rss_2.0Biomedical Human Kinetics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Biomedical Human Kinetics Human Kinetics Feed of 8 days of water-only fasting and vigorous exercise on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile and HOMA-IR in middle-aged men<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 8 days of water-only fasting and physical exercise on somatic variables, lipid profile, insulin resistance and cardiovascular function in middle-aged men.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Body weight, body composition, lipid profile, serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), heart rate (HR), blood pressure and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined in 16 apparently healthy men at rest and after aerobic exercise. This test procedure was also repeated after 8 days of water-only fasting.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Fasting intervention resulted in a reduction in body weight and fat mass (p &lt; 0.001). The simultaneous effect of fasting and exercise resulted in significant changes in lipid profile, carbohydrate metabolism and cardiovascular function. Post hoc analyses showed that the reductions in insulin and glucose concentrations as well as the HOMA-IR index were caused by the fasting, and changes in the lipid profile and cardiovascular function were caused by the exercise test.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The combined use of fasting and physical effort resulted in an optimal effect on health indicators of the surveyed men.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of lower limb muscle fatigue on countermovement jump, dynamic balance performance and perceived stability among elite youth netball players with chronic ankle instability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to investigate the effects of lower limb muscle fatigue on jumping performance, balance, and perceived stability in elite youth netball players with chronic ankle instability (CAI).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 36 elite youth netball players were recruited from National Sports Schools using purposive sampling. The severity of functional ankle instability was assessed using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Jumping performance and dynamic balance were measured using a force plate and the Y Balance Test, respectively. The experimental protocol involved a submaximal countermovement jump (CMJ) attempt followed by a fatigue protocol consisting of consecutive maximal bilateral CMJs. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS statistical software.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The study found no significant effect on peak velocity but a significant reduction in peak force, peak power, flight time, and jump height after completing the fatigue protocol. Post-hoc comparisons showed significant reductions in peak force, power, flight time, and jump height before the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) protocol compared to values after 5 and 10 minutes of the SSC protocol (post-5 and post-10 SSC).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The study results suggest that fatigue is a risk factor for sports injuries, particularly in the ankle during jumping performance, and that fatigue does not contribute to dynamic stability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Your Recovery Needs (SYRN) – a systemic approach to improve sport performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study was to present the Support Your Recovery Needs (SYRN) recovery system based on scientifically confirmed methods, addressing the needs of athletes based on their subjective feelings of fatigue after training or competition.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The literature on supporting post-exercise recovery was reviewed. This was followed by an analysis of the effectiveness of selected methods. A time factor was imposed on the selected methods for which efficacy was confirmed. Depending on the type of stimulus and the time of its application, regenerative effects were assigned point values.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Within the SYRN approach over a dozen treatments and actions promoting post-exercise recovery have been identified.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: A methodical and organized approach should allow for the selection of recovery support methods based on their effectiveness, appropriate timing, and the combination of various methods to enhance post-exercise recovery and performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue biomechanical analysis of unaffected knee before and 6 months after total knee arthroplasty<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to compare gait biomechanical data on the unaffected side before and six months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and determine the postoperative changes in medial knee loading on the unaffected side.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 19 female patients who had underwent TKA.</p> <p>Gait parameters were extracted at each time point using the maximum value of the backward (braking phase) and forward components (propulsion phase) of the ground reaction force on the unaffected side, while the knee adduction moment impulse (KAM impulse) was used as an index of medial knee loading. The pre – and post-TKA values of these parameters were compared. The relationship between KAM impulse and gait biomechanical factors on the unaffected side was examined using partial correlation analysis with gait speed as a control factor.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: KAM impulse was not significantly different on the unaffected side compared to preoperatively. In the braking phase, there were significant differences in hip adduction moment (<italic>p</italic> = 0.033) and ankle dorsiflexion moment (<italic>p</italic> = 0.013), and hip flexion angle (<italic>p</italic>=0.011) in the propulsive phase. The relationship between KAM impulse and gait biomechanical factors on the unaffected side showed a positive correlation between KAM impulse and knee adduction angle (braking phase, propulsion phase; r = 0.671, 0.689) and KAM (braking phase, propulsion phase; r = 0.715, 0.745).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: There was no significant difference in KAM impulse on the unaffected side before and after TKA, suggesting that TKA did not influence medial knee loading increase on the unaffected side even six months post-TKA.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue influence of closed or open grip type during a pull-up test to exhaustion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study is to assess whether a closed (CG) or open grip (OC) can influence the maximum number of repetitions during the pull-up test to exhaustion.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Ninety-five physically active males (age 23.5 ± 6.2 years, body mass 69 ± 7.9 kg, height 174.0 ± 6.4 cm, BMI 22.9 ± 2.2) randomly performed the pull-up test to exhaustion twice, once for each type of grip, one week apart.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: No significant difference (p = 0.092) was found between the maximum number of repetitions performed with the OG (14.2 ± 5.7) or the CG (13.9 ± 5.9). Spearman’s correlation showed no significant association between participants’ body mass and the number of repetitions (r = 0.128, p = 0.22 for OG; r = 0.157, p = 0.13 for CG).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: According to our results, the grip is not relevant in the determination of the performance during a pull-up test to exhaustion. Thus, using one grip instead of another may be recommended independently of performance needs. Grip type may be adapted considering the practised sport, and specific athletic requirements, as well as individual preference.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue task performance in sitting and standing: A pilot study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of performing tasks involving different cognitive functions in sitting versus standing positions and to assess the perceived workload. Standing or moving at work increases energy expenditure and brings health benefits while lowering the risk of diseases related to physical inactivity. The question arises whether this occurs at the expense of the effectiveness of professional activities.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty-nine physical education students (including 20 women and 9 men) volunteered to participate in the study. The participants performed four cognitive tests: two tests based on the Vienna Test System (Cognitron and ALS) and two paper-and-pencil tests (TUS and Toulouse-Pieron test).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: There were no significant differences found between the sitting and the standing groups as regards the results of the cognitive tests. The number of omissions in the TUS test was higher in a standing position. The groups significantly differed in the perceived workload: A greater value of the summary weighted index was obtained in the sitting group. Also, the sitting students perceived their mental effort as significantly more onerous.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: The results of this pilot study suggest that the standing position does not reduce the effectiveness of activities involving cognitive functions. This is an incentive to continue randomized trials with a greater number of individuals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the gait induced by two different conservative methods applied to correct flexible flat feet in children 5 to 9 years old: foot orthoses vs foot orthoses supplemented with Zukunft-Huber manual therapy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim:</italic> A flexible flat foot (FFF), one of the most common postural deformities among children, should not be perceived as an isolated problem of static alignment of foot and ankle, but as a part of dynamic biomechanical chain of a lower extremity, pelvis, and lower back. The aim of the study was to compare the impact of two methods, used for treating FFF, on the gait pattern in children after 12 months treatment.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: 49 study participants with FFF were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention methods. One group was treated with foot orthoses (FOs), the other group with manual therapy, corrective bandaging and FOs.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> After one year of therapy, no significant differences were observed within either group before and after treatment regarding dimensional, spatio-temporal parameters, and ground reaction forces. However, noteworthy changes emerged in hip flexion moment, ankle plantar flexion moment, and ankle power in the group treated with the combined method. In the FOs-treated group, significant changes were found in ankle plantar flexion moment and ankle power.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion:</italic> The observed changes in joints’ peak moments and powers in both groups were positive changes, but the combine method seems to be more effective than wearing FOs only.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue® S-Index Test – guidelines and recommendations for practitioners<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: POWERbreathe® S-Index Test is an accessible and functional evaluation of inspiratory muscle strength. The main purpose of this study is to present guidelines that allow to successfully apply the test in sports settings with high accuracy, robustness, and repeatability.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Review of available literature and professional guidelines regarding traditional spirometry testing and POWERbreathe® trainers’ application was performed. The obtained information was summarized, analyzed, and interpreted to create POWERbreathe® S-Index Test guidelines and recommendations for practitioners. POWERbreathe® K4 and K5 (POWERbreathe International Ltd., Southam, UK) devices paired with Breathe-Link Live Feedback Software (POWERbreathe International Ltd., Southam, UK) were considered during the analysis and guidelines creation.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: We recommend performing POWERbreathe® S-Index Test with 8 forceful and dynamic inspiratory maneuvers from residual volume to full inspiratory capacity, divided into 2–3 series of 2–3 maneuvers, in a standing position, after respiratory warm-up.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: POWERbreathe® S-Index Test may be a useful tool to measure functional inspiratory muscle strength in athletes. When performed with the presented guidelines, it can be successfully applied in sports settings with high accuracy, robustness, and repeatability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of local and whole-body cryotherapy on hip pain and general activity in the course of coxarthrosis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of whole-body and local cryotherapy on pain and function of the osteoarthritic hip.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study included 40 patients (26 women and 14 men) aged 36 to 85 years with confirmed hip osteoarthritis. Twenty participants received whole-body cryotherapy whereas twenty received local cryotherapy in the hip region. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess the effects of therapy.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Based on the examinations, improvements in both reported pain and general functional status of the participants were observed in both groups. Slightly greater improvement regarding reported pain was found in the group of participants undergoing local cryotherapy treatments.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The results showed that the analgesic effect of both whole-body and local cryotherapy noticeably increased the ability of the participants to engage in activities of daily living.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and comparing the optimum power loads in hexagonal and straight bar deadlifts in novice strength-trained males<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to determine and compare the ‘optimum power load’ in the hexagonal (HBDL) and straight (SBDL) bar deadlift exercises.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Fifteen novice strength-trained males performed three repetitions of the HBDL and SBDL at loads from 20–90% of their one-repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power, average power, peak velocity, and average velocity were determined from each repetition using a velocity-based linear position transducer.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant effect of load for HBDL and SBDL (all p &lt; 0.001). Post-hoc analyses revealed peak power outputs for HBDL were similar across 50–90% 1RM, with the highest peak power recorded at 80% 1RM (1053 W). The peak power outputs for SBDL were similar across 40–90% 1RM, with the highest peak power recorded at 90% 1RM (843 W). A paired sample t-test revealed that HBDL showed greater peak power at 60% (Hedges’ g effect size g = 0.53), average power at 50–70%, (g = 0.56–0.74), and average velocity at 50% of 1RM (g = 0.53). However, SBDL showed greater peak velocity at 20% (g = 0.52) and average velocity at 90% of 1RM (g = 0.44).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Practitioners can use these determined loads to target peak power and peak velocity outputs for the HBDL and SBDL exercises (e.g., 50–90% 1RM in HBDL). The HBDL may offer additional advantages resulting in greater peak power and average power outputs than the SBDL.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue assessment of insulin and vitamin D levels in obese adolescents after diet and physical activity: A retrospective observational study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Obesity is a serious public health problem that has spread over the past 40 years in industrialized countries. This condition can predispose to the onset of several chronic diseases for instance hyperlipidemia which is involved in multiple signaling pathways for bone homeostasis. There is a communication between adipose tissue and bone, which can regulate each other through feedback mechanisms including glucose consumption by bone, also regulating insulin levels. In our observational study, we analyzed the effects of low-impact training, particularly swimming, combined with a mediterranean diet on obese pre-adolescents.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Six-month of an observational study was performed involving twenty pre-adolescents aged between 8 and 12 years with diagnosed obesity with z-BMI &gt;2, according to the World Health Organization guidelines.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The assessment was carried out at the beginning of the intervention (T0) and at the end of treatment (T1). All participants were randomly assigned to either: the control group (CG) just followed the mediterranean diet whilst the experimental group (EG) over the mediterranean diet followed a planned physical activity.</p> <p>The results showed statistically significant differences between T0 and T1 in both CG and EG, especially concerning 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D and insulin levels. However, the differences were more impressive in EG (1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D 9.27 vs 25.64; Insulin 29.31 vs 12.66) compared with CG (1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D 8.7 vs 13.7; Insulin 28.45 vs 22.76).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: In conclusion, these results showed the importance of diet and low-impact exercise intervention to improve pre-adolescent’s health especially those with obesity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of complex-contrast training on physical fitness in male field hockey athletes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to examine the effects of a six-week complex-contrast training (CCT) intervention on the physical fitness of male field hockey athletes.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods:</italic> Participants were randomized into a CCT (n = 8) or control (CG; n = 6) group. Physical fitness was assessed pre- and post-six-week intervention using a 30 m linear sprint test, medicine ball throw, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJA), modified T-test (MAT), and unilateral isokinetic maximal strength test (knee flexion and extension) of both legs. The six-week CCT intervention was integrated as three weekly sessions within the sport-specific training schedule of field hockey athletes. Each session included four contrast pair exercises (e.g., squat + squat jump). ANCOVA with baseline scores as a covariate was used to analyze the specific training effects.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Significant differences between CCT and CG were observed in the 30 m sprint, CMJA, MAT, and isokinetic strength (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001–0.013) after the intervention, favoring the CCT group. Further, post-hoc analyses revealed significant pre to post improvements in all dependent variables for the CCT group (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001–0.001; effect size [g] = 0.28–2.65; %Δ = 3.1–16.3), but not in the CG (<italic>p</italic> = 0.169–0.991; g = 0.00–0.32; %Δ = 0.0–2.6).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Supplementing regular field hockey training with CCT is recommended as an effective training strategy to improve the performance of linear sprints, vertical jumps, changes of direction, and muscle strength in amateur male field hockey athletes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue knee deformity and body mass index among the male school students of 9 to 13 years old of chandigarh, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To study knock knee deformity and the body mass index among male school students of Chandigarh, India. The study also intended to evaluate the association of knock knee deformity with BMI.</p> <p><italic>Material and method</italic>: In total, 900 school students were selected, and out of these 300 each were from private, government model and government schools in slum areas. Convenient sampling was employed. The age of the subjects ranged from 9 to 13 years. Height, weight, BMI and intermalleolar distance of selected subjects were assessed. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and correlation were employed.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The highest percentages of obese (11.3%) and overweight (15.3%) students were found in the private schools. The highest percentages of severe knock knee deformity (10.7%) were found in the students of the private schools, whereas 16.7% of students in the government model schools had moderate knock knee deformity. Height, weight and BMI were significantly correlated with knock knee deformity.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Body weight among the school students might be associated with the school type, as the problem of obesity and underweight was pervasive in private and government schools. Knock knee deformity was related to the school type and body weight status.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a self-report questionnaire to assess parents’ postural knowledge<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Study aim: To develop a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess parents’ postural knowledge.</p> <p>Material and methods: This questionnaire was conducted on 30 Iranian parents. The questionnaire assessed knowledge of abnormalities in body posture and ergonomic knowledge of parents, which were in line with their postural knowledge. The kappa coefficient (test–retest reliability) of the questionnaire included assessing its stability over 1 week among 30 participants. The validity of the content of the questionnaire was checked and agreed upon by three experts from three different institutions.</p> <p>Results: The kappa coefficient for 19 questions and their 46 sub-questions ranged from 0.30 to 1. Out of these items, 89% (n = 41) had a value of 0.6 or above and 11% (n = 5) were below 0.6. Questions were categorized as “no change expected” (0.86÷1), “change unlikely” (0.68÷1), and “change likely” (0.30÷0.68).</p> <p>Conclusions: The Parent’s Postural Knowledge Questionnaire was found to be highly reliable and its contents relevant for the assessment of postural knowledge among Iranian parents. This tool is appropriate for studying larger populations in the variable of interest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue influence of percussion massage on knee’s range of motion in two positions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The practical application of vibration stimuli is increasingly observed in physiotherapy and sports. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of local vibration on knee-joint range of motion (ROM) improvement among male American football players.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: The study consisted of 31 participants (age 22.9 ± 4.3), divided by knee injury (KI) history and nKI (no knee injury). The intervention involved the use of vibration on parts of the quadriceps muscle with a 10-second vibration and 5-second intermission protocol. ROM measurements were conducted in the prone position (PrP) before the intervention, immediately after, and after 10 minutes, as well as in the half-kneeling position (HkP) before and immediately after.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Knee ROM increased immediately after (p &lt; 0.001) and 10 minutes after (p &lt; 0.05) the intervention in nKI in the PrP, and there was a statistically significant improvement in the HkP (p &lt; 0.001). There was no significant interaction between ROM in PrP and knee injury (F<sub>2,58</sub> = 8.562; p &lt; 0.001), but there were significant differences in the ROM before (KI: 133.9° ± 6.26°; nKI: 144° ± 4.06°), immediately after (KI: 137.3° ± 6.98°; nKI: 145.9° ± 4.64°), and 10 minutes after (KI: 136.7° ± 6.75°; nKI: 145.6° ± 4.5°) the intervention. There was no significant interaction between ROM measurement in HkP and knee injury. There was a statistically significant difference in ROM (F<sub>1,29</sub> = 33.76; p &lt; 0.001) before (KI: 141.4° ± 7.66°; nKI: 146.4° ± 7.17°) and immediately after (KI: 145.3° ± 8.22°; nKI: 150.2° ± 6.32°) the intervention in the HkP.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Local vibration may increase knee ROM by improving soft tissue elasticity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and balance tests after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in adolescent patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The functional assessment of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the key points in deciding whether one can safely return to physical activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of the NEURAC® tests and single leg balance test (SLBT) in the functional evaluation of adolescent patients after ACLR to detect differences between the operated and non-operated extremity.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 31 physically active, adolescent patients (mean age: 15.7 ± 1.4 years) who underwent primary single-bundle ACLR using the autogenous semitendinosus-gracilis tendon graft were evaluated using the NEURAC® and SLBT tests (mean time from surgery to examination was 6.6 ± 1.0 months). All patients were operated on by the same surgeon, and postoperative physiotherapy was carried out using a standardized protocol.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Only one of the NEURAC® tests showed significant differences between the operated and non-operated extremities: prone bridging (3.58º vs. 3.97º, <italic>P</italic> = 0.01). Several weak and moderate, significant correlations between NEURAC® and SLBT tests were observed in the operated (r from –0.42 to 0.37) and non-operated (r from –0.37 to –0.43) extremities</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: The NEURAC® tests in comparison to SLBT seems to be more effective for detecting functional differences between the operated and non-operated extremity in adolescent patients about 6 months post-ACLR. Correlations between the outcomes of the NEURAC® tests and SLBT are not clear.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in thrust force in swimmers in the annual training cycle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Determination of changes in thrust force and effect size of training load in swimmers using four swimming strokes monitored 4 times a year.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Five elite male swimmers were examined in a training macrocycle of 9 months. The swimmers were examined four times: at baseline (September), immediately after the winter Polish Championships (December), at the end of the transition period (March), and immediately after the summer Polish Championships (late May).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: In all participants, significant differences in strength (p &lt; 0.001) were observed between measurements I and II (p &lt; 0.001) and between measurements I and IV (p &lt; 0.001). Athletes specializing in the 200 m were characterized by a smaller decline in thrust force. Athletes specializing in breaststroke had significantly higher (p &lt; 0.001) thrust values than the other participants.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: It is suggested that the trainers measure the thrust during the preparatory period in order to verify the applied training loads aimed at developing strength, as well as during the starting period to verify the competitor’s strength level in correlation with the sports result.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of complex-descending versus traditional resistance training on physical fitness abilities of female team sports athletes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim:</italic> The study compared the effects of six weeks of complex-descending training (CDT), traditional resistance training (RT), and sport-specific training (i.e., active control group [CG]) on measures of physical fitness.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods:</italic> Thirty-one female team sport athletes were randomly assigned to either the CDT group (n = 11), the RT group (n = 10), or the CG (n = 10), and were assessed before and after intervention for linear sprint (10 m and 30 m), change of direction sprint (CODS), standing long jump (SLJ), running based anerobic sprint test (peak power, average power), resting heart rate, Cooper 12-min run test, and body fat percentage.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> ANCOVA with baseline scores as covariates revealed significant between-group differences for 10 m and 30 m linear sprint, CODS, SLJ, and Cooper 12-min run test after the intervention. The further post-hoc tests revealed significant differences between CDT and CG in 10 m and 30 m sprints, CODS and SLJ, with results favoring CDT, and between RT and CG in 10 m linear sprint and Cooper 12-min run test, with results favoring RT. However, no significant differences were observed between CDT and RT in any dependent variable.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion:</italic> CDT is effective in improving 10 m and 30 m linear sprints, CODS, and SLJ compared to CG, and RT is effective in improving 10 m sprint and Cooper 12-min run test compared to CG. Therefore, supplementing sport-specific training with either CDT or RT may offer additional benefits in improving specific physical fitness abilities of female team-sport athletes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and aiming point accelerations do not differ between the most and least accurate shots in biathlon shooting within an athlete<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: As studies from shooting disciplines other than biathlon have observed associations between weapon accelerations and shooting performance, this study investigated whether accelerations of the rifle stock and aiming point (the point on the target where the rifle is aimed at) are associated with shooting performance, and differences in rifle and aiming point accelerations between the most and least accurate shots. Further, associations between rifle and aiming point accelerations were studied.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: Shooting performance (Hit<sub>Dist</sub>, hit point distance from the center of the target) along with rifle and aiming point accelerations were measured from nine biathletes who performed 6×5 biathlon prone and standing shots.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> In the prone posture, rifle or aiming point accelerations were neither associated with shooting performance nor with each other. In the standing posture, vertical rifle accelerations right before triggering were negatively associated with Hit<sub>Dist</sub> (r = –0.70, p &lt; 0.05), whereas aiming point accelerations were not associated with Hit<sub>Dist</sub>. Horizontal rifle accelerations were positively associated with aiming point accelerations in standing (r = 0.74, p = 0.024), whereas vertical or resultant rifle accelerations did not demonstrate associations with aiming point accelerations. In both postures, rifle accelerations were of the same magnitude in the most and least accurate shots.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion:</italic> Rifle and aiming point accelerations provide limited description of the technical level in biathlon shooting. Moreover, rifle accelerations alone do not appear to provide sufficient information to deduce the aiming point movements. Angular movement would likely be required for aiming point movement estimation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue composition and somatotype of judo athletes and untrained male students as a reference group for comparison in sport<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> Study aim: The aim of this study was to determine the body composition and somatotype of untrained male students studying at Warsaw University of Technology in 2011, in order to create a current reference group for comparison, and to investigate the difference in body build of male judoists compared with the non-athlete group.</p><p>Materials and methods: Fifteen male judo athletes (age 18.6 ± 1.9 years, body height 177.4 ± 8.5 cm, body mass 80.3 ± 15.8 kg, training experience 10.0 ± 2.8) and 154 male untrained students of the Warsaw University of Technology (age 20.1 ± 0.9 years, body height 180.9 ± 7.2 cm, body mass 75.6 ± 10.9 kg) participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath- Carter method.</p><p>Results: The mean somatotype of the untrained students was, whilst that of the judo athletes was; the groups differed significantly in their mesomorphy and ectomorphy components. Significant differences between the groups were found in breadth of wrist, bicristal diameter and arm circumference (p &lt; 0.05). The groups were also significantly different in body composition as estimated by BIA and anthropometric methods (p &lt; 0.05).</p><p>Conclusion: The morphological characteristics of the judo athletes differed from those of the untrained men. The somatic profile of body build for athletes in this sport seems to be optimal for achieving high results, the somatotype not having changed since the 1990s.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue