rss_2.0B&H Electrical Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for B&H Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering 's Cover Network Planning Methodology With Ed Mostar Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Power systems around the world have undergone a number of important organizational, structural and technological changes over the past few decades; they are a direct consequence of the electricity market liberalization and transition from conventional energy conversion technologies towards renewable resources. These changes represent many advantages as well as challenges for the Distribution System Operator (DSO). The aim of this paper is to review the most important principles, objectives and technical criteria used in planning the development of the electricity distribution network. Presented principles can be used as basic guidelines when developing short-term and long-term plans for the construction and reconstruction of power distribution facilities. This paper also presents a methodological approach to the planning and ranking of proposed electricity facilities with an example from practice that is based on the real planning problem in ED Mostar. The basic conclusion of the paper is that the identification of objectives, criteria and the application of an appropriate and unique methodology is of the utmost importance for formulating the framework of the planning process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimal Distributed Generation Allocation in Distribution Systems with Non-Linear Loads Using a New Hybrid Meta-Heuristic Algorithm<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a new hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm based on the Phasor Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO) and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) for optimal allocation of distributed generation (DG) in distribution systems with non-linear loads. Performance of the algorithm is evaluated on the IEEE 69-bus system with the aim of reducing power losses, as well as improving voltage profile and power quality. Results, obtained using the proposed algorithm, are compared with those obtained using the original PSO, PPSO, GSA and PSOGSA algorithms. It is found that the proposed algorithm has better performance in terms of convergence speed and finding the best solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Operational Experience in Determining the Earth Fault on Resonant Grounded Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Resonant grounding of the medium voltage (MV) network’s neutral point improves the power quality and creates conditions for development of more reliable network. By changing the way of the MV network grounding, conditions for relay protection of single phase fault (earth fault) are changed due to reduced value of zero sequence current during earth fault and demands on the relay protection are increased. Protection system is not able to selectively detect earth fault with high transient resistance and repetitive current earth faults in cable network, so it requires more sensible approach. In case of fault detection, technically more demanding fault indicators must be used. This article will show experiences in detecting earth faults in resonant grounded MV network of Elektra Zagreb.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Early Streamer Emission Vs Conventional Lightning Protection Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper analyses and compares the conventional lightning protection systems proposed in IEC 62305 to the lightning protection systems based on the application of early streamer emission lightning rods proposed in NF C 17-102. Comparison between the two approaches to the lightning protection of structures was presented, both from a technical and economic point of view. Some inconsistencies in the conventional air termination system design methods are pointed out. The critical attitude of the scientific community regarding the declared protection characteristics of the early streamer emission lightning rods is discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00One Approach in Street Lighting System Reconstruction Regarding Energy Efficiency<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper will present an approach for reconstruction of street lighting system regarding energy efficiency. Today, most street lighting systems are based on gas discharge lamps. LED lighting is energy efficiency lighting, which consumes less energy than lighting based on gas discharge lamps but, initial investment is still high. Methodology described in this paper includes analysis of the existing street lighting and gives guidelines for selection of equivalent LED lighting instead of the non-efficient existing one. Methodology includes economic evaluation of investment and saving ratio. This approach shortens calculation time, especially luminance calculations, due to lighting classification (on streets and areas) in clusters. This approach is especially appropriate for great systems of street lighting (city areas, cities and so on.).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Control of Position, Velocity and Acceleration of Actuators Using Optimal State Estimation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to improve performance of closed loop control and achieve highly accurate reference trajectory tracking, motion controllers have to utilize the advanced control and system state estimation algorithms. Classical PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller includes calculation of derivation of a process value in order to achieve system desired performance of a system. This paper presents Kalman filter as an optimal estimation algorithm on the model of a hydraulic actuator which is equally applicable to any other application that involves calculating derivations of noisy measurements. Alternative form of Kalman filter, suitable for implementation on a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or any other embedded system is also presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00ICT Innovation Management for the Economic Development Purposes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research paper in its first part focuses on the theoretical concepts of “innovation”, “innovation Management”, and “ICT innovation management”. The second part of the paper aims to follow results of the survey (research methodology) in determining whether the innovation is of interest to the participants of the survey. It questions whether ICT innovations are the key for economic development of the country, or if the interviewees own their (patented) ICT innovative product. It questions where the interviewees find motivation for creation of ICT innovation and if the managers consider opening vacancies for ICT innovation development. It questions whether they are familiar with the Strategy of Innovation Incentives in the Republic of Croatia, in the period 2014-2020, or whether the interviewees believe it was real and achieved. Did the interviewees know that the Republic of Croatia was behind Slovenia, Hungary and Bulgaria according to the Index of Innovation, and if they agree with the statement that innovations are the source of real competitive advantage of individual business, and one of the most efficient ways for sustainable prosperity. Are the SMEs (small and medium enterprises) the cornerstones for development of modern economy?</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Legendre Orthonormal Functions Based Model Predictive Control of DC Motor<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents modelling and control of very common actuator, DC motor. The control of the DC motor was implemented with the Model predictive control (MPC) controller based on Legendre orthonormal functions. As PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller is simple and effective controller, mainly used in industrial applications, above mentioned MPC controller’s performance was compared to the PID controller performance. A criterion used is the fastest response with the maximum of 2% overshoots with step input and step disturbance treated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Static Var Compensator (SVC) Devices on Power System Losses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the location of the SVC installation on the amount of power losses in the power system. The IEEE modified system with 3 wind turbines and 24 nodes was used as the test system. For the purpose of discovering the optimal location of the SVC device, GAMS programme was used. Comparing the results for losses before and after setting SVC to the optimum position in order to minimize losses, it was concluded that the position and power of the SVC device greatly influence the amount of losses in the system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Design, Development and Implementation of a Distributed Measurement System for No-Load Pressure Measurement in High Voltage Circuit Breakers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the design and development of a distributed measurement system for measuring pressure in high voltage circuit breakers (HV CB) and other switching apparatuses, during no-load operations. Instead of using traditional pressure transducers which require significant installation space, additional data acquisition cards and often demand for complex wiring, an in-house solution of pressure measurement is proposed. The system consists of miniature sensors, accompanied with a suitable amplifier, microcontroller unit and communication module, which may be distributed inside the interrupter unit in convenient locations. Due to the fact that the measurement values are transmitted digitally, measurement noise is significantly reduced while the wiring of the system is additionally simplified. The proposed measurement system is tested using two different interrupters (HV CB and a load break switch). The experimental results have demonstrated that the developed system is applicable, accurate, cost-effective, flexible and simple to use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00A Comprehensive Study of Shape Orientation Methods for Extraction of Phase-Preserving Fourier Descriptors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The magnitude-based Fourier descriptors (FD) are frequently used in shape-based image retrieval, due to their efficiency and effectiveness. Unlike the phase-preserving Fourier descriptors, the magnitude-based Fourier descriptors are inherently invariant under rotation and starting point change, but they discard all valuable information contained in the phase of the Fourier coefficients (FCs). In order to preserve the coefficients’ phase, the orientation and starting point of the shape must be determined. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of different state-of-the-art methods for determining nominal shape orientation, which can be used to extract phase-preserving Fourier descriptors: the point of maximal radius, the axis of least inertia (moments), the phase of the first harmonic, the cross-correlation, the Procrustes distance and the pseudomirror points. The methods were compared in terms of sensitivity to non-rigid transformations, retrieval performance, computational complexity and computational time. The experimental results give insight into the pros and cons of all analyzed methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Topological Methods in Signal Processing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article gives an overview of the applications of algebraic topology methods in signal processing. We explain how the notions and invariants such as (co)chain complexes and (co)homology of simplicial complexes can be used to gain insight into higher-order interactions of signals. The discussion begins with some basic ideas in classical circuits, continues with signals over graphs and simplicial complexes, and culminates with an overview of sheaf theory and the connections between sheaf cohomology and signal processing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimal Power Flow Control in a Stand-Alone PV System with a Battery-Assisted Quasi-Z-Source Inverter<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a photovoltaic (PV) power system with a battery storage unit and the quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI). This inverter belongs to the group of transformerless single-stage inverters with buck/boost capability. The considered system is designed for autonomous load supply and battery charging in areas isolated from the utility grid. The batteries ensure continuous operation in the case of energy shortage/surplus and compensate for the oscillations of the PV power due to changes in atmospheric conditions. They also enable capturing of the maximum available power from the PV modules. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm utilized in this study belongs to the group of perturb-and-observe (P&amp;O) algorithms, which are widely used in commercial PV systems. The state of charge (SOC) of the employed batteries represents an important factor in the context of MPPT operation and is taken into account in the proposed power flow control algorithm. The performance of the proposed system has been tested through simulations in the MATLAB Simulink over wide ranges of solar irradiation, PV module temperatures, and SOC levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Overview of Factorisation Methods in Kalman Filtering<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper summarises and describes the most commonly used matrix factorisation methods applied in design of the Kalman filter in order to improve computational efficiency and avoid divergence issues caused by numerical round-off and truncation errors. Some forms of the Kalman filter are more prone to the growth of numerical error sand possible divergence than other implementations. In order to prevent the algorithm’s divergence additional processing is needed and this paper discusses pros and cons of different implementations and their numerical characteristics. Numerical issues still arise in finite word length implementations of algorithms, which frequently occur in embedded systems. This paper describes algorithms based on different factorisations such as Cholesky, U-D, SVD and their basic numerical properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Microgrid Operation in Stand-Alone Mode - Sustainable Smart Tourist Village Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to analyse the stand-alone operation of the microgrid located in Umoljani, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The analysis was performed for two scenarios; one representing a summer day and the other a winter day. The analysed network was modelled using the DIgSilent PowerFactory. The Photovoltaic (PV) system, Wind Generator (WG) and battery sizing were performed using the HOMER software tool. The load data for the location was obtained from JP Elektroprivreda Bosne i Hercegovine. The analysis showed that the network was able to operate in stand-alone mode. Voltage levels were under the voltage limit defined by EN 50160. Line loading was decreased compared to loading in grid-connected mode. As given by the obtained results for the two scenarios, the consumer demand could be satisfied without the inclusion of WG. However, different input data (wind speed data measured on the location) could change the sizing of the production facilities as the results of the optimization calculations in HOMER, which needs to be considered in microgrid configuration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Different Methods for Identification of Dominant Oscillation Mode<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper introduces and compares the various techniques for identification and analysis of low frequency oscillations in a power system. Inter-area electromechanical oscillations are the focus of this paper. After multiresolution decomposition of characteristic signals, physical characteristics of system oscillations in signal components are identified and presented using the Fourier transform, Prony’s method, Matrix Pencil Analysis Method, S-transform, Global Wavelet Spectrum and Hilbert Huang transform (Hilbert Marginal Spectrum) in time-frequency domain representation. The analyses were performed on real frequency signals obtained from FNET/GridEye system during the earthquake that triggered the shutdown of the North Anna Nuclear Generating Station in the east coast of the United States. In addition, according to the obtained results the proposed methods have proven to be reliable for identification of the model parameters of low-frequency oscillation in power systems. The relevant analyses are carried out in MATLAB coding environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Numerical Study of Thermal Dissipation Processes in Silicon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Heat dissipation in nanoelectronics has become a major bottleneck to further scaling in next-generation integrated circuits. In order to address this problem and develop more energy-efficient nanoelectronic transistor, sensor, and storage devices, we must understand thermal processes at the atomic scale, which requires numerical simulation of the interaction between electrons and heat, carried by quantized lattice vibrations called phonons. Here we examine in detail the phonon emission and absorption spectra in silicon at several elevated values for the electron temperature. The effect of electric field on the electron distribution and equivalent electron temperature is obtained from full-band Monte Carlo simulation for bulk silicon. The electron distributions are used to numerically compute the phonon emission and absorption spectra and discover trends in their behavior at high electron temperatures. The concept of electron temperature is used to understand the relationship between field and heat emission, and it is found that longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon emission increases at high electron temperatures. It is also found that emission of slower zone-edge phonons increases for all phonon branches at high electron temperatures. These conclusions at high electric fields can be used to enable heat-conscious design of future silicon devices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Realisation of 3Smart Project at Ephzhb Business Building Site in Tomislavgrad<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Efficient use of energy is important in achieving sustainable development. In 2007, European Union set now well-known targets (20-20-20) for 2020 regarding greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption share obtained from renewable energy sources and more efficient use of energy. These goals were groundbreaking at the time. They set a clear sense of direction, which drove investment in infrastructure, and research and innovation. It was a concept that has now been followed by countries all over the world. In 2019, European Union set even more challenging goals for 2030. An important role in achieving energy efficiency goal have building energy management systems, because consumption of commercial and residential buildings has more than 30% of final energy consumption amount. That is why efficient and intelligent energy management in the buildings can have considerable benefits.</p> <p>3Smart project is an international project, which links renewable energy sources and energy efficiency with biggest achievement in applications, which manage energy flows in a building in interaction with electrical distribution network. The expected impact is clean and efficient way of energy usage with lower costs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Achieving Energy Efficiency With Led Lighting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rational use and energy management is very important for the business of industrial companies. This paper will present some of the measures to establish energy efficiency in the company. The realization of the project of improving energy efficiency by replacing the existing lighting with new, more energy efficient, LED lighting in order to reduce electricity consumption and emissions will be presented. A previous lighting design in the production halls will be presented. Nine production halls will be analysed, as well as a paint shop that requires equipment in Ex proof design. Analysis and modelling of electricity consumption, proposals and measures to improve energy efficiency will also be presented. The choice of appropriate LED lighting and Ex LED lighting with photometric calculations is crucial. This is followed by the determination of energy and economic savings, evaluation of the proposed measures, as well as the calculation of CO<sub>2</sub> emission reductions. The management system and monitoring of electricity consumption, as well as future planned measures with LED lighting will also be presented in this paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Overview of Islanding Detection Methods of Distributed Sources in Distribution Grid<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Increasing number of distribution sources has many benefits: system reliability, energy quality in some cases, voltage stability, power security, etc. Adding advantages include potential disadvantages and risks for the network and its users, in this case consumers and other electricity sources. The disadvantages may be, but are not limited to increased levels of short circuit currents, deliberate disconnection from the distribution network, poor energy quality in some cases, and risk of islanding. Islanding protection has become one of the main requirements when a new distribution source needs to be installed in the network, which requires islanding protection as one of the standard distribution source protections. Many researchers have suggested some solutions to the problem of islanding and, based on previous research, four main parts have been formed: communication-based protection, passive, active, and hybrid methods of protection. This paper reviews current applicable methods in industry and the real sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1