rss_2.0Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment Feed Landwirtschaft 2030: Ein partizipativer Strategieprozess für die oberösterreichische Landwirtschaft<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The multifunctional services of agriculture and forestry represent indispensable goods for society. To sustain them for the future, the government of Upper Austria initiated the strategic process “Future of Agriculture 2030”.</p> <p>The mix of methods aimed at developing a desirable vision for farmers and foresters, along-side the required implementation steps, comprised 5 dialogue platforms, 2 world cafés and 9 focus group discussions. More than 1000 people were involved in the participative process, among them farmers, officials, media agents and civic representatives.</p> <p>Qualitative content analysis of the material resulted in a characterization of the self-conception and the aspired development of participants, and in a compendium of missions, goals and measures. The strategy identifies four “partners” as crucial cooperative actors to implement the “Future of Agriculture 2030”. Besides farmers and foresters, those are the media, politicians, and consumers, whose mutual engagement was perceived to be decisive for the future development of agriculture by the participants.</p> <p>The discussion shows that the missions, goals and measures are widely conforming with recent publications addressing the same topic. Concluding, the results inspire actors to communicate the missions to the mentioned partners of the “Future of Agriculture 2030”, and to assess, improve and put them into practice in mutual efforts.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue literacy for farmers – the case of vineyard farmers in Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>One of the key factors influencing agricultural development and farm performance is access to finance. There are several factors that influence access to finance, including financial management capacity, which is linked to financial literacy. The paper analyzes the factors which determine farmers’ financial management behavior, in the case of Kosovo, based on a structured farm survey focusing on the vineyard sector. The findings suggest that half of the interviewed farmers did not keep records regarding costs and incomes. The likelihood to keep financial records is linked to several household and farm attributes. Market-oriented farmers who had contracts were more likely to keep financial records than those who did not. Policymakers through public advisory services as well as financial institutions should address the need to improve financial literacy among farmers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Grundlagen zum Strategiediskurs für einen nachhaltigen Pflanzenbau<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Scientific facts about the relationships between the goals are indispensable for the rational social discourse on solving the various conflicting goals on the way to sustainable crop production. Therefore, the German Society for Agronomy has compiled scientific findings on the topics of biodiversity, climate relevance and climate resilience, nutrient management, crop protection, soil protection and production of renewable raw materials, and identified the existing need for research. After an executive summary that highlights the findings, the subject areas are explained in detail. The purpose of this paper is not to make recommendations for policy-making, but to support the public debate by providing factual information.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue an improved understanding of bark beetle and other insect herbivore infestation in conifer forests<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>European forest ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stressors such as storm, drought episodes and mass attack of forest insect pests. Sustainable forest management requires a fundamental understanding of causal relationships between forest structures and the occurrence of disturbance events, as well as a well-functioning transfer of scientific knowledge into practice. Risk or predisposition assessment, phenological models or prediction of deficits in stand water supply can serve as decision support for prophylactic and protective measures in forestry. This overview addresses the theoretical approaches to insect pest-related mortality in forests that form the basis for such models. Many insect herbivore species benefit from increased temperatures and drought. For example, there is a clear correlation between bark beetle infestation and summer temperatures, storm damage and precipitation deficits. Drought stress is one of the main factors predisposing conifer forests to bark beetle infestation and significantly impacts interactions among <italic>Picea abies</italic>, <italic>Ips typographus</italic> and its associated ophiostomatoid fungi. A multi-year study focused on the effects of drought on the defence capacity and attractiveness of Norway spruce to <italic>I. typographus</italic>. The empirical dataset gained in field and laboratory experiments provides new insights into defence responses of this important tree species against biotic infestations under drought.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Praxis und künftige Herausforderungen der Klärschlammbewirtschaftung unter Berücksichtigung von Kleinkläranlagen und kleinen Kläranlagen am Beispiel von Oberösterreich<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Current sewage sludge management in Austria is in transition. In the future, phosphorus recovery will increase and agricultural reuse is becoming less important. Current (political) concepts focus primarily on the (few) larger wastewater treatment plants, but also the (many) small plants require viable solutions for the future. In order to provide an overview of the current practice of sewage sludge management with special consideration of smaller wastewater treatment plants, this article uses the example of Upper Austria to create an inventory of all wastewater treatment plants in the province and, based on this, to derive the plant specific amount and to highlight and discuss the common sewage sludge disposal paths. The findings presented are intended to help sensitize experts and political decision-makers to the needs of the “smaller” wastewater treatment plants, so that they will also be addressed in the development of future concepts for sewage sludge management.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue qualitative Studie zu den Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie auf die österreichische Landwirtschaft<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Measures taken to contain the COVID-19 pandemic in addition to changes in consumer attitudes and behavior have impacted food supply chains globally. In order to examine the effects of COVID-19 on Austrian agriculture, interviews with 34 farmers were conducted in early 2021. The results of a qualitative content analysis show that the diverse and heterogeneous impacts of COVID-19 on farms create opportunities as well as challenges. Negative impacts include sales difficulties due to the closure of restaurants and markets, the ban on non-agricultural activities, the disrupted availability of workers and agricultural inputs, and burdens on farmers. Mitigation of negative effects through political measures and interest groups showed limited effectiveness. Nevertheless, the functionality of agricultural production was maintained as direct impacts were minimal and adjustments adequate. Positive effects result from the increased demand in direct marketing and food retailing, the improved perception of agriculture in society and advantages in the farmers' private lives. Long-term changes of farms are mainly driven by digitization, investments and adjustments concerning marketing.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue der Endophyten im Blutungssaft der Rebe mittels Next Generation Sequencing<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The grapevine represents a natural reservoir of resident microbial resources embedded in a complex microecosystem. The aim of this study was to find out which germs are present in the bleeding sap. The bleeding juice was obtained using a clean with alcohol sterilized PET bottle. After enrichment, DNA extraction followed by analysis of an Illumina MiSeq v3 with target region V1V3 was examined. The sequences obtained were aligned with the NCBI database. The most dominant genera in the grapevines were <italic>Pseudomonas</italic> and <italic>Massilia</italic> followed by the genera <italic>Zoogloea</italic>, <italic>Bacillus</italic>, <italic>Idonella</italic>, <italic>Sphingomonas</italic> and <italic>Paenibacillus</italic>. Sporadically, other bacterial genera appeared in the vines. In addition, the yeast-like microorganism <italic>Aureobasidium pullulans</italic> was determined in two vines and the described inhibitory interaction between <italic>Pseudomonas</italic> and <italic>Aureobasidium</italic> was confirmed as described in the literature. In general, all microorganisms determined in the bleeding sap have a plant-strengthening influence and provide a basis for colonization into tissue-specific plant parts.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue einer möglichen Veränderung des Umweltbewusstseins in Zeiten der Covid-19-Krise<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Environmental awareness is affected by fluctuations, which occur when other social events are prioritized. This paper investigates how environmental awareness of persons between the age of 20 and 30 living in Austria has changed during the period of the Covid-19 crisis compared to the period directly before. To answer this question a literature review and a quantitative survey (n = 210) on the affective and cognitive component of environmental awareness have been conducted. The results show a slight increase in the affective/cognitive component. This correlates with some socio-demographic characteristics and the change in certain behaviors but not with the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on one's life. However, the high topicality of the Covid-19 crisis, as well as the dynamic of the crisis, should be highlighted. Therefore, no assessment of the long-term development of environmental awareness can be made and further research is necessary.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue (L.) Dunal: Langzeitstudie über 13 Sorten in Österreich<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In 2003 a long-term study with the North American Pawpaw (<italic>Asimina triloba</italic> (L.) Dunal) was set up at the Austrian Federal School and Research Institutes for Horticulture and Landscape Design (HBLFA) Schönbrunn in Vienna in order to test the adaptability to environmental conditions in Central Europe using 13 varieties. From the eighth year on, the trees bore fruits, which have been sensory assessed in various test series. The weights and natural ripening time of 16,164 single fruits were sampled in ten years of documentation. These data show variable total yields and fruit numbers in all varieties and years, as well as variances in the ripening distribution, the start and the length of the season. Comparable studies from Italy, Ohio and Kentucky achieved similar fruit weights but a lower numbers of fruits. There are several possible influencing factors on the growth of the North American Pawpaw. A genetic incompatibility between the rootstock and the grafted scion may lead to a loss of vitality. Pollination deficits, other pre-harvest factors and the prevailing soil environment have a significant impact on tree productivity. In addition to these factors, a good choice of variety supports excellent yields. The tasty varieties ‘Davis’, ‘Mango’, ‘NC-1’, ‘Overleese’ and ‘Prima 1216–60’ bear a large number of large fruits and showed a long ripeness distribution in this setup. These varieties show a total season length of six to eight weeks, which is conducive for retail.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of native rhizosphere bacteria on little millet ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The declining productivity of little millet (<italic>Panicum sumatrense</italic>) in a rural area in India necessitates finding a sustainable solution. A suitable composition of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere of a crop is considered important for its optimum yield. Therefore, a study was undertaken to isolate and identify suitable bacteria and see their priming effect on the productivity of little millet. Rhizospheric soil samples were used to isolate bacteria on nitrogen-free Jensen's medium. Fast-growing rhizobacterial isolates FKK5 and DUM4, which exhibit significant selected plant growth-promoting activities, were selected. Little millet seeds were inoculated with selected PGPR and a non-native <italic>Azotobacter chroococcum</italic> before sowing. The inoculated plants were grown under semi-sterile poly-house conditions. Little millet inoculated with FKK5, DUM4, and <italic>A. chroococcum</italic> (5576) showed enhanced grain yield by 28.14%, 24.72%, and 20.43%, respectively, and enhanced total biomass yield by 23.08%, 21.87%, and 19.09%, respectively. The isolates were identified as <italic>Burkholderia</italic> sp. with 0.66% dissimilarity in 16S rDNA sequence with the most closely related species in the Genbank database. The native PGPR proved to be more effective compared to non-native PGPR as biofertilizers in restoring the productivity of the nutritionally important cereal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue growth, yield, and quality responses of two hybrids of Napier and sorghum at three cutting intervals in the southern province of Sri Lanka<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A 3 × 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern province of Sri Lanka to compare two cultivars of Napier hybrid grass, CO-3 and CO-4, and fodder sorghum (var. sugar graze) at three cutting intervals (4, 6, and 8 weeks) during a 2-year period. For cultivars, plant height followed the order sugar graze &gt; CO-4 &gt; CO-3, while the stem diameter was greater for CO-3, followed by CO-4 and sugar graze. Number of leaves was always greater in hybrid Napier compared with sugar graze. Cultivar had a significant effect on annual dry matter (ADM) production (CO-3 &gt; CO-4 &gt; sugar graze) during both years. Sugar graze had a higher crude protein (CP) and a lower crude fiber (CF) concentration compared to CO-3 or CO-4. Cutting interval also had a significant effect on ADM production and CF concentration, with higher values obtained in the following order: 8 weeks &gt; 6 weeks &gt; 4 weeks. The results revealed that cultivars CO-3 and CO-4 were superior in overall DM and CP yields while Sugar graze performed equally well with highest CP and lowest CF concentrations while cutting interval of 8 weeks appears optimal for the environmental conditions in the area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of some physiological parameters in spinach ( L.) cultivated in Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of this work was to investigate the levels of photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], peroxidase [POX], ascorbate peroxidase [APX], glutathione reductase [GR], and MDA), total glutathione (GSH), total ascorbate (AsA), and lipid peroxidation of two spinach cultivars (Clipper and Matador) sampled in different locations in Kosovo (Prizren, Ferizaj, and Obiliq). The photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> and <italic>b</italic> as well as carotenoids, were extracted by 80% acetone, and concentrations were calculated based on the absorbance values at 663, 645, and 480 nm. There was a significant difference in SOD, APX, and GR activities between varieties at each location. The MDA and AsA contents in Obiliq were the highest, compared to other locations. From the increase in lipid peroxidation level, it can be assumed that the degradation in pigment content was caused by the decrease in total AsA content and APX and GR enzyme activities, which are the main enzymes of the AsA–GSH cycle in chloroplasts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (L.) Dunal: Botanik, Kulturgeschichte, Kulturführung und Verwendungszwecke – Eine Literaturübersicht<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The North American Pawpaw (<italic>Asimina triloba</italic> (L.) Dunal) is known for its potential as an ornamental or fruit tree, and for its chemical compounds with antitumor and pesticide characters. This species is receiving increasing attention in nurseries as solitary fruit tree for the garden, or as a curiosity in orchards and the gourmet cuisine. It is only little susceptible to pests and bear fruits with a unique flavor. The pulp has a high nutritional value, is rich in ascorbin, carotin, niacin, minerals and protein. It can be considered as an excellent source of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium. These important micronutrients are often missing in the diet of children and elderly people.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue future of pasture management in Germany – Aspects of technology and regulation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>According to experts, pasturing in Europe has been decreasing for many years. Today, a lot of different pieces of regulation in Germany and in Europe exist, affecting farmers when they bring their cows to pasture. Furthermore, there are social requirements for pasturing, which need to be considered. Factors like increasing relevance of animal welfare, environmental protection, and the recreational use of the environment and esthetics of landscape come into play. Therefore, scientific research and new solutions are needed. This paper aims to give an overview across selected pasture-related regulations affecting farmers in Germany and Europe. Furthermore, aspects which are not directly regulated by the government, but are expectations of society will be highlighted. Concluding from this, technological possibilities - already on market and in the pipeline of scientific research will be described. Results show that today several different attempts are made to improve pasturing. Most of these attempts focus on improvement of management tasks. Attempts also directly focus on technological improvements. It can be concluded that new tools for pasturing can increase productivity and simultaneously decrease management tasks. Nevertheless, pricing of these tools as well es the amount of bureaucracy will be the most crucial factors for their adaptation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue force reduction by an electrification unit on implements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Electrification is done in newer tractors hesitantly. There will be an increase in the need for electrified mounted implements and application units. Semi-liquid manure and degestate from biogas crops are increasingly injected directly into the soil. This technique reduces nutrient losses and ammonia emissions. In the case of loamy soils and clay, a high draft force is needed for slurry deposition into the soil. With the development and testing of an application unit with reduced working width of 3 m, the draft force reduction was found to be lower by nearly one third. The field trials have been performed in two steps: first, a prototype with spiked roller and star packer as a traction element on the roller unit in 3-m working width and second, a final slurry grubber with 6-m working width and cutting coulter on the traction roller. We tested both devices with and without powering the electrified traction roller. These field tests took place on six fields near Freising in Germany. Results showed that firstly, draft force reduction up to 35% was achieved with a powered traction roller on the mounted implement having 20% slippage on the traction roller. These values were obtained by pulling a tractor with the electrified implement by another tractor in a horizontal ground level. Second, we observed a different variation range of the values among the three test fields. This results from differences in the soil structure on the test fields having pebbles and stones near the soil surface or bigger stones down the working depth of 22.5 cm. The presented results show new kinds of working scenarios and operation modes for agriculture. Electrification can be an advantage in taking care of nutrient losses and ammonia emissions as it leads to a draft force reduction on heavy soils.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a system expansion and allocation approach for the handling of multi-output processes in life cycle assessment – a case study for nano-cellulose and biogas production from elephant manure<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The handling of multi-outputs in life cycle assessment (LCA) is a controversial topic in both LCA application practice and the literature. Although there is a prescribed hierarchy of how to deal with multi-outputs, which favors system expansion (including co-products and their upstream chains) as the most scientific solution over the allocation approach (dividing environmental impacts based on an allocation factor), the latter is still most common. In this study, system expansion, mass, economic, and energy-based allocation are studied within a biosystem engineering case study, which provides two marketable outputs, biogas and nano-cellulose. The global warming potential (GWP) is used as basis for comparison. There is hardly any difference between system expansion and economic allocation, but it is also shown how problematic the latter approach is for newly introduced products because the market price is still very high and not representative. Results show that the GWP with mass allocation has the lowest impact; however, this approach is inappropriate since the outputs are a solid product and biogas, which are hard to compare based on a mass basis. Overall, based on the studied approach, results can be significantly different. Hence, it is recommended to avoid comparison and interpretation of results when using different modeling approaches.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue budgeting for acquiring and operating a ground-based optical crop sensor for variable rate nitrogen application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Optical crop sensors for variable rate nitrogen application (VRNA) are described as an optimal solution to increase yield while minimizing fertilizer costs, although their operation and acquisition costs could be high. In this study, a partial budgeting approach was used to assess the net income of buying and operating a crop sensor for VRNA for optimizing fertilizer application to winter wheat. Two VRNA scenarios – stimulus, where crops with lower yield expectations received more fertilizer, and compensatory, where crops with higher yield expectations received less fertilizer – were assessed and compared to a conventional way of fertilizer application. Both scenarios showed negative results. The stimulus scenario showed a yearly negative change in income of −227.3 €/ha/year on 25 ha of fertilized area and −38.9 €/ha/year on 250 ha of fertilized area. In the case of the compensatory scenario, a yearly change in income of −271.8 €/ha/year on 25 ha of fertilized area and −83.3 €/ha/year on 250 ha of fertilized area was achieved. Results also showed that bigger farms had lower losses than smaller farms due to the economy of scale. Farmers may opt for sharing or leasing the use of the crop sensor to reduce costs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue accuracy of a robot platform using indoor positioning methods in a realistic outdoor setting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Precise localization and reliable navigation are of crucial importance in order to fully automatize tasks in agriculture using field robots in an outdoor environment. However, under certain conditions, absolute localization accuracy of outdoor positioning systems, mainly global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), might drop under a critical threshold. Thus, field robots must rely on indoor positioning methods such as laser scanners and adaptive Monte Carlo localization (AMCL) in order to maintain necessary localization accuracy. Here, the localization accuracy of the field robot “Mathilda” using such an indoor positioning method is evaluated in a realistic scenario, in this case, an outdoor laboratory with plant pots aligned in rows. For this, the positioning error of the robot was determined using a motion capture system. The results showed a mean absolute distance error over all positions of 198.9 mm and a mean angular error over all positions of 4.9°. Most likely, limitations by the differential drive system, the large pneumatic tires, and unsatisfactory path planning are responsible for this large deviation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue von Proteasen zur Verbesserung der Filtration und Stabilität des österreichischen Weines<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wine haze often occurs after bottling due to insufficient protein stabilization and is often referred as a quality defect by customers. To prevent wine haze, bentonite is commonly used to remove certain protein fractions. Proteases may represent an alternative to bentonite, especially Aspergillopepsin. The aim of this work was to find out if there are advantages for winemaker by using an acid protease, in the field of filtration performance and prophylaxis for protein haze. For this purpose, the products Lallzyme P1 and Lallzyme P2 from the company Lallemand GmbH were tested on the variety Green Veltliner. The results showed that there were large differences in filtration performance. Enzyme addition increased filterability of wines, whereas heating sample lowered it. The best filterability was shown by sample to which both enzyme Lallzyme P1, Lallzyme P2 and pectinases were added and heated. The blocking value was highest where no enzymes were added. However, in the visualization of the proteins by SDS-PAGE, differences in band patterns before and after enzyme treatment could be detected. Sensory, heated wines could be clearly differentiated from unheated samples. The enzyme variants themselves did not show any major difference in taste within the different variants.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue charcoal as potent carrier material for<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Azotobacter chroococcum</italic> is a universally accepted plant growth-promoting rhizospheric bacterium, which, as a biofertilizer, helps to increase the nitrogen level, solubilize the unavailable form of phosphorus, ensure growth-promoting metabolites, and control pathogenic microbes in the soil. A good strain of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) needs to be produced, formulated, transported, stored, and distributed to the agriculture field. During all these operations, bacterial inoculants are transferred via a carrier material. One of the important challenges in biofertilizer technology is to ensure stability of the bacteria in the carrier. The study aimed to assess a novel carrier <italic>Lantana</italic> charcoal (LC; obtained from <italic>Lantana camara</italic> biomass), as compared to some currently available carriers. LC exhibited higher carbon content, low N<sub>2</sub> content, neutral pH, and, above all, higher water-holding capacity, making it a suitable carrier material for <italic>A. chroococcum</italic> and possibly other PGPR. As a carrier, it showed no contamination during storage, exhibited the highest moisture content and moderate culture holding coefficient, and supported the highest colony-forming units per gram at the end of the storage period. Thus, LC cannot only serve as a better carrier, but its large-scale application would also ensure a reasonable use of this weed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue