rss_2.0Autex Research Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Autex Research Journalhttps://sciendo.com/journal/AUThttps://www.sciendo.comAutex Research Journal 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221205T081528Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221205%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=2c56f786b0780491fc1d020fd7756a392096b056d316966a9e2ba82936b19a56200300Investigation of Surface Geometry of Seersucker Woven Fabricshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Seersucker woven fabrics are characterized by their unique structure and properties. Surface topography is a crucial feature of the seersucker woven fabrics. It influences the appearance and performance of fabrics. Till now, no testing method has been developed to assess the seersucker woven fabrics from the point of view of their surface geometry and to quantify the seersucker effect. In the present work, the non-contact optical method has been used to determine the parameters and functions characterizing the surface geometry of the cotton seersucker woven fabric. The aim of this work was to analyse the possibility of use of the MicroSpy<sup>®</sup> Profile profilometer in complex characterization of the investigated fabric and separately the flat and puckered areas of the fabric. The obtained results confirmed that the selected surface parameters and functions are able to distinguish both phases of the seersucker woven fabric: flat and puckered. The results are the starting point for further investigations of the seersucker woven fabrics in order to quantify the seersucker effect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Liquid Moisture Transport in Stretched Knitted Fabricshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Transport of moisture is an important aspect of physiological comfort of clothing usage. The moisture originating from sweat can be in the form of vapour or liquid. Sweat in the form of liquid occurs, whereas the sweat in the form of vapour cannot be efficiently evaporated to the environment. For the stretchable fabrics, it is important to know the influence of stretching on their liquid moisture transport performance. The aim of the present work was to analyse the liquid moisture transport in knitted fabrics at varying degrees of stretch: 0, 15, 20 and 20%, and to assess the effect of stretch ratio on the ability of fabrics to transport the liquid moisture. Measurement was done using the M290 Moisture Management Tester supplemented with the MMT Stretch Fabric Fixture device. The obtained results confirmed that the stretching influences the values of the parameters characterizing the knitted fabrics from the point of view of their ability to transport liquid moisture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Study on Process Optimization and Wetting Performance of Ultrasonic-Oxidized Wool Fiberhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As lightweight and comfortable wool products have become the mainstream of the market, the surface treatment technology of wool fiber has been widely observed. Here, we treated wool fibers by ultrasonic bath and oxidation in a composite method that was better able to improve the wetting properties of wool fiber. Using this approach, we investigated the main factors influencing the effect of treatment and established the regression equations of multiple indices on processing conditions; after testing and optimization, the optimum technological parameters were obtained and experimentally verified. In addition, test results revealed that the ultrasonic-oxidation treatment in the optimum process led to the disulfide bonds (S-S) of wool fiber breaking and being oxidized, but showed less effect on the fiber's supramolecular structure; the wool fiber surface became smoother and more uniform, which resulted in a greatly increased wettability; there was a remarkable decrease in contact angle, and the rate of moisture absorption and desorption was enhanced in response to optimal treatment. These findings are significant for the potential industrial application of wool fiber as a moisture-absorbing material in textile products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Thermal Resistance of Gray Modal and Micromodal Sockshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Men's socks were produced on a Lonati circular knitting machine in 18 different combinations in multi-plated plain jersey from basic modal and basic micro modal yarn with the addition of cotton or PA multifilament yarn and elastane yarn in the sock cuff. The modal and micromodal yarns were ring-spun, rotor-spun and air-spun; they consist of 38 mm long staple fibres with a fineness of 1.3 and 1.0 dtex respectively. Thermal resistance was determined by use of the thermal foot. The thermal resistance values for all socks samples range from 0.0091 to 0.01586 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>. The highest thermal resistance per groups of basic modal fibres was obtained in the samples made of air-jet spun yarn of 0.0132 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> and the lowest in samples of rotor yarn of 0.0109 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>. The highest thermal resistance in all groups of basic micromodal samples made of ring yarn (0.0132 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>) and the lowest in the samples made of air-spun yarn (0.0099 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>). At low levels of thermal resistance, as the thickness of the sample of basic modal and micro modal fibres of ring and rotor yarns increases, the thermal resistance of socks increases with a correlation coefficient of 0.711. The tested sock samples have low thermal resistance, i.e. they can conduct heat better than the sock leg, thus achieving cooling and comfort, which is important for wearing socks in warm weather.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Design of Clothing with Encrypted Information of Lost Children Information Based on Chaotic System and DNA Theoryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The encryption design is partly based on the fractional chaotic system and DNA theory. First, the dynamic characteristics of the newly proposed fractional Lü chaotic system are analyzed, and based on the analysis, a multi-image encryption algorithm is proposed. That is, the Arnold scrambling algorithm is used to scramble the image matrix, and then the DNA encryption theory is used to diffuse the image matrix. Among them, the scrambling step and the diffusion step are based on the chaotic sequence, and the encrypted image is finally obtained. Finally, the new encryption algorithm is evaluated, and the results show that the key space of the new encryption algorithm is further expanded and is very sensitive to key changes. The algorithm can effectively destroy the correlation of the original image, and can resist various cracking attacks. In summary, the multi-image encryption algorithm proposed in this paper has good encryption performance and provides a theoretical basis for practical applications. By reading those labels, children's identity and other relevant information can be acquired. This method may help police to obtain information on lost children and find their family rapidly.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Current Development and Future Prospects of Designing Sustainable Fashionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the entire fashion industry has been striving to develop in a more sustainable way. As the starting and crucial link of fashion product development, the process of design plays a decisive role in creating a healthier fashion supply chain. In this sense, the current work discusses from the design point of view the status quo and future direction of the development of fashion sustainability. The paper first describes the concept, the historical development, and the multi-angled significance of sustainable fashion design. Then, the current development of sustainable fashion design is studied by investigating the various ideas and approaches that are popular nowadays for the designing of eco-friendly and waste-free clothing. On this basis, the current work digs into the existing problems and finally points out the future prospects for the development of sustainable fashion design by putting forward some innovative and promising ideas and instructive “future-making” techniques.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of Spectral Analysis in Spinning Measurementshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented analysis concerns the problem of irregularity in the mass distribution in linear textile products, its impact on the quality of flat products, and the methods of assessment. Based on the model of the ideal fiber stream, the purpose of the spectrogram has been justified, the characteristic form of the spectrogram for the yarn, roving, and sliver has been presented, and the impact of spinning machines on the form of the spectrogram has been described. The paper evaluates also the selected aspects of spectral analysis of the yarn and spinning semi-finished product irregularities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigating the Effect of Recycled Cotton Included Fabrics on the Thermal Behaviour by Using a Female Thermal Manikinhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, with the increase in global awareness of environmental problems, the term “sustainability” became more important for apparel manufacturers and consumers. Therefore, recycling of wastes plays a significant role in environmental sustainability by converting the wastes into raw materials. This study focused on recycled cotton-included fabrics, to evaluate the effect of these fabrics on thermal comfort properties. In this context, first, the 45% recycled cotton/55% polyester blended yarns and 50% virgin cotton/50% blended yarns were obtained. Afterwards, single jersey and rib-structured fabrics were knitted using these yarns. The thermal comfort tests were performed on the fabrics and four long sleeve rounded neck shirts then were manufactured using these fabrics to test by the thermal manikin method. Results showed that the yarns including recycled cotton led to a decrease in the values in air permeability of the fabrics and in the effective clothing insulation of the garments. In contrast, it was observed that, including recycled cotton increased the thermal resistance values of the fabrics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of Sensory Marketing on Clothing-Buying Behaviorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, intensive rivalry forces enterprises and brands to strive for differentiation. Use of marketing strategies, which can allure the consumers, effectively is one of the ways of differing oneself from one's rivals. Sensory marketing strategy, which affects the buying behavior and perception of consumers by alluring their senses, is one the marketing strategies whose importance and use have increased in recent years. This strategy also has been intensively used by enterprises that produce and market clothing products, which are one of the basic needs of consumers. In this context, this research study aims to analyze the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior. The research aims to reveal how consumers in Turkey, which is one of the leading global clothing exporters and at the same time which is one of the significant markets, are affected by sensory marketing factors during the clothing purchase process. In accordance with the aim of the research, a survey was conducted of consumers who live in the three biggest cities of Turkey and whose ages are 18 and over. The data, which were obtained from field research, were analyzed statistically and suggestions are made to enterprises and brands that produce clothing products and/or market clothing products, on the basis of the study's findings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Transport of Moisture in Car Seat Covershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Transport of liquid water is one of the basic producer requirements to ensure the suitable physiological comfort of drivers. This paper deals with the investigation of car seat covers’ efficiency from the point of view of their moisture management. Two methods were used for the evaluation of moisture transport in the car seat cover structures. Both of them use a thermography system for water transport detection. The first method evaluates dynamic water spreading in cross-section in the frontal plane; the second one examines horizontally dynamic spreading of liquid drops on the upper face of the sample. The tested materials were designed to understand the role of the middle layer of textile sandwich car seats in their moisture management behavior. The same PES woven structure in the top layer was used for all tested samples. Knitted spacer fabric (3D spacer fabric), polyurethane foam, and nonwoven were used as padding in the middle layer in car seat covers. In summary, the distribution and transport of liquid moisture in a sandwich structure are fundamentally affected by the middle layer of composite, especially by material composition and the value of porosity. The best results were shown in 3D spacer fabric for car seat covers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Review on 3D Fabrication at Nanoscalehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Among the different nanostructures that have been demonstrated as promising materials for various applications, three–dimensional (3D) nanostructures have attracted significant attention as building blocks for constructing high-performance nanodevices because of their unusual mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and magnetic properties arising from their novel size effects and abundant active catalytic/reactive sites due to the high specific surface area. Considerable research efforts have been devoted to designing, fabricating, and evaluating 3D nanostructures for applications, including structural composites, electronics, photonics, biomedical engineering, and energy. This review provides an overview of the nanofabrication strategies that have been developed to fabricate 3D functional architectures with exquisite control over their morphology at the nanoscale. The pros and cons of the typical synthetic methods and experimental protocols are reviewed and outlined. Future challenges of fabrication of 3D nanostructured materials are also discussed to further advance current nanoscience and nanotechnology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of the Performance of Cotton/Polyester Blend in Different Yarn Structureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The demand for polyester fiber is increasing gradually day by day. Because of its good strength, low manufacturing cost, and ease of modification, polyester fiber has distinct characteristics, whereas cotton is well known for its comfort. Blending these fibers improves the performance of yarns. In this study, cotton/polyester was blended in different ratios to evaluate yarn performance. Three groups of yarn: rigid, core, and dual-core-spun, have been produced to examine the yarn’s performance. From the study, it has been found that increasing the polyester blend ratio increases the yarn strength and elongation but decreases the yarn unevenness and imperfections. Among the group, having more core components decreases yarn strength, unevenness, and imperfection but increases elongation. From the statistical analysis, except strength, all other properties have good interaction on yarn type and blending ratio. Pearson correlation also indicated that elongation and hairiness have a good correlation with yarn type where, except for hairiness, all other properties have shown a strong positive correlation on blending ratio.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Polyaniline Electrospun Composite Nanofibers Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Reinforcement of fibers was carried out by adding carbon black (CB), and hydroxylated and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into electrospinning solution containing doped polyaniline (CSA-PANI) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). CB/CSA-PANI/PAN and CNT/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber composite membrane was formed in high-voltage electric field. The CSA-PANI/CB/PAN fiber membrane was found to be more brittle than the MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane. The average diameter of the CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers increased with CB addition, while the average diameter of CNT-added MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers decreased with increasing CNT concentrations. Upon greater CB and CNT addition, agglomeration occurred, and the surface of the fibers was raised slightly. The fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane was greatly improved with 1% added CB but then decreased upon further CB addition. Upon addition of CNTs, the fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane first increased and then decreased, and the addition of carboxylated CNTs was more advantageous for improving the fracture strength of the fiber membrane. The electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber membranes was essentially the same for different radiation frequencies. Upon addition of CB and CNTs, the electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber first increased and then decreased, with a more pronounced decrease obtained by the addition of CB.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of Actual Phenomena and Auxiliary Ultrasonic Welding Parameters on Seam Strength of PVC-Coated Hybrid Textileshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A study of polyvinylchloride-coated woven polyester fabric welding potential was conducted using continuous ultrasonic welding machines. The effect of cooling air, anvil wheel status, anvil wheel width, material surface contact, and welding gap on seam strength was studied. Three main welding parameters with different levels were selected based on 5 and 10 mm welding widths using old and new anvil wheels with and without cooling air. A lapped type of seam was applied under full factorial design. A microstructure was captured to examine the formation of welding joints, and seam tensile properties were determined. Comparative analysis of comparable welding parameters was analyzed for a gap against pressure and amplitude against power. The actual weld phenomenon was also analyzed based on the recorded machine parameters. The results showed that auxiliary parameters had a significant effect on seam strength. A microscopic image of a welded seam indicated that cooling air reduced the number and size of holes produced. Weld seam with controlled pressure or power provided higher seam strength than that of the controlled gap or amplitude. The actual phenomenon of welding parameters was important to evaluate weld seam quality, whereby the obtained results indicated good quality at lower power and pressure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Washing Characterization of Compression Sockshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Compression socks are highly recommended textile garments for the exertion of compression pressure (kPa) at the ankle. They work on the principle of the highest pressure at the ankle gradually decreasing from the ankle to the calf.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>The aim of the current research is to analyze all of the compression sock samples (Class I, Class II, and Class III) simultaneously at various number of times of washing them.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>All of the sock samples were washed in a standard washing machine with standard methods (ISO 6330). For the measurement of the compression pressure, a Salzmann MST MKIV pressure measuring device was used according to the RAL-GZ 387/1 method.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Results included the effect of multiple wearing and washing cycles (up to 20) on compression pressure, the effect of temperature (up to 100°C) on compression pressure (kPa); multiple wearing and washing cycles on the percentage of shrinkage and the effect of marking methodology on compression pressure (Kpa) were observed and are discussed in this article. The results suggest that washing is the most important factor to consider while compression socks are used for compression therapy because they directly influence the efficacy of streamline blood flow across the legs.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Modeling of Material Characteristics of Conventional Synthetic Fabricshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a method for modeling the material characteristics of synthetic fabrics based on static tensile test results with consideration of material orthotropy. Material characteristics were determined for fabrics under load at three different angles in relation to their orthotropy. The fabrics examined were the following: polyester fabrics Bratex and Ortalion, cotton fabric with nylon and elastin fabric (poplin), and Gore-Tex membrane fabric. Considering the material mechanical characteristics, the differences were in grammage, maximum strain, and tensile strength. The study allowed us to determine the nonlinear elastic dependency between strain and stress. Test results were implemented within the Abaqus/Explicit framework for the purpose of performance of verification simulations. The correlation between simulated and experimental results was established. A high degree of similarity allows us to classify the obtained material model as usable in simulation work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Surface Modification of Himalayan Nettle Fiber and Characterization of the Morphology, Physical and Mechanical Propertieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process of retting bast fiber plants for the production of long fiber has presented major challenges. Water retting, dew retting, chemical extraction, and micro-organism (fungi, enzymes) techniques were applied to the extraction of natural fibers. The two nettle samples were extracted with water retting for 14 days and dew retting for 4 weeks. This research investigated the effects on the traditional retting process of nettle fiber by fungi and bacteria formation in lignocellulosic. The latter biological extraction methods successfully degraded the lignin and pectin materials of the fiber and increases the cellulose content. These extraction methods produced high quality fiber and tensile strength at a low cost. This study determined the chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics such as fiber cellulose, non-cellulosic content, tensile strength, tenacity, and elongation break to see how treatments affected them. The treated fiber surface morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate functional group alterations, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used on the fiber specimen.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of a Small, Covered Yarn Prototypehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid development of the textile industry has led to the demand for more advanced textile equipment because the current covering yarn machines are large and expensive and have a large physical footprint. Also, the current technology is unsuitable for most laboratory research and small factory proofing. In this paper, the principle of forming covered yarn is analyzed and simplified in three systems: the unwinding system, the covering system, and the winding system. A small sample of low volume and better flexibility is developed, the production process and primary structure of the covered yarn prototype are introduced, and the covering effect of the small prototype is debugged and analyzed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Numerical Prediction of the Heat Transfer in Air Gap of Different Garment Modelshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer and its mechanism for styling a design garment differently, and to improve thermal comfort caused by clothing styling design, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach has been used to perform numerical investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer across a clothing air gap. Relationships between the heat transfer from the body to clothing (computed by heat transfer equations) and the air gap were examined by body heat loss of different styles of garments. Also, the clothing temperature distribution of different garments was obtained and compared. Computed results reveal that the air gap can play a central role in the heat transfer from the body to the surface of different style garments. When the air gap is small enough, namely about 5 mm in the chest and bust of the X-type of clothing, the conductive heat flux can transfer through the air gap and reach the cloth surface easily, which will bring about the increase of temperature on the clothing surface. The decreasing air gap distance from 50 mm (O-type) to 10 mm (X-type) increases the convective heat flux by up to 25% on the waist. However, the airspeed will increase to greater numbers while the air gap decreases to narrow channels, and it will bring about fierce forced convection heat flux. So the heat transfer must be considered in the process of garment design, and the air gap should be kept at a suitable level. These findings can be used to improve the clothing’s thermal comfort or optimize the cloth structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of the Smart T-Shirt for Monitoring Thermal Status of Athleteshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Athletes are often subjected to a great physical strain during training and competition. Sport activities performed in hot and humid conditions may result in different heat illnesses with mild or fatal consequences. Against this background it is important to know the thermal state of athletes during physical activity.</p> <p>This article presents the development of a smart T-shirt for monitoring the thermal status of an athlete. The smart T-shirt was created by embedding an electronic system with temperature and humidity sensors that allows the measurement of temperature and the relative humidity of the microclimate. A smart T-shirt is comfortable, and integrated sensors and electronics do not affect wearing comfort. A good concurrence between the temperature and humidity results from using the smart T-shirt, and thus the medical device was achieved. Data obtained can be of great importance to the sports staff who will be able to monitor the athletes' thermal state during matches and competitions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-11T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1