rss_2.0Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment Feed War in Ukraine and Its Impact on Global Agricultural Trade<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The Russian invasion of Ukraine represents an unforeseen and significant market disruption for global trade with wide-ranging effects on global trade, particularly on the economies of the major import countries of Ukrainian agricultural commodities. The general impact and consequences of the war on the global economy are described, and key components of the market disruptions are identified and put into a historical and geographical context. The degree of interconnectedness between the war in Ukraine and world trade and global gross domestic product (GDP) indices is highlighted. Changes in production and export volumes of the main Ukrainian agricultural commodities and their impact on major import countries are described. Actual and future measures to stabilise and soften the volatility of affected agricultural markets are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue diversity and heavy metal contamination in in the Rasian and Asahan rivers in the southern coast of Aceh, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Macrozoobenthos is a sedentary aquatic biota and is often used as a bioindicator for assessing water conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the species diversity of the macrozoobenthos and to analyze the heavy metal contamination in <italic>Faunus ater</italic> in the Rasian and Asahan estuaries in Aceh Province, Indonesia. The sampling was carried out in July 2022 on a squared transect of 1 m × 1 m for the collection of macrozoobenthos samples at random locations. The results showed that there were 17 macrozoobenthos species from both locations, of which 14 species were found in the Rasian River estuary and seven species in the Asahan River estuary. The diversity index of macrozoobenthos was in a moderate category. <italic>Terebralia sulcata</italic> had a higher density in the Asahan River, while <italic>F. ater</italic> had a higher density in the Rasian River. The results of the heavy metal analysis in the <italic>F. ater</italic> sample showed that this macrozoobenthos was contaminated by mercury, cadmium, and lead, of which the concentration of mercury exceeded the threshold limit, and they are, therefore, not safe for consumption.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue hydraulics and measurement of vulnerability to embolism formation: a guide for beginners<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Prolonged and/or intense drought leads to the deterioration of plant water balance, inducing embolism formation in the water conducting system, the xylem. The consequent loss of water transport capacity from roots to leaves (hydraulic failure) has been proposed as a main driver of plant mortality. Substantial inter- and intraspecific variation of resistance to embolism formation has been reported in plants. Hence, screening of different species/individuals is key to project the impact of future climate on ecosystems, while supporting breeding and reforestation. This review seeks to explain the mechanisms of water transport in plants and the phenomenon of embolism formation under drought stress by using concise and straightforward scholarly language. The main aim is to introduce non-expert readers (students, nonacademics, and academics from different scientific fields) to plant hydraulics and the controversial world of methods for measuring the vulnerability to embolism formation. To convey the message in full, we provide ranges of water potential values and widely used drought resistance indexes characterizing plants from different biomes. Various established methods used worldwide to monitor hydraulic efficiency under stress and measure hydraulic vulnerability by means of curves of different plant organs are introduced. Both classical widely used destructive methods and current non-destructive techniques, which have been gaining momentum in the last decade, are described. The main advantages and disadvantages of each method are briefly discussed to support decisions and selection of the most suitable method in experimental practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue open-source software GRASS GIS for analysis of the environmental patterns in Lake Chad, Central Africa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Lake Chad, situated in the semi-arid region of African Sahel, plays a vital role in hydrogeological balance of regional ecosystems. It presents an essential water source and provides a habitat for rare wildlife species including migrating waterbirds. However, the lake has shrunk significantly since the 1960s and has continued to reduce in size and extent during recent decades. Trends in drying and shrinking of Lake Chad are caused by environmental factors and changed climate. The desiccation of the lake is threatening environmental sustainability. This study focused on identification of changes in the Chad Lake area, wetland extent, and associated land cover types. The methods include the Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS) for remote sensing data classification. The maximum likelihood discriminant analysis classifier was applied for analysis of multispectral Landsat 8–9 OLI/TIRS images in 2013, 2017, and 2022. Detected changes in land cover types reflect variations in water balance and wetland area and extent around Lake Chad over recent decades. Cartographic scripting tools of GRASS GIS provide an efficient method of digital image processing for monitoring endorheic lakes of Central Africa. GRASS GIS methods provide an opportunity to automatically classify Earth observation data with cartographic scripts for environmental monitoring.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue extreme and frequent drought periods reduced crop production and altered stable isotope ratios of C and N in plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Climate change scenarios predict more frequent and intense drought periods for 2071–2100 in the most important and intensively used agricultural region of Austria, the Marchfeld. Current and predicted lower precipitation scenarios were simulated at a lysimeter station for 9 years. Plant biomass, nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) content, and δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N values of plant compartments were monitored in years 7–9. Aboveground biomass of cereals and grain yield decreased under the predicted scenario, while the quality of grain (% N) was unaffected. Weed and catch crops grown in winter were not affected or were even positively affected, possibly due to the accumulation of nutrients in the soil following the lower plant uptake in summer. Accordingly, low plant δ<sup>15</sup>N values were mainly attributed to the presence of higher proportion of mineral fertilizer in the predicted precipitation scenario. As expected, water stress significantly increased δ<sup>13</sup>C values in plants grown over summer, while this was not seen for plants growing over winter. Fertile agricultural soil might ameliorate but cannot outbalance the negative impact of more frequent and intense drought periods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to climate variability for rice cultivation paddies in the lowland coastal regions of Kien Giang Province, Vietnam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Globally, coastal cultivation regions (CCRs) are facing irrigation water shortages due to the impacts of climate change (ICV). CCRs have repeatedly suffered from saline irrigation water, increases in temperature, and reduced rainfall, resulting in irrigation water shortages. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the impacts of weather variables on the rice water requirement (RWR) in CCRs in Kien Giang Province. The response of rice grain yield to weather variables was estimated by simulating the AquaCrop model under different crop cultivation schedules (CCSs). These schedules involved advancing or delaying the sowing date by 30 days compared to the current common sowing date (baseline) for winter-spring (WS) and summer-fall (SF) vegetation seasons. The AquaCrop model demonstrated accurate simulation capabilities, as indicated by the high correlation values of statistical error indexes during the validation and calibration procedures. The findings revealed that rice grain yields would enhance up to 7.8% and 5.6% compared to the baseline when CCSs involve sowing 20 days earlier for WS vegetation season and are advanced by 20 days for SF vegetation season. Overall, modifying CCSs for coastal rice paddies in the study area, while considering weather variables, would have a positive contribution by mitigating the adverse effects of ICV.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Landwirtschaft 2030: Ein partizipativer Strategieprozess für die oberösterreichische Landwirtschaft<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The multifunctional services of agriculture and forestry represent indispensable goods for society. To sustain them for the future, the government of Upper Austria initiated the strategic process “Future of Agriculture 2030”.</p> <p>The mix of methods aimed at developing a desirable vision for farmers and foresters, along-side the required implementation steps, comprised 5 dialogue platforms, 2 world cafés and 9 focus group discussions. More than 1000 people were involved in the participative process, among them farmers, officials, media agents and civic representatives.</p> <p>Qualitative content analysis of the material resulted in a characterization of the self-conception and the aspired development of participants, and in a compendium of missions, goals and measures. The strategy identifies four “partners” as crucial cooperative actors to implement the “Future of Agriculture 2030”. Besides farmers and foresters, those are the media, politicians, and consumers, whose mutual engagement was perceived to be decisive for the future development of agriculture by the participants.</p> <p>The discussion shows that the missions, goals and measures are widely conforming with recent publications addressing the same topic. Concluding, the results inspire actors to communicate the missions to the mentioned partners of the “Future of Agriculture 2030”, and to assess, improve and put them into practice in mutual efforts.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue literacy for farmers – the case of vineyard farmers in Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>One of the key factors influencing agricultural development and farm performance is access to finance. There are several factors that influence access to finance, including financial management capacity, which is linked to financial literacy. The paper analyzes the factors which determine farmers’ financial management behavior, in the case of Kosovo, based on a structured farm survey focusing on the vineyard sector. The findings suggest that half of the interviewed farmers did not keep records regarding costs and incomes. The likelihood to keep financial records is linked to several household and farm attributes. Market-oriented farmers who had contracts were more likely to keep financial records than those who did not. Policymakers through public advisory services as well as financial institutions should address the need to improve financial literacy among farmers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Grundlagen zum Strategiediskurs für einen nachhaltigen Pflanzenbau<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Scientific facts about the relationships between the goals are indispensable for the rational social discourse on solving the various conflicting goals on the way to sustainable crop production. Therefore, the German Society for Agronomy has compiled scientific findings on the topics of biodiversity, climate relevance and climate resilience, nutrient management, crop protection, soil protection and production of renewable raw materials, and identified the existing need for research. After an executive summary that highlights the findings, the subject areas are explained in detail. The purpose of this paper is not to make recommendations for policy-making, but to support the public debate by providing factual information.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue an improved understanding of bark beetle and other insect herbivore infestation in conifer forests<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>European forest ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stressors such as storm, drought episodes and mass attack of forest insect pests. Sustainable forest management requires a fundamental understanding of causal relationships between forest structures and the occurrence of disturbance events, as well as a well-functioning transfer of scientific knowledge into practice. Risk or predisposition assessment, phenological models or prediction of deficits in stand water supply can serve as decision support for prophylactic and protective measures in forestry. This overview addresses the theoretical approaches to insect pest-related mortality in forests that form the basis for such models. Many insect herbivore species benefit from increased temperatures and drought. For example, there is a clear correlation between bark beetle infestation and summer temperatures, storm damage and precipitation deficits. Drought stress is one of the main factors predisposing conifer forests to bark beetle infestation and significantly impacts interactions among <italic>Picea abies</italic>, <italic>Ips typographus</italic> and its associated ophiostomatoid fungi. A multi-year study focused on the effects of drought on the defence capacity and attractiveness of Norway spruce to <italic>I. typographus</italic>. The empirical dataset gained in field and laboratory experiments provides new insights into defence responses of this important tree species against biotic infestations under drought.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Praxis und künftige Herausforderungen der Klärschlammbewirtschaftung unter Berücksichtigung von Kleinkläranlagen und kleinen Kläranlagen am Beispiel von Oberösterreich<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Current sewage sludge management in Austria is in transition. In the future, phosphorus recovery will increase and agricultural reuse is becoming less important. Current (political) concepts focus primarily on the (few) larger wastewater treatment plants, but also the (many) small plants require viable solutions for the future. In order to provide an overview of the current practice of sewage sludge management with special consideration of smaller wastewater treatment plants, this article uses the example of Upper Austria to create an inventory of all wastewater treatment plants in the province and, based on this, to derive the plant specific amount and to highlight and discuss the common sewage sludge disposal paths. The findings presented are intended to help sensitize experts and political decision-makers to the needs of the “smaller” wastewater treatment plants, so that they will also be addressed in the development of future concepts for sewage sludge management.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue qualitative Studie zu den Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie auf die österreichische Landwirtschaft<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Measures taken to contain the COVID-19 pandemic in addition to changes in consumer attitudes and behavior have impacted food supply chains globally. In order to examine the effects of COVID-19 on Austrian agriculture, interviews with 34 farmers were conducted in early 2021. The results of a qualitative content analysis show that the diverse and heterogeneous impacts of COVID-19 on farms create opportunities as well as challenges. Negative impacts include sales difficulties due to the closure of restaurants and markets, the ban on non-agricultural activities, the disrupted availability of workers and agricultural inputs, and burdens on farmers. Mitigation of negative effects through political measures and interest groups showed limited effectiveness. Nevertheless, the functionality of agricultural production was maintained as direct impacts were minimal and adjustments adequate. Positive effects result from the increased demand in direct marketing and food retailing, the improved perception of agriculture in society and advantages in the farmers' private lives. Long-term changes of farms are mainly driven by digitization, investments and adjustments concerning marketing.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue der Endophyten im Blutungssaft der Rebe mittels Next Generation Sequencing<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The grapevine represents a natural reservoir of resident microbial resources embedded in a complex microecosystem. The aim of this study was to find out which germs are present in the bleeding sap. The bleeding juice was obtained using a clean with alcohol sterilized PET bottle. After enrichment, DNA extraction followed by analysis of an Illumina MiSeq v3 with target region V1V3 was examined. The sequences obtained were aligned with the NCBI database. The most dominant genera in the grapevines were <italic>Pseudomonas</italic> and <italic>Massilia</italic> followed by the genera <italic>Zoogloea</italic>, <italic>Bacillus</italic>, <italic>Idonella</italic>, <italic>Sphingomonas</italic> and <italic>Paenibacillus</italic>. Sporadically, other bacterial genera appeared in the vines. In addition, the yeast-like microorganism <italic>Aureobasidium pullulans</italic> was determined in two vines and the described inhibitory interaction between <italic>Pseudomonas</italic> and <italic>Aureobasidium</italic> was confirmed as described in the literature. In general, all microorganisms determined in the bleeding sap have a plant-strengthening influence and provide a basis for colonization into tissue-specific plant parts.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue einer möglichen Veränderung des Umweltbewusstseins in Zeiten der Covid-19-Krise<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Environmental awareness is affected by fluctuations, which occur when other social events are prioritized. This paper investigates how environmental awareness of persons between the age of 20 and 30 living in Austria has changed during the period of the Covid-19 crisis compared to the period directly before. To answer this question a literature review and a quantitative survey (n = 210) on the affective and cognitive component of environmental awareness have been conducted. The results show a slight increase in the affective/cognitive component. This correlates with some socio-demographic characteristics and the change in certain behaviors but not with the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on one's life. However, the high topicality of the Covid-19 crisis, as well as the dynamic of the crisis, should be highlighted. Therefore, no assessment of the long-term development of environmental awareness can be made and further research is necessary.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue (L.) Dunal: Langzeitstudie über 13 Sorten in Österreich<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In 2003 a long-term study with the North American Pawpaw (<italic>Asimina triloba</italic> (L.) Dunal) was set up at the Austrian Federal School and Research Institutes for Horticulture and Landscape Design (HBLFA) Schönbrunn in Vienna in order to test the adaptability to environmental conditions in Central Europe using 13 varieties. From the eighth year on, the trees bore fruits, which have been sensory assessed in various test series. The weights and natural ripening time of 16,164 single fruits were sampled in ten years of documentation. These data show variable total yields and fruit numbers in all varieties and years, as well as variances in the ripening distribution, the start and the length of the season. Comparable studies from Italy, Ohio and Kentucky achieved similar fruit weights but a lower numbers of fruits. There are several possible influencing factors on the growth of the North American Pawpaw. A genetic incompatibility between the rootstock and the grafted scion may lead to a loss of vitality. Pollination deficits, other pre-harvest factors and the prevailing soil environment have a significant impact on tree productivity. In addition to these factors, a good choice of variety supports excellent yields. The tasty varieties ‘Davis’, ‘Mango’, ‘NC-1’, ‘Overleese’ and ‘Prima 1216–60’ bear a large number of large fruits and showed a long ripeness distribution in this setup. These varieties show a total season length of six to eight weeks, which is conducive for retail.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of native rhizosphere bacteria on little millet ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The declining productivity of little millet (<italic>Panicum sumatrense</italic>) in a rural area in India necessitates finding a sustainable solution. A suitable composition of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere of a crop is considered important for its optimum yield. Therefore, a study was undertaken to isolate and identify suitable bacteria and see their priming effect on the productivity of little millet. Rhizospheric soil samples were used to isolate bacteria on nitrogen-free Jensen's medium. Fast-growing rhizobacterial isolates FKK5 and DUM4, which exhibit significant selected plant growth-promoting activities, were selected. Little millet seeds were inoculated with selected PGPR and a non-native <italic>Azotobacter chroococcum</italic> before sowing. The inoculated plants were grown under semi-sterile poly-house conditions. Little millet inoculated with FKK5, DUM4, and <italic>A. chroococcum</italic> (5576) showed enhanced grain yield by 28.14%, 24.72%, and 20.43%, respectively, and enhanced total biomass yield by 23.08%, 21.87%, and 19.09%, respectively. The isolates were identified as <italic>Burkholderia</italic> sp. with 0.66% dissimilarity in 16S rDNA sequence with the most closely related species in the Genbank database. The native PGPR proved to be more effective compared to non-native PGPR as biofertilizers in restoring the productivity of the nutritionally important cereal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue growth, yield, and quality responses of two hybrids of Napier and sorghum at three cutting intervals in the southern province of Sri Lanka<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A 3 × 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern province of Sri Lanka to compare two cultivars of Napier hybrid grass, CO-3 and CO-4, and fodder sorghum (var. sugar graze) at three cutting intervals (4, 6, and 8 weeks) during a 2-year period. For cultivars, plant height followed the order sugar graze &gt; CO-4 &gt; CO-3, while the stem diameter was greater for CO-3, followed by CO-4 and sugar graze. Number of leaves was always greater in hybrid Napier compared with sugar graze. Cultivar had a significant effect on annual dry matter (ADM) production (CO-3 &gt; CO-4 &gt; sugar graze) during both years. Sugar graze had a higher crude protein (CP) and a lower crude fiber (CF) concentration compared to CO-3 or CO-4. Cutting interval also had a significant effect on ADM production and CF concentration, with higher values obtained in the following order: 8 weeks &gt; 6 weeks &gt; 4 weeks. The results revealed that cultivars CO-3 and CO-4 were superior in overall DM and CP yields while Sugar graze performed equally well with highest CP and lowest CF concentrations while cutting interval of 8 weeks appears optimal for the environmental conditions in the area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of some physiological parameters in spinach ( L.) cultivated in Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of this work was to investigate the levels of photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], peroxidase [POX], ascorbate peroxidase [APX], glutathione reductase [GR], and MDA), total glutathione (GSH), total ascorbate (AsA), and lipid peroxidation of two spinach cultivars (Clipper and Matador) sampled in different locations in Kosovo (Prizren, Ferizaj, and Obiliq). The photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> and <italic>b</italic> as well as carotenoids, were extracted by 80% acetone, and concentrations were calculated based on the absorbance values at 663, 645, and 480 nm. There was a significant difference in SOD, APX, and GR activities between varieties at each location. The MDA and AsA contents in Obiliq were the highest, compared to other locations. From the increase in lipid peroxidation level, it can be assumed that the degradation in pigment content was caused by the decrease in total AsA content and APX and GR enzyme activities, which are the main enzymes of the AsA–GSH cycle in chloroplasts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (L.) Dunal: Botanik, Kulturgeschichte, Kulturführung und Verwendungszwecke – Eine Literaturübersicht<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The North American Pawpaw (<italic>Asimina triloba</italic> (L.) Dunal) is known for its potential as an ornamental or fruit tree, and for its chemical compounds with antitumor and pesticide characters. This species is receiving increasing attention in nurseries as solitary fruit tree for the garden, or as a curiosity in orchards and the gourmet cuisine. It is only little susceptible to pests and bear fruits with a unique flavor. The pulp has a high nutritional value, is rich in ascorbin, carotin, niacin, minerals and protein. It can be considered as an excellent source of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium. These important micronutrients are often missing in the diet of children and elderly people.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLEtrue future of pasture management in Germany – Aspects of technology and regulation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>According to experts, pasturing in Europe has been decreasing for many years. Today, a lot of different pieces of regulation in Germany and in Europe exist, affecting farmers when they bring their cows to pasture. Furthermore, there are social requirements for pasturing, which need to be considered. Factors like increasing relevance of animal welfare, environmental protection, and the recreational use of the environment and esthetics of landscape come into play. Therefore, scientific research and new solutions are needed. This paper aims to give an overview across selected pasture-related regulations affecting farmers in Germany and Europe. Furthermore, aspects which are not directly regulated by the government, but are expectations of society will be highlighted. Concluding from this, technological possibilities - already on market and in the pipeline of scientific research will be described. Results show that today several different attempts are made to improve pasturing. Most of these attempts focus on improvement of management tasks. Attempts also directly focus on technological improvements. It can be concluded that new tools for pasturing can increase productivity and simultaneously decrease management tasks. Nevertheless, pricing of these tools as well es the amount of bureaucracy will be the most crucial factors for their adaptation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue