rss_2.0TalTech Journal of European Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for TalTech Journal of European Studies Journal of European Studies Feed Factors Affecting Green Consumer Purchase Behavior on E-Commerce Websites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As ecological problems are rapidly expanding, they bring with them increasingly threatening and drastic complications. On the other hand, the economic benefits of plastic products have created a dilemma for consumers and business owners. Since one of the main channels for satisfying daily needs is online shopping and social media, and the market share of electronic commerce is growing inexorably compared to traditional brick-and-mortar methods, it would be useful to understand the factors related to consumer behavior on these platforms in order to resolve environmental issues. This research attempts to identify the factors affecting green consumer purchase decisions on social commerce platforms. A questionnaire was designed based on data gathered using bibliographic methods, and collected data from 532 valid samples was analyzed using SmartPLS software. According to the findings, subjective norms such as social network inference is positively correlated to green product attractiveness. In addition, the results show that personality traits and green product attractiveness are positively correlated; moreover, the results show that there is a positive relation between green advertising and green product attractiveness. It is believed that the outcomes of this research will contribute to and be beneficial for manufacturers and businesses by proposing a new model for green marketing and green product awareness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to Ensure the Development of SMEs in Post-Pandemic Economy? A Start-ups Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>After the humanitarian crisis, caused by COVID-19, enterprises have to face a post-pandemic economic crisis. As small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) constitute 99% of EU enterprises and create every third workplace (European Parliament, 2021), it is important to monitor their situation not only to survive but also to develop and build strong economies in the future. The aim of this research is to investigate development trends and opportunities in (SMEs’) development, with a special focus on start-ups (STPS) as representative of these. Also, special attention is paid to the concept of sustainable development (SD), which fulfils the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The proposed methodology consists of three stages: desk research, in-depth interviews, and primary data analysis, and uses a qualitative method. The article describes the findings of recent Polish studies undertaken to verify and augment earlier pilot research. The novelty of the article is the examination of the dependence between the STPS survival rate and the SD as a measure of SDGs’ fulfilment. The limitation may be the specificity of the pandemic, as well as the study of post-pandemic trends that shows a strictly binding need to have a stable strategy for establishing, managing and developing enterprises and increasing their survival rates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Evaluation of the Graduate Practice Intervention in Slovakia with the Application of the CART Method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Slovakia, the contribution to graduate practice is one of the active labour market policy interventions, the main goal of which for young school-leavers is to gain first job experiences and contacts with potential employers. Among the young jobseekers, it is one of the most used interventions. This study aims to provide a counterfactual impact evaluation of this contribution on the employability of its participants and also on their monthly wages. The total period under review is 2014–2017, during which the treated individuals participated in the graduate practice during 2014–2015. Then, their course of employment and average monthly wages were monitored over a two-year impact period, covering the period 2015–2017. The study was carried out using a database of 12,953 treated eligible participants of graduate practice and 83,907 non–treated controls. The data used in the study is managed by the Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic (COLSAF SR) and the Social Insurance Agency (SIA). For the evaluation, propensity score matching was used, where the propensity scores were estimated using classification and regression trees. The results of the study show that the participants of the graduate practice were employed on average three months longer during the two-year impact period after the end of the intervention as full-time employees or self-employed, and their average salary was almost 217 euros higher than that of the control group of non-participants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Regional Planning: A Bibliometric Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Challenges in sustainable regional planning have been a hot topic of discussion in the past few decades. In this article, we analyze different approaches to regional development planning and explore their relevance to achieving sustainability in the area, while emphasizing the importance of the bottom-up approach in regional planning. We performed a bibliometric analysis to detect the state of research of the regional development planning and examined the program of forming a system for ensuring a region’s sustainability. We concluded that it is crucial to create national development plans utilizing a regional approach, which involves local projects and programs that benefit not just the economy and ecological state of the regions but also the inhabitants of those regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Socialism to Capitalism: Low-Skill-Biased Change in the Baltics during the Transition and Beyond<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>How did technological upgrading in the Baltics during the transition from planned to market economy affect labour? Existing academic literature would imply a skill-biased or polarising effect. However, we find that the opposite is likely true—technological upgrading predominantly benefited lower skilled workers. This is explained by an abundance of lower skilled labour, which fostered the usage of less advanced technologies that such workers could utilise. This article contributes to the discussion on the relationship between technology and labour by highlighting that technological upgrading may lead to low-skill-biased change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Investigations on Existing Approaches to Marketing Effectiveness Evaluation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Marketing effectiveness evaluation is an important issue for companies due to its significant impact on overall business performance and goals. Discussions on marketing effectiveness evaluation in academic and business societies are extensive. However, a