rss_2.0Biodiversity Research and Conservation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Biodiversity Research and Conservation Research and Conservation 's Cover (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Malaxideae), a new species from south Western Ghats, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Seidenfia manikathila</italic> J.Mathew, P.M. Salim &amp; Szlach. (Orchidaceae), a new species from the southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India, is described and illustrated based on morphological data. We demonstrate that the new species differs from other <italic>Seidenfia</italic> species both in vegetative and floral characters. The diagnostic morphological characters, distribution and images of the new species are presented in this paper. Images and key to the known species of <italic>Seidenfia</italic> coming under the section <italic>Seidenfia</italic> from India (<italic>S. densiflora</italic>, <italic>S. intermedia</italic>, <italic>S. malabarica</italic>, <italic>S. rheedi</italic>, <italic>S. versicolor</italic>) is also provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of substrate on the germination and seedling growth of L.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The seedling quality is one of the most important factors for the success of reforestation programs. In this sense, this work aimed to evaluate the effects of substrate on the germination of cork oak acorns from El Aouana forest, located in the Jijel region of north-eastern Algeria, and on the performance of seedlings, particularly their growth. The experiment was performed in the nursery of the Tlemcen Forest Conservation. For this purpose, five substrates were used: S1 (sand), S2 (topsoil), S3 (potting soil), S4 (1/2 sand + 1/2 topsoil) and S5 (1/3 sand + 1/3 topsoil + 1/3 potting soil). Germination and survival rates, and seedling morphological traits: average height of seedlings, average root collar diameter, stem height/root collar diameter ratio (H/D), average number of leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf width and leaf area, were evaluated. Results obtained after 16 months of monitoring in the nursery showed high germination rates of 91.4%, with an average survival rate of 89.5%, and significant differences were recorded between the substrates tested. In terms of growth, the best results were obtained with the potting soil substrate (S3) for all parameters. The lowest yields were recorded in seedlings grown on sand alone (S1).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00 Irmsch. (Begoniaceae) – a new record for India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Begonia limprichtii</italic> (Begoniaceae) is reported from India for the first time. It belongs to the section <italic>Platycentrum</italic> and is similar to <italic>B. thomsonii</italic>, but is overall less hairy with ovary nearly glabrous (versus villous) and upper ovary wing beaked and rounded (versus triangular).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Reintroduction of (L.) Fourr. – experiences and suggestions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Groenlandia densa</italic> (L.) Fourr. is a native species in Poland of evergreen hydromacrophyte occurring in water-sources or groundwater-fed watercourses. It is a critically endangered taxon which requires active protection. To increase the chance of preserving <italic>G. densa</italic> population in Western Pomerania, this plant was introduced to the Grabowa and Radew river systems in the Natura 2000 areas PLH 320022 “Radew, Chociela and Chotla Valley” and PLH 320003 “Grabowa Valley”, on a total of 33 sites. In the Radew and its tributaries (Chociel, Zgniła Struga), 6 out of 20 sites were maintained, where reintroduction was successful, while in the Grabowa and its tributaries (Błotnica, Biegała), only 3 out of 13 reintroduction sites survived, and reintroduction in the remaining ones did not bring expected results. Favorable conditions for <italic>G. densa</italic> were found in initial stages of <italic>Beruletum submersae</italic> Roll 1938 plant community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of the exploitation of medicinal plants on biodiversity conservation in Saida and El Bayadh regions, Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to establish an overview of medicinal plants in the Saida and El Bayadh regions through a survey of herbalists. Our survey included more than 60 herbalists spread over the territory of two Wilayas (provinces), in an area representing more than 3% of Algerian territory. At the same time, and when conditions permitted, families were interviewedand their answers most often guided our survey. In addition, we collected information on: traditional herbalists, the most exploited species, areas of origin, periods and quantities exploited, as well as the influence of this mode of exploitationon present and future biodiversity in these regions. Analysis of the data showed that threats to the biological diversity of medicinal plants mainly included human actions and natural changes. Herbalists practise this trade mostly by inheritance and they are willing to train in the field of herbalism. The frequency of use of medicinal plants as alternative medicine is very important in the social life of populations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic Diversity of Leafy Liverwort Species (Jungermanniidae, Marchantiophyta) in Poland: Regional Genetic Differentiation of Leafy Liverworts<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>For each of 8 species of leafy liverworts, 9-10 populations were sampled in 2-3 regions of Poland. In total, 5 regions were taken into account: the Tatra National Park, Bieszczady Mts., Białowieża Forest, Pomeranian Lake District, and Suwałki Lake District. Populations of most of the studied species did not show any correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic distances. Clear differences between regional groups of populations were found in only 2 species. The other species showed a complete or partial lack of genetic differentiation between groups of populations from various geographic regions. Generally, however, mountain populations had greater genetic diversity (<italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>, <italic>H</italic><sub>S</sub>) and coefficient of genetic differentiation (<italic>G</italic><sub>ST</sub>) than lowland populations. In the Tatra National Park all the studied liverworts turned out to be more diverse than in the Bieszczady Mts. Białowieża Forest created a uniform group, standing out markedly from mountainous populations but population in this region had slightly smaller genetic diversity, then in the mountains. In the Pomeranian and Suwałki Lake Districts, genetic diversity of liverworts was significantly lower than in mountains. The decrease in diversity in these regions is a likely consequence of habitat fragmentation (causing population depletion) combined with negative effects of urban development. Habitat fragmentation results in genetic drift and inbreeding depression, which cause a decrease in genetic diversity. In the Pomeranian Lake District the level of total diversity (<italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>) and intra-population diversity (<italic>H</italic><sub>S</sub>) was markedly higher than in the Suwałki Lake District. It may be linked to differences in climate, in the Suwałki Lake District climate is stronger.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-02-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic Diversity of Leafy Liverwort Species (Jungermanniidae, Marchantiophyta) in Poland: Diversity of Leafy Liverwort Species with Various Reproductive Modes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This monograph presents results of research on genetic diversity of 8 leafy liverwort species differing in reproductive mode. The frst 4 species in Poland are regarded as sterile and reproduce only vegetatively: <italic>Bazzania trilobata</italic>, <italic>Trichoc-olea tomentella, Lophozia hatcheri</italic>, and <italic>Mylia anomala</italic>. The next 4 are fertile, including the monoecious <italic>Lepidozia reptans </italic>and <italic>Calypogeia integristipula </italic>as well as the dioecious <italic>Mylia taylorii </italic>and <italic>Tritomaria quinquedentata</italic>. For each species, 9-10 populations were sampled. In total, 4744 gametophytes from 73 populations were examined by isozyme analysis. The level of their genetic diversity (total, <italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>, and within populations, H<sub>S</sub>) was high, higher than in thallose liverworts, but comparable to the genetic diversity of mosses or even some species of vascular plants. Thus the traditional opinion that the entire group of liverworts has a much lower level of genetic diversity than mosses is erroneous, as it holds true only for thallose liverworts (Metzgeriidae and Marchantiopsida). My results indicate that the effect of reproductive mode on genetic diversity in leafy liverworts is lower than in vascular plants. Sterile and fertile species of liverworts exhibited similar levels of genetic diversity. Moreover, both groups included species that had both high and low levels of <italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub> and <italic>H</italic><sub>S</sub>. In fertile species, monoecious and dioecious species also did not differ signifcantly in genetic diversity, but dioecious liverworts had slightly higher total diversity (<italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>) than monoecious species. In most of the studied leafy liverworts, the share of genetic diversity within populations in the total genetic diversity of species is greater than between populations. The percentage share of variation among populations (Φ<sub>PT</sub>) in the total genetic variation was correlated with the total genetic diversity of the species (<italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>). In species with high <italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>, differences between populations tended to be rather small. By contrast, in species with lower <italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>, the percentage share of differentiation among populations in the total diversity of species was much higher. My results confrm theory, based on studies by Kimura, that the main causes of genetic diversity of bryophytes are neutral somatic mutations developing in various vegetative parts of plants. The separation of branches or other plant sections with somatic mutations, followed by the growth of new shoots, can increase the level of genetic diversity. The high level of genetic diversity in sterile liverworts indicates that vegetative reproduction has a greater infuence on the level of genetic diversity than recombination. My results suggest also that mutation rates are similar in closely related species, but species with a wider ecological range exhibit higher genetic diversity because the variability of habitats can infuence the rate and type of somatic mutations. Accordingly, species inhabiting more diverse environments may be more genetically diverse. Patches of the studied species generally consisted of several genotypes (MLGs). Two types of distribution of genotypes in patches were noticed. Patches of species with low total diversity (<italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>)<sub>,</sub> were often dominated by 1-2 genotypes, which constituted the major part of a patch. In patches of species with higher <italic>H</italic><sub>T</sub>, there was no tendency to form patches with predomination of a single genotype. Different genotypes constituted similar proportions of a patch. In all the studied leafy liverwort species there was a high degree of repeatability of the same genotypes (MLGs) in plants from various patches within the same population or in various populations. Probably the main cause of this is the independent repeatability of the same mutations in different specimens. </p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-02-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Relics of cultivation in the vascular flora of medieval West Slavic settlements and castles<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Relics of cultivation in the vascular flora of medieval West Slavic settlements and castles</title><p>This monograph presents results of research on relics of cultivation and the present vascular flora of sites of medieval fortified settlements and castles in Central Europe. Special attention was paid to 109 West Slavic sites located in Poland, northeastern Germany, and the Czech Republic. For comparison, floristic data were collected also at 21 sites of medieval settlements and castles of Baltic tribes, East Slavs, and Teutonic knights. Results of this study confirm the hypothesis that remnants of medieval fortified settlements and castles are valuable habitat islands in the agricultural landscape, and are refuges of the plants that have accompanied West Slavs since the Middle Ages. At the 109 West Slavic archaeological sites, 876 vascular plant species were recorded. The present flora of the study sites is highly specific, clearly distinct from the surrounding natural environment, as shown by results of analyses of taxonomic composition, geographical-historical and synecological groups, indices of anthropogenic changes of the flora, and degrees of hemeroby (i.e. human influence) at the studied habitats. The sites of fortified settlements and castles are centres of concentration and sources of dispersal of alien species. Aliens account for nearly 21% of the vascular flora of the study sites. Among them, a major role is played by archaeophytes (101 species). Some archaeological sites are characterized by a high contribution of so-called species of old deciduous forests (98 species). Despite many features in common, floras of archaeological sites vary significantly, depending on their geographical location, size, typology, and chronology of their origin. Historical sites occupied in the past by West Slavs differ in the current vascular flora from the sites occupied in the Middle Ages by East Slavs or Baltic tribes and from Teutonic castles. West Slavic archaeological sites are primarily refuges for 22 relics of cultivation. Considering the time of cultivation, 3 groups of relics were distinguished: (<italic>i</italic>) relics of medieval cultivation (plants cultivated till the late 15<sup>th</sup> century); (<italic>ii</italic>) relics of cultivation in the modern era (introduced into cultivation in the 16<sup>th</sup> century or later), and (<italic>iii</italic>) relics of medieval-modern cultivation. These species play a special role in research on the history of the flora of Central Europe and thus also of the world flora. Thus the best-preserved sites of medieval West Slavic settlements and castles should be protected as our both cultural and natural heritage. This work is a key contribution to geobotanical research on transformation of the vegetation associated with human activity. Considering the problem of relics of cultivation it corresponds also to basic ethnobotanical issues.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2011-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Typifications, new combinations and new synonyms in Indian (Balsaminaceae)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One neotype, three second-step lectotypes and fourty lectotypes are designated for fourty four names in Indian <italic>Impatiens</italic> to fix the identity and to avoid the misapplication of names. Thirty nine names are synonymized, after a detailed ecological study of live plants in the field and examination of herbarium specimens including types. Six new combinations with change in their status are proposed for six taxa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Man-made changes in flora and vegetation: a sketch to a scientific portrait of Professor Herbert Sukopp<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The changes in plant cover have been the subject of regular geobotanical research for over 150 years. For several decades, one of the most outstanding researchers of this process has been Professor Herbert Sukopp from the Technische Universität Berlin. This paper discusses the main concepts and most important results of his empirical research. Based on the analysis of international scientific information database resources (Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar), the worldwide impact of Sukopp’s publications on the development of research in the field of anthropogenic changes in flora and vegetation was illustrated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of genetic diversity and wilt disease resistance in hot pepper () germplasm from Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hot pepper (<italic>Capsicum annuum</italic> L.) is an economically important crop in Ethiopia. Wide variability in hot pepper germplasm in Ethiopia is expected due to the presence of diverse environmental conditions and variation in farming systems. The present study was carried out to evaluate the resistance of 75 hot pepper accessions to wilt disease and assess their genetic diversity using SSR markers. Out of 75 accessions tested, the present study identified 23 accessions that showed resistance (R) with the value of 1-10% disease incidence. The genetic diversity assessment using 13 polymorphic SSR markers allowed the detection of 111 clear and scorable bands. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 13, with an average of 8.54. The PIC value ranged from 0.27 to 0.87 with an average of 0.59. The gene diversity indices were highly variable across SSR loci and ranged from 0.29 to 0.88 with mean genetic diversity of 0.62. Observed heterozygosity was also highly variable between loci (0.01-0.45) indicating that the accessions were not fixed to homozygosity. Furthermore, genetic diversity parameters were estimated among populations by grouping accessions based on their origin. Within populations, the PIC value ranged from 0.31 to 0.77. The genetic distances among the eight populations ranged from 0.15 to 0.48. The observed highest genetic diversity (0.80) in the Amhara region (Gojam) may indicate this area as the primary site for designing in situ conservation for this crop in Ethiopia. The research findings provide baseline information on disease resistance germplasm sources to be used for the breeding program, as well as the status of genetic diversity of the accessions for efficient conservation and proper utilization of the existing genetic resources in the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00 Aiton var. (Moraceae): a new record for India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An interesting specimen of <italic>Ficus</italic> L. was collected from the Idukki district of Kerala. Based on detailed examination with protologues, literatures and type specimens, the plant was identified as <italic>Ficus virens</italic> Aiton var. <italic>dispersa</italic> Chantaras. This is the first report on the occurrence of this taxon in India. A detailed description, photographs, illustrations, comparison with allied taxa and identification key are provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Misinterpretations and plagiarism in a publication about Himalayan : polemics with the paper of Singh R.K. 2021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the publication “Typifications, new combinations and new synonyms in Indian <italic>Impatiens</italic> (Balsaminaceae)” by Singh, R. K. <italic>et al</italic>. (2021), the authors used pseudoscientific theoretical background, utilized material collected by other persons without citing the source of data in support of their claims, and made serious errors in the determination and delimitation of <italic>Impatiens</italic> taxa occuring in Himalayas and adjacent areas. They proposed new combinations and statuses without sufficient field and literature studies and failed to show convincing evidences in their treatments. Their documentation lacks important details, like authorship of the published pictures, locations and dates of pictures, or measurements of plant parts; the whole documentation has geographically biased gaps – in case of Western Himalayan or Sikkimese taxa, there is almost no original illustrative material. Finally, they falsely claimed extensive field studies in Western Himalaya. This paper reinstates 19 species and 1 variety synonymised by Singh <italic>et al</italic>. (2021) with scientific evidences based on illustrations from types and colour photographs from fresh collections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Contribution to the taxonomic revision of -complex (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to present materials towards the taxonomic revision of <italic>Brachycorythis</italic>-complex (Orchidinae, Orchidaceae), which constitutes seven terrestrial genera and forty-eight species distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar and SW Asia. The detailed morphological descriptions, together with distribution data and ecological preferences for particular taxa are provided. Artificial keys for taxa identification were prepared. A molecular timescale for <italic>Brachycorythis</italic> species on a background of the subtribe Orchidinae was reconstructed using nuclear and plastid molecular markers. The results show that representatives of <italic>Brachycorythis</italic> separated from its last common ancestor presumably ca 20 Mya and the youngest taxa within the group seem to be its Asiatic representatives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Rediscovery and range extension of the rare species Zoll. & Mor. (Ebenaceae) in the State of Manipur, northeastern India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Diospyros truncata</italic> Zoll. &amp; Mor. is a rare species rediscovered in northeastern India after seven decades. A new locality of <italic>D. truncata</italic> was found in the state of Manipur, which indicates its range extension. A detailed taxonomic description, photographs and location map of this species are provided for easy identification.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00 Huds. (Orchidaceae) on a heap of limestone mine waste – the first population found in the Sudetes and the second in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper reports the finding of a new locality of <italic>Ophrys apifera</italic> – the first locality of this species in the Sudeten range and the second in Poland. A new population was found in the Kaczawskie Mts. (Western Sudetes). It consists of 23 flowering plants and occurs in an operating limestone quarry. The detailed data on this population and its habitat are included.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Local distribution pattern of (L.) Hill. (Dipsacaceae) as an effect of its life and dispersal strategy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A new locality of regionally alien and rare <italic>Virga pilosa</italic> was recorded outside the compact range of the species in the Wielkopolski National Park, midwestern Poland. It probably appeared as a result of unintentional anthropochory. Local distribution pattern of <italic>V</italic>. <italic>pilosa</italic> in micro- and mesoscale was described and interpreted in the light of life and dispersal strategy and habitat conditions of the species. Accidental epizoochory and unintentional anthropochory could have been responsible for the mesoscale distribution pattern with population units scattered along human and animal communication routes. Close dense autochory together with the species CR life strategy with a strong competitive component were responsible for microscale distribution pattern alternating in space and time, but always mosaic, including vegetative, generative and mixed patches. The distribution pattern was also influenced by the occurrence of the required combination of the moderately light, moderately moist and nitrogen-rich habitat conditions with favourable human-induced disturbance. Some data on the form of growth, reproductive potential and dispersal mode of the species, as well as on plant-animal interactions were also included.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Taxonomic identity of Hook.f. & Hook.f. with notes on typification of both names<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Impatiens cathcartii</italic> Hook.f. is recollected almost after a century, its taxonomic identity, description from fresh collection, coloured illustrations are made along with notes on typification of the name. Taxonomic identity of <italic>I. serratifolia</italic> Hook.f. along with its delimitation from closely related species is discussed, coloured illustrations with comparison of flowers with the closest species and notes on the typification of the name are also discussed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Aesthetic aspects of plant communities of ruderal urban sites in Szczecin<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Aesthetic aspects of plant communities of ruderal urban sites in Szczecin</title><p>Synanthropization of plant cover, connected with urban development, contributes to the appearance of specialized ruderal plant communities, adapted to habitats exposed to human influence. A lot of published data have focused on urban flora, but the aesthetic aspect of perennial and temporary plant communities at urban sites has been frequently omitted. Currently the practical use of such plant communities is limited by the lack of descriptive information available. In this study great attention has been paid to variability of urban communities, defined by: aesthetic aspects, flowering period, and colour variability in flowering communities. In Szczecin, <italic>Artemisio-Tanacetetum vulgaris, Calamagrostietum epigeji, Dauco-Picridetum hieracioidis</italic>, and <italic>Rudbeckio-Solidaginetum</italic> have been recognized as especially decorative. They could be used to reduce the costs of establishing and maintaining urban green areas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of forest management on genetic diversity of populations: a case study from the Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic)<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Impact of forest management on genetic diversity of <italic>Quercus petraea</italic> populations: a case study from the Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic)</title><p>In the Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic), the relation between genetic diversity and intensity of management was studied in 3 populations of <italic>Quercus petraea</italic> (Mattuschka) Liebl. (sessile oak). Microsatellite analysis was used to assess genetic diversity. The results indicate that differences between populations in average number of alleles per locus are so small that no genetic difference can be proved between them. The values of heterozygosity for all 3 studied populations confirm the absence of significant genetic differences among them.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-05-17T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1