rss_2.0Biomedical Human Kinetics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Biomedical Human Kinetics Human Kinetics 's Cover online workshops using active teaching methods improve self-rated communication skills of physiotherapy students?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: In the education of physiotherapists, communication skills should be developed: this can be done by conducting special workshops. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need arose for replacing conventional forms of education with remote classes. Therefore, it was decided to test the effectiveness of a social skills workshop conducted using active online methods for second-year physiotherapy students.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The experimental factor was the contents of workshop classes taught online as part of the mandatory course included in the curriculum. The platforms Teams, Zoom, and the Messenger were used to carry out the experiment. The workshops used active learning methods: simulation of work situation, drama, peer feedback and interaction-based communication.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The results obtained from 78 participants (pre-test and post-test, including 45 women) were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 20 to 22 years, with a mean of 20.7 years. A self-reported social skills questionnaire consisting of 17 statements was used. participation in the course resulted in a significant increase in the index of general communication skills of the students (Z = 5.11, p &lt; 0.001, R = 0.582).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Online workshops using active teaching methods, which are an essential element of students of physiotherapy preparation for clinical work, can stimulate the development of their communication skills.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Agreement of measures between measured body adiposity and calculated indices of fatness in sedentary and active male and female students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Our study was undertaken to analyze agreement between measured body fat and different indices of fatness in students of both sexes and with different physical activity.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: A total of 330 students not engaged in regular physical activity (150 males and 180 females) and 356 students (180 males and 176 females) engaged in regular physical activity due to their study program (5–7 h/week) were recruited. In all participants body adiposity was measured from skinfold thickness. In addition, calculated indices of fatness based on waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), such as abdominal volume index (AVI), body adiposity index (BAI) and relative fat mass (RFM) were calculated.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The analysis of Bland-Altman plots revealed that agreement between measured and calculated body fat was found for RFM and BAI in sedentary and active men and for BAI in sedentary women, but not for measured body fat and RFM in sedentary women and for RFM and BAI in active women.</p> <p><italic>Discussion</italic>: Our study showed that in young adult Poles of both sexes and with different physical activity, the calculated obesity rates should be used with caution, especially in women, as an indicator of total body fat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Letter to the Editor motor abilities and anthropometrics are poorly related to futsal-specific agility performance; multiple regression analysis in professional players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim:</italic> This study aimed to evaluate predictors of futsal-specific change-of-direction speed and futsal-specific reactive agility in professional male futsal players.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods:</italic> The players (n=75) studied were members of seven futsal teams that competed at the highest national level in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The predictors in this study included measures of generic power, speed, agility, and anthropometrics. The univariate and multivariate relationships among the predictors and the criteria (futsal-specific change-of-direction speed and futsal-specific reactive agility) were assessed by using Pearson’s correlations and multiple regression analysis, respectively.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> The predictors were poorly related to the different facets of agility (all trivial to moderate correlations). Multiple regression models were not successfully cross-validated for any of the types of agility performance.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion:</italic> Generic power, speed, agility, and anthropometrics are not valid predictors of futsal-specific change-of-direction speed and futsal-specific reactive agility. As these futsal performances were used to mimic real-game situations in futsal, these findings suggest that superiority in generic motor abilities and anthropometrics may not have a significant effect on performance in futsal matches.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Associations between device-measured physical activity and balance performance in children: Mediating role of motor self-efficacy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) and balance performance among children with considering motor self-efficacy as a mediator.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The present study employed a correlational-comparative approach. The present study applied a correlational-comparative approach. Eighty-two children (40 girls) of Tehran city, Iran in 2020 participated in this study (mean age of 9.82 ± 1.64 years). Physical activity was measured using the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. Dynamic balance test was used to collect balance performance. Motor self-efficacy was measured using a standard questionnaire.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: On average, boys had higher moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) than girls (47.28 vs. 36.74 minutes per day, respectively). MVPA was significantly and directly associated with children’s balance performance, and here, motor self-efficacy acted as a significant mediator.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: These findings underscore the need for targeted strategies and interventions for children, especially girls, to develop adequate levels of PA.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Indian folk-dance therapy on physical performances and quality of life in elderly<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To study the effect of Indian folk-dance therapy on physical performances and quality of life in elderly.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Forty healthy seniors with age between 60–70 years were randomly allocated into two group; Group A: Indian folk-dance therapy and Group B: Conventional therapy. Both the groups received 60 minutes session, five sessions a week for six weeks.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Inter-group analysis showed significant improvements in Group A in Fullerton advanced balance scale (Z = –2.91, p &lt; 0.01; Montreal cognitive assessment scale (T = 4.77, p &lt; 0.01); single leg stance with eyes open (Z = –2.07, p = 0.03); eyes closed Z = –2.12, p = 0.03), 6 min walk distance (Z = –3.03, p &lt; 0.01) and SF 36 (physical component) (T = 2.38, p = 0.02) and SF 36 (mental component) (T = 2.42, p = 0.02).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Indian folk-dance therapy showed significant improvements in static and dynamic balance, reduced risk of fall, improved cognitive function, improved physical functioning and quality of life than conventional therapy among elderly individuals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Trigger point therapy – ischemic compression or perhaps cupping?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of single ischemic compression and cupping therapy on the most common trigger point, on the descending part of the trapezius muscle.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: Twenty-five students (15 women and 10 men) aged 24.20 ± 1.27 years were enrolled in the study. The mobility of the cervical spine area was measured with a measuring tape. The pain pressure threshold of the trigger point of the trapezius muscle was tested using a Wagner FDX 50 Force Gage digital algometer. Each person participated in three tests with an interval of approximately one week between them. The following study protocol was followed; 1) cupping therapy, with a cup statically positioned on the trigger point for two minutes, 2) at a minimum interval of 7 days, ischemic compression performed with the thumb twice for 1 minute on each side 3) control test at an interval of another 7 days.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Ischemic compression resulted in a statistically significant difference in cervical spine mobility scores (except for extension) and pain pressure threshold values. After applying cups, statistically significant differences were also observed in the results of cervical spine mobility and pain pressure threshold values. No statistically significant differences were found in the effectiveness of the therapies tested.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: In the present study, single trigger point cupping and ischemic compression therapies improved cervical spine mobility and resulted in an increase in the pain pressure threshold in the trapezius muscle trigger point. These two therapies did not differ in terms of their effectiveness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationships of attention and arousal are responsible for action in sports<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The most important psychological mechanisms that are responsible for sports activity are arousal and attention. Study aim the relationships between the level of arousal and the level of attention, an attempt has been made to explain the mechanisms responsible for sportsman activity.</p> <p><italic>Material and method</italic>: The study was conducted in a group of sportsman-students (68 individuals) using the Vienna Test System: FLIM, a test of flicker/fusion frequency, which is a measurement procedure allowing to determine the functional readiness of the central nervous system in terms of arousal and COG (Cognitron), which is a test measuring the level of attention.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The following in statistical analysis of the data were observed: inversely proportional relationships of image fusion frequency (FLIM1) during the recording of the level of arousal with: the correct acceptance of stimuli (COG1, r = –0.287), the correct rejection of stimuli (COG2, r = –0.320), the time of correctly accepted stimuli (COG3, r = –0.299), and with the time of correctly rejected stimuli (COG4, r = –0.317) in the attentional activity.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Fusion frequency indicates the level of fatigue and is inversely proportional to the correctly accepted stimuli in attentional activity, the correctly rejected stimuli in attentional activities, and the duration of the attentional actions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on swimmers in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health, lifestyle, training loads and competition starts of swimmers in Poland in 2020.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study was conducted in the form of a questionnaire on group of 123 Polish swimmers in 2020. The survey asked about differences in training, lifestyle and well-being following the introduction of pandemic restrictions. The mean age of the athletes was 23 years ± 7.6 and training experience 10 years ± 5.3.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The majority of swimmers (81%) were satisfied with their health status. Respondents did not experience changes in sleep quality and length during the COVID-19 pandemic. A large proportion of respondents (83%) did not follow a special diet, while they were willing to use supplementation (58.5%). Respondents stated that the pandemic did not affect their physical activity outside of training. The athletes evaluated negatively the changes in training and competition conditions caused by the pandemic (p &lt; 0.0001).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: The study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic did not have a major impact on the health, sleep and physical activity of swimmers in Poland in 2020, while it had a negative impact in terms of training conditions and sport competition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Acute caffeine mouth rinse does not affect attention and hand-eye coordination in recreationally active adults<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of different four caffeine mouth rinse intervention (caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, placebo, control) on attention and hand-eye coordination.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Sixty-five healthy, recreationally active female (n = 41) (age 22.89 ± 3.94 years; body mass index 20.87 ± 2.63 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and male (n = 24) (age 29.91 ± 12.06 years; body mass index 22.56 ± 2.21 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) volunteered to participate in this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) and Mirror-Tracing Test (MTT) was used. Participants first completed a SCWT or MTT, then rinsed and expectorated 25 ml of caffeinated coffee (containing 0.13% caffeine) or decaffeinated coffee or placebo (water) or control that did not rinse for 10 s, followed by SCWT or MTT again. Data were analyzed using a 4 (mouth rinse interventions) × 2 (pre-test and post-test) repeated measures ANOVA.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: SCWT time, MTT draw time and MTT number of error measures were not significantly different between four mouth rinse interventions (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Caffeinated coffee or decaffeinated coffee mouth rinse for 10 s provided immediately prior to SCWT or MTT did not affect attention and hand-eye coordination.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Championship interseason period did not reduce knee peak moment: A 10-years retrospective study of 467 elite soccer players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To compare knee moment profiles of professional soccer players from different playing positions before and after an interseason period.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Retrospective study of 467 healthy, professional elite Brazilian soccer players before and after an official championship interseason period during 10-years. Main outcome measures were isokinetic peak moment from knee extensors and flexors from concentric and eccentric contractions. A Two-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare each playing position before and after interseason period.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: It was found no statistical difference in Ext.CPT (from <italic>p</italic> = 0.11 to <italic>p</italic> = 0.97), Ext.EPT (from <italic>p</italic> = 0.07 to <italic>p</italic> = 0.85), Flx. CPT (from <italic>p</italic> = 0.14 to <italic>p</italic> = 0.90) or Flx.EPT (from <italic>p</italic> = 0.10 to <italic>p</italic> = 0.91) between End-Season and Pre-Season evaluations for all playing positions (from Goalkeepers, Defenders, Backsiders, Midfielders and Forwards).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Isokinetic peak moment did not have significant differences after an interseason period of 4 to 6 weeks, allowing trainers and coaches to focus their pre-season period on other performance concerns than strengthening.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Objective assessment of the functional status of stroke patients: Can comprehensive rehabilitation treatment improve their functional efficiency?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To check if the short rehabilitation treatment (3 weeks) complemented by complex rehabilitation on advanced equipment improves the functional status of chronic stroke patients; and which clinical and objective parameters can be used to assess the efficacy of such treatment.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: 28 patients 3 to 6 months after the stroke. They participated in 3 weeks rehabilitation program in Rehabilitation Hospital. This program was supplemented by rehabilitation on: Zebris treadmill, ALFA and GAMMA platform, Biodex Balance System SD, the Balance Tutor treadmill. Their functional status was assessed by: Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS), Timed-Up-And-Go test (TUG), balance tests on Zebris, instrumented gait analysis on BTS system.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The positive changes of the patients’ functional status were found in time of TUG test, in case of balance test for 95% of the ellipsoid area, lengths of major and minor axes of the ellipsoid, average sway speed, sway path length, total ground reaction force for left and right leg, and Gillette Gait Index in case of the gait analysis.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: The improvement of the functional status of chronic stroke patients after relatively short rehabilitation treatment was achieved, due to the addition to the standard rehabilitation treatment the program on the advanced technologically equipment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural capital competencies of teachers in sports education: A mixed-method study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: In this study, the cultural capital competencies of physical education and sports teachers were investigated using the mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) research design.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The participants of the quantitative method were 248 physical education and sports teachers working in educational institutions in Turkey, and 24 volunteers from this group were randomly selected for the qualitative phase. The analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 22.0 and QSR NVIVO-10 software. The <italic>Cultural Capital Scale</italic> was utilized to collect the quantitative data, while the qualitative data was obtained through two semi-structured open-ended questions.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The findings of the study revealed no significant differences in the variables of gender, education level and the type of location where the teacher grew up. A positive and high level of correlation was found between the <italic>Cultural Capital Scale</italic> and the subscale <italic>Intellectual Accumulation</italic>. The <italic>Intellectual Accumulation</italic> subscale was found to explain 87% of the variance of the <italic>Cultural Capital Scale</italic> (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.872).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Creating educational environments where intellectual accumulation, participation, cultural awareness, and cultural potential dimensions are considered at every stage of education is suggested to enrich the cultural capital accumulations of physical education and sports teachers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The 10-week of aerobic-functional training improves fasting blood sugar, insulin resistance, and lipid profile in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A randomized controlled trial<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 10-week of combined training course on concentrations of blood sugar, Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profile in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: This clinical trial was performed in diabetic neuropathy women and men (30–60 years old). Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: exercise (EG; n = 10) and control (CG; n = 10). The EG performed 10-week programme with one session of aerobic exercises (40% to 70% of HR<sub>Reserve</sub>) and one session of functional exercises (60–90 min/ day) at the same day for four days/week and the CG performed their daily activities. The Blood glucose, IR, and lipid profile were measured initially and after the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (p &lt; 0.01) and HOMA-IR (p &lt; 0.01), and greater improvements in TG (p &lt; 0.05) and LDL (p &lt; 0.05) in EG than CG, but. HDL concentration did not show significant changes.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The 10-week of aerobic-functional training improves fasting blood sugar, IR, and lipid profile in patients with diabetic neuropathy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Sex-related differences in the sagittal plane spinal angles in preschool and school-age children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The study aimed to assess the differences in the magnitude of the anterior-posterior spinal curvatures depending on sex in children aged 5 and 9 years.</p> <p><italic>Material and method</italic>s: This prospective longitudinal observational study included 67 children (29 girls and 38 boys) in pre-school-age and school-age phases (the first examination at 5 years old and the second examination at 9 years old). Measurements of body weight and height were recorded. The computerized assessment of body posture was performed with the photo-grammetric method (MORA 4 Generation). The normality of the distribution of variables was assessed with the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the differences between the sexes in terms of body posture parameters and somatic parameters.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: There were no statistically significant sex-related differences in the values of parameters of the anterior-posterior spinal curvatures in 5-year-old children. In the group of 9-year-old children in the angle of lumbar lordosis, a significant difference between the sexes was found (U = 387.00, p &lt; 0.05). Girls aged 9 had a significantly higher mean value of the angle of lumbar lordosis than boys at the same age (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: A sex-related difference was found in the magnitude of lumbar lordosis in school-age children. Understanding the gender differentiation of lumbar lordosis is the first step towards explaining the wide variability of normal lumbar lordosis in adults and the developmental and biomechanical differences between male and female lumbar spines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Olympic and World boxing medalists from 1904 to 2019: The role of age, height, weight categories and nationality<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To investigate the role of age, height, and weight categories on the performance of top nations and boxing medalists in Olympic Games (OG) (1904–2018) and World Championships (WG) (1974–2019).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Data were collected from 1,806 athletes using the website of International Boxing Association (AIBA), International Olympic Committee (IOC) and Wikipedia.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The average age of medalists was ~24yrs with an increase of age (medium effect) across this 115 years period. Height was 1.76m and the super heavy category had significantly higher values by age and height compared to the other weight categories. The top medalists were three men with triple gold medals on OG and 13 over three on WC. Performance was associated with nationality (p &lt; 0.01, medium effect), where a dominance of Cubans (211 medals) was observed.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: These findings highlighted the importance of the long-term development and specialization of talent athletes for peak performance in elite competitions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Non randomised trial of GRAVITY system therapy effectiveness in chronic, low intensity low back disc disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a therapeutically challenging pain syndrome. Physical exercises are the most common therapy used in CLBP treatment. The aim of the study was to verify if GRAVITY system exercise can be effective in the therapy of chronic discogenic low back pain. The GRAVITY system exercise aims at strengthening full body muscles using the trainee’s own body weight only.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study was registered at Identifier: NCT04765293. We used TREND statement. The study populations were 50 patients with CLBP. The study population (group I) consisted of 25 patients who had GRAVITY system exercise. The clinical control group were 25 patients who received standard treatment in an outpatient clinic of National Health Fund. Before the start of the training, the patients’ had their muscle strength responsible for stabilizing the lumbar segment measured. We also measured patients’ Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) prior to and after the therapy cycle. The therapy was conducted twice a week for 40 minutes over the period of 4 weeks. The clinical control group were 25 patients who received treatment from the National Health Fund and had only standardised physical therapy (laser, ultrasound, cryotherapy and magnetic therapy) sessions for two weeks.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>. We found statistically significant reduction in pain and disability in the study population after the treatment, but muscle strength did not increase significantly.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: 1. GRAVITY system exercise might efficient in pain and disability reduction. Muscle strength did not increase after therapy. 2. Pain and disability had positive correlation with female sex, decreased physical activity and sedentary work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Does L. affect hormonal responses following high-intensity resistance exercise?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To investigate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with <italic>Tribulus terrestris</italic> L. (<italic>TT</italic>) on the responses of testosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones including triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) following an intensive session of resistance exercise (RE).</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: Twenty-two healthy non-athlete men (23.8 ± 3.1 years) participated in this study were divided into two groups and were randomly assigned to receive either <italic>TT</italic> supplementation (n = 11) or a placebo (n = 11). They consumed two 250-mg capsules with <italic>TT</italic> or placebo (maltodextrin) per day and performed six REs with the intensity 80-90% of 1RM on the fifteen day of the experiment. Venous blood samples were drawn before supplementation, and before and after the RE session.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The mean values of post-exercise testosterone and cortisol in both groups were significantly higher than pre-exercise and baseline (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01); however, there were no significant differences between the groups (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05). Likewise, despite a trend toward different levels of the responses of thyroid hormones with <italic>TT</italic> supplementation, there were no significant differences either in different time points or the groups (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Short-term supplementation with <italic>TT</italic> appears to be ineffective in changing the hormonal responses measured in this study following a session of high-intensity RE.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of Mindfulness and Mental Skills Protocols on Athletes’ Competitive Anxiety<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aims at examining the impact of Mindfulness and mental skills on competitive anxiety in athletes.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The present study is quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design. Participants were 45 19–30 years old male shooters randomly assigned to three groups with 15 people. The test consisted of six 60-minute mindfulness training/Mental skills/control that lasted six weeks. Measurements included competitive state anxiety based on the competitive state anxiety inventory in two pretest and post-test stages. Data were analyzed using statistical software at a confidence level of 0.05 using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The results showed that cognitive interventions of Mindfulness and mental skills reduced competitive state anxiety (P &lt; 0.05), but there was no difference between the effectiveness of these methods. (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Six weeks of mindfulness and mental skills training can help improve athletic performance by reducing anxiety levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of obesity on spatiotemporal gait parameters among female students from Jouf University, Saudi Arabia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of the current study is to explore the effect of obesity on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in obese young female students.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A cross-sectional study with fifteen obese female university students (mean age = 20.3 ± 1.6, mean BMI = 36.2 ± 4.6) and fifteen normal weight female university students (mean age = 20.9 ± 2, mean BMI = 22.6 ± 2.4) was conducted. The spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated using GAITRite® walkway (Frankline, USA, Model No. TR30RAM090 with software version 4.89C2).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Independent sample t-test showed statistical significant differences in some spatiotemporal gait parameters between normal and obese subjects with statistically significant reductions of single-limb support time, step length, stride length, and velocity in the obese subjects rather than normal subjects (p = 0.031, 0.015, 0.039, and 0.002, respectively). Moreover, there were statistically significant increases of step time, stride time in the obese subjects rather than the normal subjects (p = 0.038, 0.017, respectively).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: These results suggested that obesity is a factor that adversely affects the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the obese young female. This may be contributed to decrease the joints’ mobility and increase the incidence of joint osteoarthritis. So, it is recommended to encourage the sufficient physical activity and weight reduction among obese female students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-16T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1