unified and clear classification of marketing effectiveness evaluation approaches is missing. The purpose of this article is to conduct theoretical investigations about the existing approaches to marketing effectiveness evaluation. The review of academic literature was performed by selecting and reviewing the most relevant publications from two leading databases, Web of Science and Scopus. The most meaningful articles for the research area were chosen using a bibliometric analysis, and reviewed. The article discusses the evaluation of marketing effectiveness for different marketing initiatives, its impact on business, and challenges for organizations, and provides valuable insights into revealing trends in marketing effectiveness evaluation approaches. The presented classification of marketing effectiveness approaches is expected to contribute to a broader understanding of the research area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Towards Sustainable Entrepreneurship among Students: A Pilot Study in Latvia and Lithuania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sustainable economic development is driven by sustainable entrepreneurial activities, generated by the personal attitudes of entrepreneurs. The present and future of sustainable entrepreneurship are shaped by the youth, including students, which is why it is important to understand their attitudes towards this type of entrepreneurship. Therefore, the key goal of the research is to evaluate the attitudes and behaviours of the youth towards sustainability issues and sustainable entrepreneurship. The current article reflects the results of the second research stage and aims at evaluating attitudes towards sustainable entrepreneurship among Latvian and Lithuanian students. The results reveal that gender/age affect personal environmental attitudes, however gender/age has no effect on personal willingness to start a sustainable business. The analysis results of the personal attitudes to sustainable entrepreneurship differ by age and gender. Gender has no effect and age strongly affects personal attitudes to sustainable development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Economic Challenges for Sustainable Entrepreneurs Infrastructure Investments as a Factor of Economic Growth of European Union Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Territorial cohesion and improved accessibility are among the main objectives of the European Union (EU) Cohesion policy. Although there is a wealth of literature on the impact of investment in transport infrastructure on overall accessibility levels, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the possible link between transport infrastructure investment (TII) and economic growth in the EU. Our research aims to evaluate the impact of TII on economic growth in the EU. The methodology is based on nonlinear neoclassical specification, which includes a multiplicative term to evaluate if the absence of corruption mediates the effect of TII on growth. Our unbalanced panel data covers 27 EU countries (Cyprus is excluded due to missing data and the United Kingdom is a part of the sample) from 2000 through 2019. Our research confirms a positive and statistically significant impact of TII on economic growth but with a diminishing return. Estimating the absence of corruption as a possible moderator of the effect that TII has on growth shows that control of corruption plays a significant role in the TII growth nexus. We find that in countries with a low level of control of corruption, TII has a statistically significant negative effect on growth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Systematic Literature Review of the Context of the Sharing Economy and CSR in 2017–2021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The sharing of idle assets, on which the sharing economy model is based, is associated with positive economic, environmental, and social effects, the creation of which is the basis of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). It would therefore seem expedient to examine the context of these phenomena, which have recently been gaining in importance, although they still remain outside mainstream research. So far, there is no study which comprehensively characterises the current state of knowledge of the context of the sharing economy and CSR, identifies research gaps, and postulates directions for future research in this area. This article addresses this gap by utilising a standalone literature review approach. An analysis of 20 publications, published on this topic in 2017–2021 in journals registered in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, was carried out. Four main research clusters were identified, these being (1) The sharing economy as a tool of the CSR concept; (2) The joint contribution of the sharing economy model and the concept of CSR towards reduction of overconsumption and wastage; (3) The importance of CSR communication for sharing economy platforms; and (4) The antagonistic relationship between the sharing economy model and the concept of CSR. The performed analysis shows the fragmented nature of existing research, but also the progressive nature of this area of research. At the same time, useful avenues for future research are postulated. This should focus on multiple lines of inquiry, including the possibility of incorporating different forms of B2B sharing into the concept of CSR, assessing the benefits, limitations, and risks of linking these two concepts, as well as exploring the synergies between the sharing economy model and the concept of CSR from the point of view of different industries, sharing segments, or regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Disclosure and Sustainability Transition: A New Metric and Emerging Trends in Responsible Investments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental sustainability, social engagement and robust governance gained growing attention from consumers and investors alike, leading to what we call ‘ESG finance’. ESG criteria are now shaping the behaviour and choices of enterprises, investors and consumers. Indeed laudable, the increased importance of ESG finance could raise concerns about the robustness underneath this new set of financial products. Moreover, the reliability of ESG-related data and information shared by companies may also be challenged due to the ability of those indicators to shape the public profile of companies and their attractiveness for investors. A new breed of ESG rankings and ratings is widening the metrics that consumers and investors use to make informed decisions about their consumption and investment. Yet, such rankings and ratings hinge on the individual disclosure approaches of the interested companies. This article wishes to complement available data and information about specific emissions data released by companies with the ESG disclosure levels, in particular relating to the “environment” dimension. Based on these disclosure levels, the authors build a new metric with the purpose of reducing asymmetric information and promoting more responsible investment. Starting from ESG-related data and publicly available information, a new disclosure-adjusted pollution index (namely, the GHG Scope-1 DAdj index) is developed. The second part of the article puts forward an empirical analysis on the basis of this new index, suggesting that the rush to ESG finance could be poised to generate leeway for new types of asymmetries and possible distortions in investment decision-making, also providing grounds for potentially reckless speculative attitudes, especially in the domain of product development of financial instruments that may generate new forms of risk for investors. Using the GHG Scope-1 DAdj index makes a few companies less environmentally friendly and interesting for investors who are seeking responsible and sustainable investment options. The innovative index and the empirical analysis lead the authors to suggest to “split the domains of ESG” to better gauge the relation between impact and compliance costs for companies as the individual components of environment, social engagement and governance are considered separately.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Management and Its Impact on CSR Activities in the Field of Sustainable Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The way in which both renewable and non-renewable resources are used, and the speed at which these are being exploited, are rapidly eroding the planet’s capacity to regenerate the resources and environmental services on which our prosperity and growth are based. The clothing and textile industry is characterized by a linear (take-make-waste) economic model and huge use of non-renewable resources. In order to integrate circular economy as one of the challenges in the clothing and textile industry, we must boost past research directly to innovation to bring about a higher quality of life for all. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has gained special importance among researchers, the business community, and customers in recent years. Today, manufacturers have to take another step forward to promote their positive social attitude and take care of their responsibility towards society. In the framework of sustainable development, CSR is carried out by achieving economic, social, or environmental goals. Consumers and shareholders currently expect a responsible approach from clothing and textile companies in the production of sustainable clothing, recycling, or ensuring suitable working conditions for employees. It is important not only to support socially responsible businesses but also to raise awareness of the negative environmental impact of the clothing and textile industry. Based on the recognition of the importance of shifting from a linear to a circular approach in the clothing and textile industry, we see potential in recycling the textile fiber in order to close the loop and use innovative technology to transform the textile waste into recycled material by keeping in mind barriers in technology. This article evaluates the social responsibility of a selected company in the field of sustainable development by setting a good example in the Slovak market through the results of a questionnaire survey.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Economic Development: Disentangling the Effect of Elections and Rule of Law<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article provides evidence on how the political settlements—rule of law and elections—would affect the economic development and enhances the economic growth. It empirically investigates whether democracy affects the economic convergence of countries through the quality of institutions: (i) electoral component of democracy, and (ii) rule of law parameters. Investigations differentiate between Islamic and non-Islamic countries. We find that the elections parameter has a first-order effect on economic development; such a relationship is not confirmed for Islamic countries. Rule of law also influences this relationship, but brings less efficient impact to the economic development. Our results are obtained using a sample of 167 countries over the 2010–2012 period.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Affiliations or National Interests? Analyses of Voting Patterns on Trade Policy in European Parliament<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article examines the determinants of voting patterns within the European Parliament for EU trade legislations including EU trade agreements. Given that trade is a very sensitive issue for particular Member States, our question is to verify whether members of European Parliament (MEP) tend to vote in line with their political affiliation or national identity prevails in voting for trade-related issues. Our results from EU trade agreements with Korea and Columbia/Peru show that MEPs tend to vote with others in their political groups in trade legislations and their voting pattern is not very different from the overall voting pattern observed in other policy areas. This trend is confirmed by both the comparison of intra-voting cohesion index and the empirical test based on the probit model. Country-specific variables do not explain well the voting behavior of MEPs in trade issues. However, it is noteworthy that some MEPs voted in line with their national interests in case of EU-Korea FTA.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Decision-Making and the Precautionary Principle in EU Law<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article is predicated upon the allegation that there is a similarity between the scientific uncertainty linked to the hazard which human interventions pose to the natural environment and the hazard which the development of automated decision-making techniques poses to certain aspects of human lives in the digital environment. On the basis of this allegation, the analysis examines the similarities between the European environmental law, which is crucial for the natural environment, and the European data protection law, which is fundamental for the digital environment. As there are measures already adopted by the data protection law from the environmental law, such as impact assessments and the right to access information, the main hypothesis of this analysis is to consider whether there are further inspirations for the development of European data protection law which could be drawn from environmental law, regarding the scientific uncertainty which is common to these two areas of regulation. The article examines a legal measure, namely, the precautionary principle, as the conjectural response to the challenges linked to the development of the new technologies. The experiences collected in the area of environmental law concerning the precautionary principle are analysed as a source of lessons to be learned concerning the regulatory measures adopted in order to deal with scientific uncertainty, not only in the natural environment, but also in the digital one.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Critical and Theoretical Re-imagining of ‘Victimhood Nationalism’: The Case of National Victimhood of the Baltic Region<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>There are many arguments to support the idea that the Baltic nations (and other “victimized” areas) adhere to ‘victimhood nationalism’, a form of nationalism that explains the region’s recognition of its history and the related problems. Since the start of the 21st century, memory and area studies experts have used the concept of ‘victimhood nationalism’. However, the framework of victimhood nationalism is critically flawed. Its original conceptual architecture is weak and its effectiveness as an explanatory variable requires critical examination. This paper presents a theoretical examination of victimhood nationalism from the perspective of political and social historiology. Further, the paper criticizes the concept from the perspective of the empirical area studies of the Baltic region. First, it argues that the killing or damaging of one community by another does not automatically transform into a nationalism of victimhood. Unless it has been established that one community was the ‘victim’ and the other the perpetrator of the crime, these events will not be remembered as the basis of victimhood nationalism. Second, the effectiveness of this concept is criticized from two perspectives: “tangle” as an explanatory variable and its doctrinal history. It is tautological to claim that victimhood nationalism explains political issues, as was already being implied in the early twentieth-century collective memory studies. In conclusion, the assumption of victimhood is a preliminary necessity to a community claiming victimhood nationalism. Victimhood nationalism is not an explanatory, but an explained, variable. Therefore, the concept should be renamed otherwise. The alternative framework of collective memory studies framework of “victimhood” is needed. This research argues that Baltic area studies, particularly regarding history recognition, should be phenomenologically reconsidered to reimagine the framework of “victimhood”.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Position of Burden Sharing in Current US Security Policy Vis-à-vis European Allies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article discusses the position of burden sharing in the US security policy vis-à-vis its European allies. It argues that this issue has always been important for the US administration, but never to the extent it is today. This is due to several factors, including: (a) current White House America First policy, which embraces a critical position against international institutions and emphasizes the importance of economic elements of US multi- and bilateral relationships; (b) reluctance of some of European allies—with Germany as the biggest concern for the US—to keep defense expenditures on the level of 2% of GDP, including 20% for major equipment, as it is required by NATO financial guidelines; and (c) a scale of US overpayment, which is lesser than presented by US officials. I suggest that burden sharing will remain a priority for the current US government and would cause certain economic and political-military (new posture of US troops in Europe) consequences.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Child’s Right to Be Heard and Be Represented in the Criminal Procedure: A Comparative Analysis of Estonian and Cambodian Law to CRC<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper analyses the legal and practical implementation of the right to be heard and be represented of children in criminal proceedings, both in the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and in the context of Estonian and Cambodian legal systems. Estonia has been chosen as a model state of EU by which also the EU principles are reflected. Particularly, this paper provides a comparative analysis of the implementation of a child’s right to be heard and be represented in Estonia and Cambodia by examining the legal standards concerning children’s right to be heard and be represented enshrined under the CRC together with the regulations and policies of each respective country, and, to a smaller extent, how the principles of the CRC are reflected in EU law and policies. Examples of actual practices in Estonia and Cambodia are discussed to understand whether both countries are compliant with the principles of the CRC. This paper suggests that Estonia and Cambodia both acknowledge their human rights obligations regarding children’s rights, and their legal regulations and policies are in accordance with the CRC principles. However, there remain gaps in the implementation of these policies and regulations in both countries. This view is justified by the analysis of the performance of judicial professionals, including judicial police, lawyers, prosecutors and judges. While critically analyzing the challenges, this article also suggests changes to address the problem.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Safe Distance: Chapters from Randomised (Non)Application of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights before Polish Constitutional Tribunal<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The question of the application and impact of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (‘Charter’) in quotidian practice of human rights protection and review is a strategic one. Given the predominantly decentralised effects of EU law and with the due account to the wide interpretation of the scope of the Charter’s application (Art. 51(1)) presented by the CJEU (C-617/10 Fransson), the national dimension of the application of the Charter forms the crucial issue for the functioning of the EU system of fundamental rights protection. The Charter itself has a big potential to influence the content, nature and mechanisms of the fundamental rights protection at the national level. The present paper focuses on this phenomena in connection to the case-law, opinions and workload of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal (‘TK’). It analyses the approach of TK towards the Charter in abstract manner as well as the (non)appearance of the Charter in the reasoning of the court in concrete cases. The article reports on the main cases and analyses the reasons of the aloof approach of the TK towards the EU human rights catalogue.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of the Preliminary Ruling Procedure by Czech Courts: Historical Retrospective and Beyond<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article analyses the use of the preliminary ruling procedure by the Czech courts in the 15 years of the Czech membership in the European Union. It presents statistics of cases lodged to the EU Court of Justice and refers to the most important decisions. The article compares the practise of both lower courts as well as courts of last instance, namely the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court. It also outlines the attitude of the Czech Constitutional Court towards this procedure.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue