rss_2.0Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment 's Cover budgeting for acquiring and operating a ground-based optical crop sensor for variable rate nitrogen application<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Optical crop sensors for variable rate nitrogen application (VRNA) are described as an optimal solution to increase yield while minimizing fertilizer costs, although their operation and acquisition costs could be high. In this study, a partial budgeting approach was used to assess the net income of buying and operating a crop sensor for VRNA for optimizing fertilizer application to winter wheat. Two VRNA scenarios – stimulus, where crops with lower yield expectations received more fertilizer, and compensatory, where crops with higher yield expectations received less fertilizer – were assessed and compared to a conventional way of fertilizer application. Both scenarios showed negative results. The stimulus scenario showed a yearly negative change in income of −227.3 €/ha/year on 25 ha of fertilized area and −38.9 €/ha/year on 250 ha of fertilized area. In the case of the compensatory scenario, a yearly change in income of −271.8 €/ha/year on 25 ha of fertilized area and −83.3 €/ha/year on 250 ha of fertilized area was achieved. Results also showed that bigger farms had lower losses than smaller farms due to the economy of scale. Farmers may opt for sharing or leasing the use of the crop sensor to reduce costs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Localization accuracy of a robot platform using indoor positioning methods in a realistic outdoor setting<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Precise localization and reliable navigation are of crucial importance in order to fully automatize tasks in agriculture using field robots in an outdoor environment. However, under certain conditions, absolute localization accuracy of outdoor positioning systems, mainly global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), might drop under a critical threshold. Thus, field robots must rely on indoor positioning methods such as laser scanners and adaptive Monte Carlo localization (AMCL) in order to maintain necessary localization accuracy. Here, the localization accuracy of the field robot “Mathilda” using such an indoor positioning method is evaluated in a realistic scenario, in this case, an outdoor laboratory with plant pots aligned in rows. For this, the positioning error of the robot was determined using a motion capture system. The results showed a mean absolute distance error over all positions of 198.9 mm and a mean angular error over all positions of 4.9°. Most likely, limitations by the differential drive system, the large pneumatic tires, and unsatisfactory path planning are responsible for this large deviation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of a system expansion and allocation approach for the handling of multi-output processes in life cycle assessment – a case study for nano-cellulose and biogas production from elephant manure<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The handling of multi-outputs in life cycle assessment (LCA) is a controversial topic in both LCA application practice and the literature. Although there is a prescribed hierarchy of how to deal with multi-outputs, which favors system expansion (including co-products and their upstream chains) as the most scientific solution over the allocation approach (dividing environmental impacts based on an allocation factor), the latter is still most common. In this study, system expansion, mass, economic, and energy-based allocation are studied within a biosystem engineering case study, which provides two marketable outputs, biogas and nano-cellulose. The global warming potential (GWP) is used as basis for comparison. There is hardly any difference between system expansion and economic allocation, but it is also shown how problematic the latter approach is for newly introduced products because the market price is still very high and not representative. Results show that the GWP with mass allocation has the lowest impact; however, this approach is inappropriate since the outputs are a solid product and biogas, which are hard to compare based on a mass basis. Overall, based on the studied approach, results can be significantly different. Hence, it is recommended to avoid comparison and interpretation of results when using different modeling approaches.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The future of pasture management in Germany – Aspects of technology and regulation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>According to experts, pasturing in Europe has been decreasing for many years. Today, a lot of different pieces of regulation in Germany and in Europe exist, affecting farmers when they bring their cows to pasture. Furthermore, there are social requirements for pasturing, which need to be considered. Factors like increasing relevance of animal welfare, environmental protection, and the recreational use of the environment and esthetics of landscape come into play. Therefore, scientific research and new solutions are needed. This paper aims to give an overview across selected pasture-related regulations affecting farmers in Germany and Europe. Furthermore, aspects which are not directly regulated by the government, but are expectations of society will be highlighted. Concluding from this, technological possibilities - already on market and in the pipeline of scientific research will be described. Results show that today several different attempts are made to improve pasturing. Most of these attempts focus on improvement of management tasks. Attempts also directly focus on technological improvements. It can be concluded that new tools for pasturing can increase productivity and simultaneously decrease management tasks. Nevertheless, pricing of these tools as well es the amount of bureaucracy will be the most crucial factors for their adaptation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Draft force reduction by an electrification unit on implements<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Electrification is done in newer tractors hesitantly. There will be an increase in the need for electrified mounted implements and application units. Semi-liquid manure and degestate from biogas crops are increasingly injected directly into the soil. This technique reduces nutrient losses and ammonia emissions. In the case of loamy soils and clay, a high draft force is needed for slurry deposition into the soil. With the development and testing of an application unit with reduced working width of 3 m, the draft force reduction was found to be lower by nearly one third. The field trials have been performed in two steps: first, a prototype with spiked roller and star packer as a traction element on the roller unit in 3-m working width and second, a final slurry grubber with 6-m working width and cutting coulter on the traction roller. We tested both devices with and without powering the electrified traction roller. These field tests took place on six fields near Freising in Germany. Results showed that firstly, draft force reduction up to 35% was achieved with a powered traction roller on the mounted implement having 20% slippage on the traction roller. These values were obtained by pulling a tractor with the electrified implement by another tractor in a horizontal ground level. Second, we observed a different variation range of the values among the three test fields. This results from differences in the soil structure on the test fields having pebbles and stones near the soil surface or bigger stones down the working depth of 22.5 cm. The presented results show new kinds of working scenarios and operation modes for agriculture. Electrification can be an advantage in taking care of nutrient losses and ammonia emissions as it leads to a draft force reduction on heavy soils.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Modulation of the endosomal pathway for optimized response to drought stress: from model to crop plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current climate situation potentiates the need for distinctive crops which have to be high yielding and resilient to abiotic and biotic stresses, particularly to drought stress. Responses to stresses are regulated and coordinated by phytohormones, whose transport and perception are commonly centered around plasma membrane (PM)-localized proteins. Localization and abundance of these are organized by endosomal trafficking, whereby the post-translational modification of PM proteins with the small protein ubiquitin is key in signaling their endocytosis and degradation. This review focuses on the endosomal degradation pathway in plants with a special focus on a protein family termed TARGET OF MYB1 (TOM1)-LIKE (TOLs), responsible for initiating sorting of ubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation. TOLs, albeit having apparent redundancies, play a role in very specific pathways where they may be relevant for fine-tuning of plant hormone signaling by means of tightly controlled protein turnover. Understanding the function of TOLs could give key insights into the mechanisms by which plants define the trade-off between stress tolerance and plant development when faced with challenging environments. Findings obtained in the model plant <italic>Arabidopsis thaliana</italic> provide a solid foundation for translational research aimed at breeding more tolerant crops.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Einsatz von Proteasen zur Verbesserung der Filtration und Stabilität des österreichischen Weines<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wine haze often occurs after bottling due to insufficient protein stabilization and is often referred as a quality defect by customers. To prevent wine haze, bentonite is commonly used to remove certain protein fractions. Proteases may represent an alternative to bentonite, especially Aspergillopepsin. The aim of this work was to find out if there are advantages for winemaker by using an acid protease, in the field of filtration performance and prophylaxis for protein haze. For this purpose, the products Lallzyme P1 and Lallzyme P2 from the company Lallemand GmbH were tested on the variety Green Veltliner. The results showed that there were large differences in filtration performance. Enzyme addition increased filterability of wines, whereas heating sample lowered it. The best filterability was shown by sample to which both enzyme Lallzyme P1, Lallzyme P2 and pectinases were added and heated. The blocking value was highest where no enzymes were added. However, in the visualization of the proteins by SDS-PAGE, differences in band patterns before and after enzyme treatment could be detected. Sensory, heated wines could be clearly differentiated from unheated samples. The enzyme variants themselves did not show any major difference in taste within the different variants.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00 charcoal as potent carrier material for<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Azotobacter chroococcum</italic> is a universally accepted plant growth-promoting rhizospheric bacterium, which, as a biofertilizer, helps to increase the nitrogen level, solubilize the unavailable form of phosphorus, ensure growth-promoting metabolites, and control pathogenic microbes in the soil. A good strain of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) needs to be produced, formulated, transported, stored, and distributed to the agriculture field. During all these operations, bacterial inoculants are transferred via a carrier material. One of the important challenges in biofertilizer technology is to ensure stability of the bacteria in the carrier. The study aimed to assess a novel carrier <italic>Lantana</italic> charcoal (LC; obtained from <italic>Lantana camara</italic> biomass), as compared to some currently available carriers. LC exhibited higher carbon content, low N<sub>2</sub> content, neutral pH, and, above all, higher water-holding capacity, making it a suitable carrier material for <italic>A. chroococcum</italic> and possibly other PGPR. As a carrier, it showed no contamination during storage, exhibited the highest moisture content and moderate culture holding coefficient, and supported the highest colony-forming units per gram at the end of the storage period. Thus, LC cannot only serve as a better carrier, but its large-scale application would also ensure a reasonable use of this weed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the drinking milk supply chain in Austria by means of a business process modelling and System Dynamics approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dairy farming is an important branch of agricultural production for the supply of the Austrian population with domestic food. This paper examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Austrian drinking milk supply chain. For this purpose, a tripartite approach was chosen consisting of a process description using Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), a qualitative System Dynamics analysis with a Causal Loop Diagram (CLD), and the use case of the COVID-19 pandemic in the year 2020 in Austria. The results show that the drinking milk supply chain is complex and consists of many individual process steps. However, the number of locations that are passed through during drinking milk production is rather small. The CLD revealed that reinforcing feedback loops occur in the provision of packaging material and the availability of dairy staff. Analysis of the use case showed that the system of dairy production in Austria is stable in the tested scenario, and that the supply chains preserved their function also during the pandemic. Dairies with diverse product ranges were able to react more easily to the massively changed demand situation. The insights gained by this research may be used to increase the resilience of the drinking milk supply chain. Furthermore, the methodological approach can be transferred and used to analyse the supply chains of other foods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Energieeinsatz und Energieeffizienz von Winterweizen bei unterschiedlicher mineralischer Stickstoffdüngung im Marchfeld<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The grain and straw yield, the energy input (fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, machinery) and energy efficiency parameters (energy output, net-energy output, energy intensity, energy use efficiency) as affected by the amount of mineral nitrogen fertilizer (0 kg, 60 kg, 120 kg und 180 kg N ha<sup>−1</sup>) and mineral fertilizer strategies (different mineral N-fertilizer, splitting) were analyzed on two sites in the Marchfeld plain (Engelhartstetten und Groß-Enzersdorf) in two two-year experiments. The question should be answered which mineral nitrogen fertilizations (N form, N amount and N splitting) has the highest energy efficiency. With increasing N-fertilizer amount (60 kg, 120 kg und 180 kg N ha<sup>−1</sup>), the share of fertilizer energy to total energy increased: 24%, 38% and 48%. Due to the law of decreasing yield increments, the energy efficiency for the nitrogen amount of 180 kg ha<sup>−1</sup> was statistically significant lower than for 60 kg ha<sup>−1</sup> and 120 kg ha<sup>−1</sup> in Engelhartstetten. Splitting the amount of N fertilizer into three doses increased fuel consumption by 4 % compared to a single application of the total amount of fertilizer. The energy efficiency parameters were hardly influenced by splitting. N-fertilization with calcium ammonium nitrate was more energy efficient than with urea (pure, stabilized, soil incorporated). The energy efficiency analyses can contribute to the assessment of environmental effects of management practices.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Safety aspects of stingless bee pot-pollen from the Philippines<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Philippines stingless bee (<italic>Tetragonula biroi</italic> Friese) pot-pollen are known for their advantageous effects on human health due to a high nutritional value and a broad range of beneficial physiological and pharmacological effects. However, safety aspects regarding this product were rarely examined. Therefore, pollen samples from the Philippines were analyzed for inorganic contaminants and microbiological quality. Obtained values for heavy metals (e.g., arsenic 0.015–0.032 mg/kg, cadmium 0.053–0.153 mg/kg and lead 0.017–0.155 mg/kg) were generally lower compared to previous studies and most were within the safety limits. Further, microbial counts for total aerobic microorganisms, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, <italic>E. coli</italic>, <italic>Salmonella</italic>, and <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> were in accordance with the recommended values. Microbial population was diverse and the identified species were mostly endosporeformers such as <italic>Bacillus</italic> spp. and <italic>Clostridium</italic> spp., and molds because of the low water activity and low pH of the pot-pollens. Results indicated that good practices in agriculture, hygiene and manufacturing in every step of the production chain must be implemented in order to enhance the quality and safety of this bee product. Overall, pot-pollens from <italic>T. biroi</italic> are safe for human consumption if hygienic principles are applied.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Conversion of agricultural soils in Austria—a case study for a community in Upper Austria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>We have analyzed the loss of agricultural land in a case study of the community Eggelsberg in the Innviertel in Upper Austria. The trigger for the project was the attribution of Austria as Europe’s leader in soil sealing. We compared the results of the Austrian agricultural soil survey of the 1970s with the actual land use and quantified the land use change. Within half a century, 15% of the agricultural area was converted to settlement area or to other forms of infrastructure. According to the original soil assessment, 96 ha of high-quality cropland, 1,220 ha of medium-quality cropland, 121 ha of low-quality cropland, and 409 ha of grassland were converted. The forest cover remained stable. The highest share of soil sealing was owed to the expansion of the settlement area and the construction of a successful enterprise. Minor contributions were expansions of farm buildings. The loss of agricultural land was reasonable and reflected the needs of the local population. A special protection status because of the future relevance of the agricultural land was not communicated to land managers and is not reflected in the market prices of agricultural products. The relevance of the agricultural land beyond the regional level is not fully recognized.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of crop stand, inoculation, and foliar fertilization on pea root parameters<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Ecological intensification of crop production involves the use of intercrops and the rational use of inoculation and fertilization in case of intercrops including legume species. The root system plays an important role in the productivity of crops. Therefore, effects of the inoculation treatments (Nitragina) or foliar fertilization (Photrel) or a combination of both were assessed on root parameters of pea grown as pure stand or intercrops with linseed or wheat in a 3-year experiment in Poland. Crop stand composition influenced the root parameters of pea with a higher root length density (RLD) in the root fractions of 0.1–1 mm of pea in pea/linseed intercrops than in the pure stand, a higher mean root diameter (MRD) in pure pea and intercrops of pea with linseed than with wheat, and also a tendency of a higher root dry matter (RDM) in pure pea and pea/linseed than in pea/wheat in 2 out of the 3 years. RLD was higher with Photrel than with Nitragina in root fractions of 0.1–0.5 mm. Treatments did not affect the MRD, but a combination of Nitragina + Photrel increased the RDM in 1 year. Intercropping of pea with linseed and the application of a foliar fertilizer might be a strategy to improve pea root characteristics.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of silages of hybrids of napier grass and sorghum in the low country wet zone of Sri Lanka<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Silages of hybrids of napier grass (CO-3 or CO-4) and sorghum and their combinations (50% napier grass hybrid + 50% of sorghum) were tested under three cutting intervals (4, 6 and 8 weeks). Sorghum silage had a leafy and soft texture with a fruity smell, which proved its desirable character with normal lactic acid fermentation. As such, it was with its comparatively higher dry matter content at the 6 or 8 weeks cutting interval, more suitable for ensiling. The crude protein concentration was not modified by the ensiling process, which was proved by the low ammoniacal nitrogen content. Sorghum silage had lower pH values at all three cutting intervals. On the basis of the NH<sub>3</sub>-N/TN content (&lt;10%), all silages could be considered as of good quality. Sorghum silage could be considered as the best among tested silages as compared with hybrid napier var. CO-3 or CO-4. The optimum quality of the sorghum silage with the highest soluble carbohydrates concentration and lactic acid &gt;3% could be obtained at the 6-week cutting interval.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Model-driven decision support to facilitate efficient fresh food deliveries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The delivery of fresh food is challenged by various uncertainties present in daily logistics operations. To facilitate successful operations, this work reviews the recent work on model-driven decision support systems to identify research gaps and derive implications. Introduced systems in literature mainly employ simulation or optimization methods and focus on the consideration of industry specifics such as short shelf lives and the importance of efficient temperature control. Therefore, food quality models are often integrated to enable one to monitor quality throughout supply chain operations and adjust planning procedure respectively. To strengthen research, future work focusing on a stronger consideration of customer-related factors and holistic approaches considering various interdependencies present in fresh food logistics operations are required.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring vertebrate abundance in Austria: developments over 30 years<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Loss of biodiversity is one of the major challenges of the anthropocene. Various indices are used to quantify biodiversity. For vertebrates, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) uses the Living Planet Index (LPI). It is calculated globally as well as separately for the species occurring in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine biomes. Action to prevent biodiversity loss can be taken by countries or provinces, so it is important to understand the changes in biodiversity at local scales. We present LPIs for vertebrates in Austria, both unweighted and weighted, according to species richness. Vertebrate populations seem to have declined strongly in Austria, and their abundance was stabilized at about 60% of the initial population size in the base year 1990—the LPI declined from 1 in 1990 to ~0.6 (unweighted) or ~0.7 (weighted) in 2015. This is almost double the global decline for the same period. LPIs were calculated separately for the terrestrial biome (~0.6), the freshwater biome (~0.9), birds (~0.7), and native species (~0.6). These indices give evidence that conservation measure to halt biodiversity loss in Austria is necessary and show where more data are needed. In Austria, more research is needed especially on populations of reptile species.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Mid-Infrarot-Ergebnisse zum Fettsäuremuster der Kuhmilch von Praxisbetrieben<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The composition of milk fat is gaining importance in the dairy industry. In addition to classical analytical methods – such as gas chromatography (GC) – more time- and cost-effective rapid methods are now available for determining the milk fat composition. In the present study, the accuracy of fatty acid concentrations determined by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) was evaluated with the “MilkoScan FT6000 Software Package”. The fatty acid contents determined with the GC were considered as “gold standard”. For this purpose, selected milk samples from individual farms or tank milk samples of farms in Carinthia (dairy “Kärntnermilch”) were used. Three times a year (November 2017, March 2018, June 2018), delivery milk samples were taken from five farms (2 organic and 3 conventional farms) of Kärntnermilch and from three milk collection rounds (tank milk samples from 2 organic and 1 conventional round). All organic farms followed the production guidelines of “Bio-Wiesenmilch”. Based on the GC-dataset and an additional comprehensive MIR data set of farms in Carinthia (January 2019 and June 2019), the effects of the management (organic “Bio-Wiesenmilch” versus conventional “GMO-free”) and period (summer versus winter feeding situation) on the milk fatty acid concentrations were investigated. Since the “Bio-Wiesenmilch” production scheme of the Kärntnermilch aims at grassland and pasture-based feeding systems, the possibilities for checking the ration composition via MIR fatty acid data sets had also been evaluated. The proportions of relevant fatty acid groups in milk were significantly different between the production systems (organic versus conventional) and periods (summer versus winter feeding situation). In the milk samples of the organic farms, the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and omega-3-acids (ω-3-FA) were significantly higher than in those of the conventional farms. Regardless of the production system, the CLA, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) concentrations in the summer milk samples were higher than those in the winter milk samples. The seasonal effects were more pronounced in the organic system than in the conventional system. The MIR analysis results were highly correlated (r = 0.95) with the results of the GC analysis for the concentrations of UFA, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and MUFA. However, there were systematic deviations that have to be taken into account when interpreting the results. For the PUFA only a moderate correlation (r = 0.57) was found between the two methods. Additionally, a substantial variance was found, 95 of the MIR results for PUFA differed between −9.5 % and −40.4 % from the GC results. From the results of the study and from the literature it can be derived that MIR fatty acid results alone allow no clear and direct conclusions on the feeding strategy (e. g. dietary proportion of pasture, concentrated feed or maize silage). However, the MIR results could be used as a rough screening tool for farm advisory concepts.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of riparian environments through semi-automated procedures for the computation of eco-morphological indicators: Preliminary results of the WEQUAL project<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The aim of WEQUAL project (WEb service centre for QUALity multidimensional design and tele-operated monitoring of Green Infrastructures) is the development of a system that is able to support a quick environmental monitoring of riparian areas subjected to the realization of new green infrastructures (GI). The Wequal’s idea is to organize a service center able to manage both the Web Platform and the whole data collection and analysis processes. Through a personal account, the final user (designer, technician, researcher) can get access to the service and requires the evaluation of alternatives GI projects. On the Web Platform, a set of algorithms runs in order to calculate, through automatic procedures, all the ecological criteria required to evaluate a quality environmental index that describes the eco-morphological value of the monitored riparian areas. For this aim, the WEQUI index was developed, which uses 15 indicators that are easy to monitor. In this paper, the approach for environmental data collection and the procedures to perform the automatic assessment of two of the ecological criteria are described. For the computation, the implemented algorithms use data including the vegetation indexes, Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Digital Surface Model (DSM) and a 3D point cloud classification. All the raw data are collected by UAVs (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) equipped with a 3D Lidar, multispectral camera and RGB camera. Interpreting all the raw data collected by these sensors, using a multi-attribute approach, the WEQUI index is assessed. The computed ecological index is then used to assess the riparian environmental quality at <italic>ex-ante</italic> and <italic>ex-post</italic> river stabilization works. This index, integrated with additional not-technical or not-ecological indicators such as investment required, maintenance costs or social acceptance, can be used in multicriteria analyses in order to evaluate the intervention from a wider point of view. The platform is expected to be attractive for GI designers and policy makers by providing a shared environment, which is able to integrate the method of detection and evaluation of complex indexes and a multidimensional evaluation supported by an expert guide.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Steam engines in agricultural use in Croatia and Slavonia during the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Industrial revolution and modernization of agriculture in Croatia and Slavonia began in mid-19<sup>th</sup> century and evolved at a slower pace compared to the other countries of the Austrian Empire. The main reasons were lack of capital, shortage of good river- and land traffic routes, slowness in the construction of railways, slowness in the introduction of steam engines, lack of skilled workforce and extensive farming. The second agricultural crisis in Europe, which lasted from 1873 until 1895, motivated large holdings in Croatia and Slavonia to introduce steam engines and machines for the purpose of rationalization of agricultural production. Locomobiles were mostly represented on holdings with over 575.5 ha. The then country of Slavonia, as an eminently agrarian region and the main source of wheat was leader in the use of steam engines, steam ploughs and steam-powered machines in agriculture. The locomobile was used in agriculture until the mid-20<sup>th</sup> century and was discontinued with the growing use of tractors with internal combustion engine and the use of combine harvesters. Until 1918, Croatian lands were a part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Potentials of crops residues – A case study for the province Vojvodina<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Crop residues are targeted as energy sources and feedstock for diverse products. A six-year lasting investigation, aiming to determine the yield potentials of crop residues of mostly grown field crops wheat, soybean and corn in the province Vojvodina (Serbia), was performed. The three levels of potentials were distinguished: theoretical, technical and sustainable. Two seasonal weather conditions were distinguished – common and dry, and their impact on the biomass yield was analyzed. The yields were expressed as absolute and relative to grain yield since the grain yield is always measured, and is available in national statistics. During common seasons, technical potentials were about 56% for wheat, 45% for soybean and 41 or 51% for the two considered corn stover collection procedures. For dry seasons, the technical potential of all considered crops was reduced to between 30 and 50%. On field remained aboveground residual biomass and its relative (to grain) amount, which was between 43 and 60%, was defined. It was concluded that the defining of sustainable potentials is a very complex task. Besides the aforementioned, measures aimed to preserve soil fertility, some overlooked issues in the literature and practice were listed and commented on.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1