rss_2.0Biomedical Human Kinetics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Biomedical Human Kinetics Human Kinetics Feed fitness knowledge, physical activity attitude and physical activity in secondary school students: A mediation analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of secondary school students’ physical activity attitudes between health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity (PA).</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: The research employed a quantitative research method, using the relational survey model. The participants of the study consisted of a total of 603 (female = 295, male = 308) secondary school students from six different secondary schools in Isparta and Burdur provinces in the fall semester of the 2023–2024 academic year. The data of the study were collected with a personal information form, the Turkish HRFK Test, the Physical Activity Attitude Scale for Secondary School Students and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). The analysis of the data was made using the Process Macro v3.3 plug-in with model 4 and 5000 resampling methods with a 95% confidence interval.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: It was found that students’ HRFK had significant positive effect on their physical activity attitudes and physical activities. It was observed that physical activity attitudes also positively affected physical activity. Additionally, physical activity attitudes were found to have a mediating role between HRFK and physical activity.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: To conclude, it was found that secondary school students’ HRKF affected their participation in physical activity. However, our research showed that the effect of HRFK on physical activity of secondary school students may occur indirectly through physical activity attitudes. It can be concluded that the HRFK level of secondary school students is important for participation in physical activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and prolonged hip kinematic changes after three different Kinesio Taping interventions: A randomized placebo-controlled trial<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to compare the acute and prolonged effects of three different Kinesio Taping (KT) techniques (underactive/overactive muscle correction [UMC]/[OMC] and functional correction [FC]) on hip ROM in the sagittal plane and compare them to those of the placebo Kinesio Taping (PKT) application.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: The sample consisted of 56 young healthy participants of both genders who were randomly divided into four equal groups. Measurements were performed using Kinovea software for video analysis during the performance of an active straight leg raise and the modified Thomas test at three timepoints: before the intervention and 60 min and 48 h after the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Mixed-model ANOVA revealed a statistically significant interaction between group and timepoint (F = 6.210; p &lt; 0.001; η<sub>p</sub><sup>2</sup> = 0.285 for ipsilateral hip extension ROM; F = 2.064; p = 0.036; η<sub>p</sub><sup>2</sup> = 0.117 for contralateral hip flexion ROM). The results revealed acute and prolonged ROM changes after the application of three different KT techniques compared to those after the control procedure, but these changes were not significant.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: These findings support the use of KT as a modality for enhancing ROM. In muscle techniques, the factor of the anchor placement direction, with the same percentage of Kinesio tape tension, generates different effects. These effects were greater after 48 h than immediately after application. In changing the segmental posture or joint alignment, FC proved to be more intense than the KT muscle techniques, with an immediate effect that persisted even after two days.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of kinematics and kinetics parameters of the vertical drop jump test on differences between the sexes and dominant and non-dominant feet<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study clarified the relationship between sex and dominant and non-dominant feet during landing movements in the vertical drop jump (VDJ).</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: The participants were 16 healthy adults (8 men, 8 women) with no orthopedic history. A three-dimensional motion analyzer and a floor reaction force meter were used for measurement. The exercise task was a VDJ in which the participants jumped from a 30-cm-high platform, and the relationship between sex, dominant leg, and non-dominant leg was compared.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: In terms of joint angle, the main effect of sex on the internal/external knee joint angle was observed. No significant differences were observed in the other parameters.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: A sex difference was found in the internal/external angles of the knee joint during the landing of the VDJ from 30 cm. However, there were no differences in the kinematic and kinetic data between the dominant and non-dominant legs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of milk consumption with different temperatures after resistance exercise on appetite and energy intake in active girls: A pilot study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of milk consumption with different temperatures after resistance training on appetite and energy intake (EI) in active girls.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Ten healthy female athletes (age: 21.9 ± 3.07 years) completed 2 trials with 1 week apart in conter-balance and crossover fashion. In overnight fasting state, subjects did resistance exercise (70% of 1RM for 5 movements) and then consumed 250 ml of milk at 60°C or 2°C. One hour after exercise, a meal was served to all subjects for lunch. Subjects filled in the appetite questionnaire 4 times and calorie intake was measured on the day of exercise and 24 hours after.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Paired t-test showed that the lunch EI after consuming cold milk was significantly lower than hot milk (p = 0.003). Also, the 24h EI in exercise day was significantly lower in cool vs. hot milk consumpion (p &lt; 0.001) and this reduction was not offset the next day. There was no significant difference in next 24h EI, macronutrient composition and appetite between the two situations.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>:The results of the present study showed that consuming low temperature milk after resistance exercise can be a useful strategy to reduce EI that can be used for weight loss programs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue toughness and empathy as match performance predictors of high-level female basketball players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study was to explore empathy and mental toughness as predictors of match performance of young basketball players.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The correlation design was used in order to meet the research goals. The research was conducted on a sample of 40 female basketball players, with average age of 16.15 ± 1.02 years, members of the four best teams of the National First Women’s Cadet League. Half of the players in the sample were also national team members. The independent variables empathy and mental toughness were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire. The dependent variable match performance was assessed through match performance analysis based on indicators from official league statistics by calculating the performance index rating (PIR).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that by adding empathy to the model of mental toughness, the percentage of PIR variance explained increased from 21% to 46%.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Adding empathy to the model of mental toughness increased its predictive value. The model of mental toughness and empathy, as predictors of match performance of young basketball players, was found to be very effective. The results are not unambiguous and indicate the need for further research in this area, as it could have a positive impact on the selection system in sport. Also, the research represents a step towards greater integration of sports and collective creativity studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue cardiovascular fitness normative reference values in a university aged Canadian population using maximal exercise testing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO<sub>2max</sub>) is the greatest rate at which the body can use oxygen and is an indicator of aerobic power. Although aerobic fitness is such a valuable determinant of health, there is limited research with established normative values for a healthy young adult Canadian population. The purpose of the study was to develop normative reference values for a Canadian young-adult population.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: 550 undergraduate student (280 male and 270 female) participants, with a mean body mass (BM) of 72.08 ± 15.05 kg, mean age of 21.16 ± 1.26 years old and mean height of 171.95 ± 10.25 cm completed a VO<sub>2max</sub> test using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Male and female classifications were established for the total exercise time in minutes and for the measured VO<sub>2max</sub> using percentiles and a seven-category classification system.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: There were statistically significant differences between the sexes for VO<sub>2max</sub> values (p &lt; 0.001). The measured assessment for the healthy young Canadian adults showed a mean VO<sub>2max</sub> value of 40.90 ± 7.50 mL/kg/min for females and 49.89 ± 9.20 mL/kg/min for males. Females were able to withstand the exercise protocol for a mean of 11.92 ± 1.97 minutes, while males exercised for an average of 14.33 ± 2.40 minutes before the test was terminated.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: This study provides specific normative values for the aerobic fitness of a university aged Canadian population which can be used as reference values for cardiovascular health and fitness assessments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue interval training programs and their impact on endurance performance in handball players: A systematic review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This systematic review aimed to identify and analyze the available evidence about the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions on endurance performance in handball players.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The search for relevant literature was conducted across prominent databases, including PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science Core Collection. The eligibility criteria focused on healthy handball players, without restrictions on age, sex, or competitive level, who were exposed to HIIT interventions, either alone or in combination with other training methods. The methodological assessment employed the RoB2 and ROBINS scales. A screening process was executed, evaluating 434 titles, leading to the inclusion of 17 eligible studies in this systematic review, comprising a total of 369 participants.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Most studies on HIIT in handball involved tier-two athletes (trained/developmental) and mostly men. The training frequency typically implemented was twice per week, with a duration between 4 and 12 weeks, with different types of HIIT. There was considerable variation in outcomes across the included studies, with most of them demonstrating a significant positive impact of HIIT on improving endurance performance when compared to controls.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: In conclusion, the predominant focus of the overall analyzed studies was on the effects of different HIIT interventions in obtaining positive performance adaptations assessed by field-based tests in handball players.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue muscle damage as a metabolic response to rapid weight loss in wrestlers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Dietary and non-dietary weight loss methods are highly prevalent among combat sports athletes (CSA). Most CSA undergo rapid weight loss (RWL) usually a week before the competition to reduce their body mass and thus compete in the lowest weight category possible. The objective of the study was to distinguish the impact of high-intensity sport-specific training (HISST) combined with RWL (phase 1 – P1) on muscle damage markers as well as the effects of HISST alone (phase 2 – P2).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: This crossover study was carried out on 12 male wrestlers. It consisted of initial measurement (IM), high-intensity training combined with RWL of 5% (P1), and high-intensity training without RWL (P2). After each phase, muscle damage markers were measured, including myoglobin, aldolase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: A substantial increase in analyzed biomarkers was evident in both phases (P1 and P2). However, higher levels of almost all biomarkers were observed in the phase that included RWL compared to the second phase, with a greater significance level.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Our study revealed that 5% RWL combined with HISST impacted the assessed biomarkers to a greater extent than HISST alone, thus providing strong evidence of the influence of RWL on muscular damage in wrestlers. In order to minimize the adverse health-related effects induced by weight reduction, coaches and athletes should use caution when considering weight management methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue normative-reference values for a large cohort of Canadian university students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The Wingate Anaerobic Test evaluates anaerobic power and capacity. Used to assess performance, historically among athletic populations, its evaluative capacity for individuals of varying athletic abilities is limited by a lack of normative data based on large participant populations. This study developed Wingate normative-reference values based on a large-scale cohort that is representative of the Canadian university student population.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Data were collected from 872 participants, aged 20 to 29 years (mean body mass index [BMI]: 24.44 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). Testing was completed on a cycle ergometer using a widely recognized protocol, with resistance set at 7.5% of participants’. An independent samples t-test was used to compared the means of dependent variables (i.e., peak power [PP], mean power [MP], and fatigue index fi) and test for statistical significance (p &lt; 0.05) between sexes, and Cohen’s d determined effect size.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Males had higher PP and MP (W and W · kg<sup>−1</sup>), whereas females exhibited lower FI (%). Statistically significant differences between sexes were observed for all variables.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Collected data yielded normative-reference standards, including percentile rankings and performance classifications. These norms will allow for significant practical applications, including an effective method to assess anaerobic performance and health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue review on social/moral competence interventions in Physical Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This systematic review drew the significant findings of carefully selected interventions to promote the social and moral competence (SC and MC, respectively) of children and adolescents mostly by investigating the effect of these interventions and focusing on strategies used.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A number of English written, electronic databases (e.g., EBSCO, EBSCOhost Web, ERIC, Master FILE Premier, SPORT, SPORT Discus, and Web of Science) and grey literature – from 2005 to the present – were consulted from September 2021 to December 2021. School-based intervention studies that assessed moral competence (MC) or social competence (SC) were eligible for inclusion. The studies were stratified by pre-school and primary school children (&lt;12 years of age) and adolescents (≥12 years of age). A total of N = 24 documents referring to different intervention studies were included in the review. N = 10 interventions focused on children; while N = 14 targeted adolescents.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The most used strategies in the interventions were the ones that included components of MC or evaluated SC using specific protocols and tools.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: This review pointed at socio-emotional and moral skills which remained underdeveloped in school children unless physical education (PE) teachers adjusted teaching contents and methods during instruction; and implement them into interventions with strategies that targeted elements fostering the sound socio-moral development of a child into adulthood. A model-based approach appeared to be the most, but not the only effective designs in the examined interventions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue enjoyment does not predict change in maximal aerobic power during a strenuous 10-week endurance exercise intervention<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Although exercise enjoyment is well studied in behavioral context, its associations to aerobic fitness adaptations during exercise interventions have received less attention.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Untrained participants (n = 37, 21 females), cycled either at low intensity (LIT) (n = 18, mean training time 6.7 ± 0.7 h/week) or high intensity (HIT) with 3–7 min working intervals (n = 19, 1.6 ± 0.2 h /week) for 10 weeks. Aerobic capacity, defined as the power associated with maximal oxygen uptake, was the performance outcome. Exercise enjoyment was measured after all exercise sessions during the first and the last week of the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Exercise enjoyment did not predict the change of aerobic capacity (p = 0.93) and was not associated to the weekly perceived exertion (p &gt; 0.20). Mean (95% CI) enjoyment decreased equally (time × group difference p = 0.98, <inline-formula> <alternatives> <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="graphic/j_bhk-2024-0009_eq_001.png"/> <mml:math xmlns:mml="" display="inline"><mml:mrow><mml:msubsup><mml:mrow><mml:mi>η</mml:mi></mml:mrow><mml:mtext>p</mml:mtext><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msubsup><mml:mi> </mml:mi><mml:mo>&lt;</mml:mo><mml:mi> </mml:mi><mml:mn>0.001</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math> <tex-math>\eta _{\rm{p}}^2\, &lt; \,0.001</tex-math> </alternatives> </inline-formula>) in both groups [LIT: −7 (−13–−1); HIT: −7 (−14–0)].</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Overall, enjoyment does not seem to be a suitable method to individualize training for improving aerobic capacity. Further, exercise enjoyment decreased during strenuous exercise intervention, and it is not a variable that affects how participants rate their overall weekly perceived exertion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of lavender soy wax candle on autonomic nervous system, stress, and reaction time in adolescents<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of a lavender soy wax candle on the autonomic nervous system, stress, and reaction time in adolescents with moderate stress levels.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Fifty-two males and females (mean age: 19.85 ± 0.78 years) with a moderate stress level determined by Suanprung Stress Test-20 (SPST-20) were enrolled. All participants were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 26) or experimental (n = 26) groups. The control group inhaled the lavender scent through a bowl filled with warm water, while the experimental group inhaled the scent from the lavender soy wax candle. In a peaceful environment, each participant was suggested to sit on a comfortable recliner chair in a private room while inhaling the scent for 20 minutes. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, reaction time, and emotional states were assessed before and after the scent inhalation. The emotion states were based on the conceptual model proposed by the Geneva Emotion and Odor Scale (GEOS), consisting of 12 items.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The results indicated no significant differences between the two groups in all the parameters, except for the three items of emotion states (relax: p = 0.03, stress: p = 0.04, and calm: p = 0.04).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: This study suggested that the inhalation of lavender soy wax candles for 20 minutes can be used as adjuvant therapy for improving emotional states and enhancing cognitive function among adolescents with moderate stress levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of life and adherence to physical activity in leisure time of people with physical disability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: People with disability are characterized by mental disorders, lower physical function, and poor social functioning. Dramatically, they are at particular risk of loss of their psychosocial functions. Here, we tested the relationship between quality of life and adherence to physical activity in leisure time of people with physical disability.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A cross-sectional design based on the descriptive correlational method was applied. The statistical population of the study included 555 people with different types of physical disability. A quality of life questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess the quality of life, and adherence to physical activity was measured with the Adherence to Physical Activity Questionnaire. Preliminary calculations involved a series of Pearson correlations. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Finally, structural equation modeling was used to assess the research model.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship (P &lt; 0.05) of the quality of life and its components with adherence to physical activity. Based on statistical analysis, 73% of adherence to physical activity changes was related to the quality of life components.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: According to the results, special attention to the social functioning of physically disabled people and efforts and planning in order to improve it can help to improve the quality of life of these people. Also, by designing diverse sports programs for their leisure time we can help improve the adherence of physically disabled people to physical activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of a 12-week functional training program on functional movement patterns and dynamic balance in young elite ice hockey players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study examined the effects of a 12-week functional training (FT) program on basic movement patterns and dynamic balance in hockey players.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Forty-three male ice hockey players aged 16.2 ± 0.76 years, were allocated into the experimental (EG) or control (CG) groups. The EG underwent additional 60-minute supervised FT sessions twice weekly, while the CG had an additional 60-minute team game class and swimming class. Fundamental movement patterns were assessed using the functional movement screening (FMS<sup>TM</sup>), whereas dynamic balance was assessed by the Y-balance test (YBT).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: After completion of the FT program, the hockey players assigned to the EG achieved higher results in the deep squat (p = 0.0143), hurdle step (p = 0.0002), in-line lunge (p = 0.0082), shoulder mobility (p = 0.0455), and rotatory stability tests (p = 0.0253), had higher total FMS<sup>TM</sup> scores (p = 0.0003), and less asymmetry (p = 0.0032) than at baseline. They improved all of the normalized scores in YBT. The hockey players assigned to the CG did not improve their results, but their performance decreased in the hurdle step test (p = 0.0082), and they showed more asymmetry (p = 0.0124) than at baseline.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: The implementation of FT can lead to significant improvements in fundamental movement patterns and dynamic balance among ice hockey players. This suggests that implementing FT can enhance fundamental movement patterns in athletes and should be considered an integral part of sports training. By integrating FT into regular training routines, athletes across different sports may potentially improve their movement patterns, thereby enhancing their overall performance and reducing the risk of injury.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue advantage in matches of the top Polish men’s handball league in the seasons before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in performance analysis in high-sport handball matches between Pre-COVID-19, during COVID-19, and Post-COVID-19 seasons in the home and away matches.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study material was obtained from the official match statistics of male PGNiG Superleague Ltd. (493 matches). The study included the 2019/2020 (before), 2020/2021 (during), and the 2021/2022 (after) season. Statistical tests were used: the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The COVID-19 pandemic period affected the reduction of home advantage during handball matches. The venue was a differentiating factor in selected handball team activities in the Pre-COVID-19 season, while there were no differences between home and away matches in the COVID-19 and Post-COVID-19 seasons. The away matches in the Pre-COVID-19 season were characterized by more throws from 9m and lower goals and throws from 6m than in the Post-COVID-19 season, indicating recent trends in handball play.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The home advantage associated with playing home matches in terms of the Pre-COVID-19 season and between seasons occurs mainly in the first round of play. Further studies focusing on performance analysis in handball depending on the outcome of the match (win, lose) and the venue (home, away) should be conducted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue mineral density in the various regions of the skeleton in women with subclinical hypothyroidism: the effect of biological factors, bone turnover markers and physical activity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between biological factors, physical activity (PA), bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone mineral density (BMD) in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and healthy.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study included 135 women. Bone parameters were measured by the densitometry. Calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin (OC), total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), vitamin D and cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were measured in blood serum. PA were evaluated by metabolic equivalent of task (MET).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Women with SCH had lower BMD in hip and lumbar spine, calcium, vitamin D and higher values of ICTP than the healthy group. In women with SCH, the affecting BMD in the femoral neck were ICTP (µg/l), (η² = 0.083), and also 25(OH)D (ng/ml), (η² = 0.080) and PA level (I/S), (η² = 0.115). BMD in the spine was affected by PA level (I/S), (η² = 0.173). The parameters affecting BMC in the femoral neck were 25(OH)D (ng/ml), (η² = 0.073). In all women sufficient levels of PA determined higher BMD.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: PA and BTMs significantly determine BMD levels. PA can be an important area of rehabilitation and physical therapy as an available measure to counteract BMD loss in postmenopausal healthy women and those with SCH.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue disturbances in sedentary and active Polish male students with normal body mass index and waist circumference<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Study aim: To evaluate circulating lipoproteins, glucose, insulin and the index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in male Polish students with normal BMI and waist circumference (WC) in the context of their physical activity.</p> <p>Material and methods: A total 170 male students with normal BMI and WC less than 102 cm were accepted for the study (56 sedentary and 114 physically active). Body weight and height were determined using standard medical equipment. Waist circumference was measured using non-stretchable tape. The percentage of body fat was determined from the sum of the thickness of four skinfolds. Circulating lipoproteins, glucose and insulin level was determined.</p> <p>Results: Active participants had significantly lower plasma TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL ratio, LDL/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR compared to sedentary subjects (P &lt; 0.001). However, even among active participants, as many as 58% were characterized by high TG, 17% high TC, 12% high LDL-C and 20% high TG/HDL ratio.</p> <p>Conclusion: In male students with normal body composition according to BMI and WC distorted metabolic variables were observed. Additionally, physical activity markedly decreased but not eliminated these disturbances. Thus, using BMI and WC for body composition classification as healthy possibly provide a false results concerning metabolic status.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of 8 days of water-only fasting and vigorous exercise on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile and HOMA-IR in middle-aged men<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 8 days of water-only fasting and physical exercise on somatic variables, lipid profile, insulin resistance and cardiovascular function in middle-aged men.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Body weight, body composition, lipid profile, serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), heart rate (HR), blood pressure and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined in 16 apparently healthy men at rest and after aerobic exercise. This test procedure was also repeated after 8 days of water-only fasting.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Fasting intervention resulted in a reduction in body weight and fat mass (p &lt; 0.001). The simultaneous effect of fasting and exercise resulted in significant changes in lipid profile, carbohydrate metabolism and cardiovascular function. Post hoc analyses showed that the reductions in insulin and glucose concentrations as well as the HOMA-IR index were caused by the fasting, and changes in the lipid profile and cardiovascular function were caused by the exercise test.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The combined use of fasting and physical effort resulted in an optimal effect on health indicators of the surveyed men.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of lower limb muscle fatigue on countermovement jump, dynamic balance performance and perceived stability among elite youth netball players with chronic ankle instability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to investigate the effects of lower limb muscle fatigue on jumping performance, balance, and perceived stability in elite youth netball players with chronic ankle instability (CAI).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 36 elite youth netball players were recruited from National Sports Schools using purposive sampling. The severity of functional ankle instability was assessed using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Jumping performance and dynamic balance were measured using a force plate and the Y Balance Test, respectively. The experimental protocol involved a submaximal countermovement jump (CMJ) attempt followed by a fatigue protocol consisting of consecutive maximal bilateral CMJs. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS statistical software.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The study found no significant effect on peak velocity but a significant reduction in peak force, peak power, flight time, and jump height after completing the fatigue protocol. Post-hoc comparisons showed significant reductions in peak force, power, flight time, and jump height before the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) protocol compared to values after 5 and 10 minutes of the SSC protocol (post-5 and post-10 SSC).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The study results suggest that fatigue is a risk factor for sports injuries, particularly in the ankle during jumping performance, and that fatigue does not contribute to dynamic stability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Your Recovery Needs (SYRN) – a systemic approach to improve sport performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study was to present the Support Your Recovery Needs (SYRN) recovery system based on scientifically confirmed methods, addressing the needs of athletes based on their subjective feelings of fatigue after training or competition.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The literature on supporting post-exercise recovery was reviewed. This was followed by an analysis of the effectiveness of selected methods. A time factor was imposed on the selected methods for which efficacy was confirmed. Depending on the type of stimulus and the time of its application, regenerative effects were assigned point values.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Within the SYRN approach over a dozen treatments and actions promoting post-exercise recovery have been identified.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: A methodical and organized approach should allow for the selection of recovery support methods based on their effectiveness, appropriate timing, and the combination of various methods to enhance post-exercise recovery and performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue