rss_2.0Scientific Bulletin FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Scientific Bulletinhttps://sciendo.com/journal/BSAFThttps://www.sciendo.comScientific Bulletin Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/64710f712b88470fbea14a02/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/BSAFT140216Smart Bullets: Revolutionizing Precision Warfare and Tactical Capabilitieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Smart bullets, developed under programs such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), represent a groundbreaking advancement in precision warfare. This article offers a comprehensive review and critical analysis of smart bullet technology, exploring its technical intricacies, military applications, ethical implications, economic considerations, and future prospects. By integrating advanced optical sensors, guidance systems, and maneuverability mechanisms, smart bullets achieve unparalleled accuracy and lethality on the battlefield. Military applications range from precision targeting to rapid engagement of multiple threats, offering significant advantages in combat effectiveness. However, ethical concerns regarding civilian casualties, proliferation risks, and accountability issues necessitate careful consideration. Moreover, economic perspectives highlight both potential cost savings and ethical dilemmas associated with the commercialization of smart bullet technology. Looking ahead, advancements in AI, materials science, and miniaturization hold promise for further enhancing capabilities. Nonetheless, addressing ongoing ethical, legal, and technical challenges is imperative to ensure the responsible and ethical use of smart bullet technology in military operations, thus contributing to global security and stability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00042024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00The Possibility of the Contracting Authority to Establish Qualification, Selection, and Award Criteria for the Award of Public Procurement Contractshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process of public assurance is a sequence of stages, following which you can obtain the right to use it, the service or the work, as a result of the award of a public procurement contract. The contracting authority carries out in the framework of the public insurance process various ways of awarding public service contracts in order to award contracts for products, services or works. On choosing the course of the process to make public, the contracting authority uses those qualification and/or selection criteria as well as award criteria, at different moments of the process. Most of the time in the development of the ways of assigning the specifics of the domain and the public ones, even specialists “impede” the understanding of three categories of previously mentioned criteria, and that is why it is necessary, on the one hand, to clarify the concepts of qualification criteria and/or of selection. and award criteria, and on the other hand it is necessary to identify the moment in which they are applied but also the way in which they are applied in this way depending on the method of award assumed by the contracting authority.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00132024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Multicultural Competence Training Programs to Equip Project Managers for Cross-Cultural Projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research explores the selection process for multicultural competence training programs to equip project managers for cross-cultural projects. Guided by theoretical frameworks, including Bennett’s Developmental Model, Sue’s Multidimensional Model, Hofstede and Minkov’s Cultural Dimensions Model, Helmreich and Merritt’s Cultural Intelligence Framework, and Henrie and Sousa’s Cultural Competence Model, the study examines intercultural sensitivity, multidimensional cultural competence, cultural dimensions, cultural intelligence, and the dynamic nature of cultural competence.</p> <p>Analyzing critical components for successful project management in multicultural settings, the study integrates cultural dimensions into project manager approaches based on Hofstede and Minkov’s model. It explores how Helmreich and Merritt’s framework enhances adaptive thinking about cultural complexities and how Henrie and Sousa’s model underscores cultural competence as a continuous developmental process.</p> <p>The subsequent sections discuss components of multicultural competence training, evaluating training effectiveness using a comprehensive matrix derived from the literature review. The research contributes to understanding how project managers can select and benefit from multicultural competence training, providing insights into industry practices and policies for improved cross-cultural project management. The study emphasizes the inquiry’s significance, originality, and novelty, acknowledges limitations, and suggests future research directions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00012024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Opportunities for the Development of Military Cognitive Skills II (Practical Approach)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the first part of the series of articles, we dealt with the theoretical foundations of cognitive intelligence, including primarily the possibilities of increasing military cognitive performance and the relationship between AI. Every military in the world uses some form of general cognitive intelligence assessment to place recruits in the right jobs. In the assessment, one form of examination is the examination of cognitive ability. The purpose of this article is to explore whether military cognitive intelligence assessments can actually work. Accordingly, in this second part, after the theoretical approach of the first part, we want to prove our hypothesis with practical examples, according to which cognitive intelligence can decisively influence the execution of tasks in armies, so it can be a decisive condition for successfully fighting a war.