaging with their idols? What is the role of K-pop in opening up the language and cultural bubble in which Hungarian youth in rural Romania live?1 The innovative element in our empirical research is the <italic>focus on family context</italic>: we interviewed both BTS fans and their parents in order to assess to what extent is K-pop in general and BTS in particular part of their daily lives. With its limitations as a small-scale qualitative analysis, such research can give insights into fan studies from a comparative perspective.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Trust and Technologies of Sense. VR and Proprioception in<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper investigates the changing role of media devices in constructing fictive worlds through senses, and the changing relation we have to our senses. The demand for immersion in a virtual visual reality has its precedents, shown for example by the popularity of the kaleidoscope, the peeping box, the Guckkasten, or the panoramas. But while the immersive effect of these illusion spaces was based on visual perception, now we have multisensory interactive spaces that trigger our proprioception (body awareness and feeling of presence). The VR experience <italic>Hamlet Encounters</italic> offers a unique experience and exemplary use of distance, dislocation, and perception of one’s own senses.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Branding Power of Szeklerland. Online Place Branding Tendencies and Identity-Forming Efforts in Szeklerland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Destination branding has always been a complex question. This is especially true if we are talking about Szeklerland as a historical, cultural, and ethnic region, which can be defined in the easiest way through Covasna, Harghita, and Mureş counties of Romania. A well-structured brand in a region can help with its economic development and search for identity, so it is worth looking into branding activities in the region. Despite Szeklerland’s strong identity and reputation, the discourse is extremely divided between Romanian and Hungarian people. There are plenty of brand owners in the region without central management and coherence. There are plenty of amateur and corporate initiatives that are generally poorly organized and serve individual economic purposes. In addition, politicians also play an active role in forming these processes. Although the regional and tourism development strategies of the counties of Szeklerland are similar, and it can be said that the stakeholders are open to the cooperation between the three counties, there were only partial results of regional-level collaboration. The paper follows the activities of online promotional initiatives about Szeklerland and the larger territorial units influencing the region, such as Romania and Transylvania, and the branding narratives created during them.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Argumentation Moods<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Argumentation is an act of communication performed by a speaker aiming to persuade a listener to accept or reject a proposition, named thesis, using another proposition, called argument, and a relation between them – the frame of argumentation. Argumentations are evaluated relatively to the pragmatic value of success and to the logical value of correctness. These values are independent of each other – namely, from the success of an argumentation, nothing can be inferred about its correctitude, and reciprocally. In order to establish the correctness of an argumentation, we can classify all argumentations into moods such as the syllogisms. A necessary condition for the correctitude of an argumentation is the validity of its mood. The validity of the argumentative moods is investigated using the reduction method established by Aristotle for syllogistic moods.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Why a Book on the Digital Divide in 2020? Analysis of Technologies Supporting the Availability of Online Content: From Keyword-Based Search to the Semantic Web<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The era of Web 1.0 implied the connection of web-based documents via links, which enabled search engines to scan for information and guarantee the search and availability of webpages. Web 2.0 represented the next evolutionary stage. Known as the collaborative web, the emphasis in this case was on the establishment of services and content by the community. Search options were complemented with labelling and frequently undesirable clickstream analysis coupled with push technology-supported information provision. The semantic web is a revolutionary development, which, in addition to processing information by humans, assures the readability of datasets by machines and facilitates communication between devices. In order to promote data and information processing by machines, the semantic web relies on a special ontology allocating the respective meaning to the given data along with relying on the global indexing and naming schemes of the web. Several ontologies emerged with differing basic guidelines while displaying compatibility to the RDF standard ranging from the more semantic description of bibliographical data in libraries to the description of information gained from social networks and human conversations. While Web 3.0 is often used interchangeably with the semantic web, the former one with its intelligent server function exceeds the semantic web. We have to ask ourselves, however, whether we can rely on the accuracy of the obtained data, and we must explore what progress have libraries – expected to increase reliability – made regarding the implementation of semantic data storage.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Psychology of Inclusion on New Media Platforms and the Online Communication<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Following the tabooistic and rejective attitude of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, in the processing and announcement method of the 21<sup>st</sup> century, there is is a growing emphasis on sharing various life events on the platforms of new media (Web 2.0). Such platforms can be social media sites or one of the file or video sharing pages or blogs. In addition to presenting user habits shaped by the COVID pandemic, which have temporarily changed the online communication, I aim to answer the question of how new media (Web 2.0) becomes the platform of communal loss for users of different ages, genders, social statuses, and diverse Internet usage habits and socialization. I attempt to present the comprehensive picture of the transformation of personal loss into communal grief experience on the different platforms of new media and what supportive acts help the person who shares his/her loss experience in the processing of the events. By means of feedback (reactions, comments, replies with different emoticons), the user’s loss experience “expands” into communal loss experience. In the present research paper, the findings of the international discipline are only applied to Hungary (its current population is 9.6 million), a Central Eastern European country where, according to a representative study published in 2015, there are 5 million Facebook users.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Politeness and Insult in Computer Games – From a Pragmatic Point of View<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In line with the principle of technological determinism, the linguistic context of computer games influences the (linguistic) behaviour of millions of active gamers. This makes it important to explore gamer communication thoroughly with respect to politeness, too. Indeed, the communication of gamers during games may also affect the users’ off-game communicative situations. The international literature suggests that the quasi-anonymity of online communication and the lack or weakness of sanction make it ruder than offline communication: it involves a higher number of insults or offensive personal remarks. The paper looks at this issue, in particular by a pragmatic – politeness-centred – investigation of a particular kind of online insults. The corpus of analysis is provided by “taunts”, i.e. inbuilt instructions triggering “mocking” remarks of League of Legends (LoL), a multiple-participant online arena game. The authors interpret in-game insults in the framework of speech act theory, the Cooperative Principle (conversational and politeness maxims), face threatening, and a matrix of aims and functions. The paper wishes to be a contribution to cyberpragmatics, a pragmatically-oriented branch of Internet linguistics.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Project (I)solation – Everyday Life and Media Use During the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The pandemic has placed our relationship with digital media in a new context. Regardless of age, the isolation had significant impact on our everyday routines, of which media use has become a constant factor in one form or another. We may have never tried to use so many new applications in such a short time before, as for many of us media was the only connection to the outside world. However, after the quarantine, there are several questions that may arise following the extreme situation. Were we captured or rather liberated by the online media? What did we learn about online life and our relationship with the media during the epidemic? How could the digital generation adapt itself to the new circumstances? What challenges and problems did Generation Z face during the quarantine? How have young people’s daily routines, media use patterns, news consumption, learning and/or working habits changed? How about their general attitudes towards the media and their effects on them? In the study below, I seek answers to these questions based on the results of an international, interdisciplinary research project called <italic>TOGETHER</italic> initiated by the University of Pécs (Pécs, Hungary) and Hochschule für Kommunikation und Gestaltung (Stuttgart, Germany).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Museums and Online Spaces. The Society-Building Role of the Museums during the Pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the past more than six months, not only the cultural institutional network but also all of humanity has entered in a peculiar existential state. All that was previously commonplace, accepted, or natural has become in many ways impossible or, in some cases, even illegal. In the last period, we could also witness the changes regarding museums and museum environments, and we ourselves, who inhabit/use the spaces of the museums, have also changed. These changes affect the frameworks of representation and reception as well as our habits of viewing and interpretation. The pandemic has caused in museum practice a backward step towards a previous practice. Museums have suddenly re-become archives preserving objects and meanings, and it will take time for them to recollect themselves and start searching for solutions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Initiators of Our Everyday Life – Relationship between Coffee and Instagram<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this study, I would like to understand the background of sharing coffee online and get to know why it encourages young people to post their coffee. I analyse the two popular parts of our everyday lives, coffee and Instagram, and their connection points, which are coffee posts as communication tools and their posting and content sharing itself as a form of communication. In my theoretical background, I reflect on the process of coffee becoming a consumer product, the relationships between cafés and the public, and I reflect on the features of Instagram that captivate young people and enable online social rites. Regarding the question of presence, I am looking for the answer to the peculiarities of the relationship between online and offline, the dissonance caused by the simultaneous appearance on the two stages. The aim of the paper is to compare the traditional and the online characteristics of the coffee community and to interpret it as a rite. Based on the theoretical background of digital ethnography, using participatory observation and photomontage techniques, I explore attitudes and motivations among the Generation Z young people in Târgu-Mureş in terms of this activity. These two evocative methods, further interpreting the visuals of Instagram, allow interpretation not only from an aesthetic point of view but also in terms of the analysis of their symbol system, background, and motivations. In my interpretations, the acceptance of manipulation, the attitude of reality, the social characteristics of online coffee communities, the relationships between Instagram visuality and Generation Z media consumption needs, compensation practices that use coffee posts as an excuse and provide insight into the self-reflexive process of coffee post backgrounds are explicated. In my final conclusions, I outline the system of likeability for coffee posts as a feature of competitive, community photography. I refer to the sharing of coffee online as new contexts of parasocial relations, and I also reflect on coffee posts as a self-branding opportunity that can be used as a tool for self-expression.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Affective and Cognitive Dimensions of Trust in Communication<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Based on the complexity of communication acts, the paper presents how affective and cognitive aspects are intertwined. First of all, the context of trust and the conditions of its appearance are examined. It is followed by an analysis of trust as an attitude which reveals the difference between contractual approaches and alliances. The relationship between communication and trust is presented by the illocutionary acts. As a result of the analysis, trust can be conceived as a positive attitude of expectation, where one person relies on the assumed good faith, suitability, and sensitivity of the other person, where, although vulnerable, the one who trusts counts on the fact that the trusted person will not abuse his/her position but rather provide assistance to his/her best knowledge in a given area. Cognitive trust is reinforced if the proper data are available, understandable, fit into prior knowledge, and anticipate the possible forms of operation. With affective trust, the issue is not data quality and quantity but rather the way how they are presented.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1