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00092024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Weaponization of Conscience in Cybercrime and Online Fraud: A Novel Systems Theoryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article introduces the concept of weaponization of conscience as a complex system and tactic employed by fraudsters to camouflage their activity, coerce others, or to deceive their victims. This study adopts a conceptual approach, drawing from the theoretical underpinnings of military propaganda and psychological operations doctrines and adapting them to serve as a lens through which to understand and defend against weaponization of conscience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00032024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Challenges in Romanian-English and English-Romanian Technical and Literary Translations. Grammatical and Lexical Distinctions Between English and Romanianhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper provides a series of examples of common translation mistakes that are the result of source language interference. The issue of crosslinguistic interference, and its impact upon translation is a useful aspect to consider if one wishes to significantly improve translation results and create texts which stay true to the target language structure. Comparing the grammatical structure of the source and target languages of a text becomes a tool for predicting possible mistakes rooted in source language transfer to the target language of a text. Initially, comparative-contrastive analyses were performed primarily in the field of language teaching and acquisition, but recently the method has started being applied also in the field of Translation Studies. The comparative analysis of specific language structures can thus come in handy for both the study of translation and for translator training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00112024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Scoring: Failure Risk Management Tool for SMEs in Algeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Algerian public banks need to implement credit risk management techniques tailored to the specific characteristics of SMEs to prevent the deterioration of the banks’ solvency due to the degradation of the quality of their SME portfolios. In this regard, our main objective is to highlight the interest that credit risk management will have within the People’s Credit of Algeria by developing a Credit Scoring model based on the logistic regression technique, using a sample of 226 SMEs. The study results demonstrate the importance of the logistic regression model in classifying companies and its predictive ability for default, with a good classification rate of 91.2%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00182024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Enhancing Joint Training and Education in Nato: A Comprehensive Framework for Interoperability and Operational Effectivenesshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article delves into the critical role of NATO’s comprehensive framework for joint training and education in fostering interoperability and operational effectiveness across the alliance. It highlights the multifaceted nature of joint training and education within NATO, emphasizing its pivotal role in honing coordination, communication, and decision-making skills necessary for conducting joint military operations in complex, real-world scenarios. The article underscores the alliance’s commitment to enhancing proficiency in joint warfare and operational planning, emphasizing the collaborative efforts between NATO and member states in developing joint professional military education programs, training curricula, and educational resources. This abstract encapsulates the critical significance of NATO’s comprehensive framework for joint training and education in bolstering the alliance’s collective ability to address contemporary security challenges with unity and resolve.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00122024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Opportunities for the Development of Military Cognitive Skills I (Theoretical Approach)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, as the first in a series of articles, we look at cognitive intelligence, in particular the potential for cognitive enhancement in the military and the relationship with AI. This article provides the theoretical foundation for the second part, in which practical results and further research are analysed. By 2024, exploring the potential applications of artificial intelligence (AI) will have become a key area of civil and military research. New machine learning techniques and new computational skills have allowed previously unimaginable abilities to be explored. The results achieved have made dreams that were previously thought unattainable achievable and further results are expected in the near future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00082024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00The Mass Media and its Manifold Social Roles. the US Media – A Case Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper aims to trace both the development of the main media channels throughout the centuries, and their often hard to pin down and define influence upon their consumers. From newspapers to the radio, the TV and nowadays the internet, the media has always directly or indirectly shaped the way people think, feel and act. This is nowhere more visible than in the USA, where especially political life and discourse is inextricably linked to the media and its manifold propagandistic and sometimes manipulative strategies and tendencies. Media has moved in recent decades more and more overtly from delivering a message i.e., information, to creating incentives for purchasing goods (via advertising) or for following a certain political ideology. Last but not least, the present paper addresses the complex issue of the media’s influence on human behavior, especially in the case of young people, with critical voices stating that certain types of media may negatively influence behavior and lead to aggression, violence or obsessive behavior.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00022024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Mobile Technologies at Risk: A Literature Review on the Evolving Challenges and Solutions in Mobile Technology Securityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines the growth of mobile technology usage and the increasing cybersecurity threats that come with it, with over 3.8 billion users globally. The paper reviews existing research on mobile technology security, highlighting a surge in cybersecurity incidents, and identifies patterns, user behaviors, and technological gaps that exacerbate security risks. By providing a more nuanced understanding of mobile technology’s security challenges, this paper contributes to developing more effective protection strategies to ensure users’ safety in the digital domain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00162024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00A Risk Assessment of the Hungarian Eid Cardhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the present study is to provide an insight to a comprehensive risk assessment of the Hungarian eID card utilizing the ISO/IEC 27005:2022 standard. Unfortunately, the functions of the eID are nowhere near widespread among the Hungarian population. That is why it is time to carry out a risk assessment, which can help to introduce the functions efficiently, and improve the overall security of the eID card. Using the concepts and steps of the international standard ISO/IEC 27005:2022, the external and internal context of the Hungarian eID was determined, and after the asset-based risk identification, the risks that arose were evaluated. A comprehensive risk analysis can greatly help the effective introduction and operation of eGovernment services. The risks identified during the risk assessment, based on the ISO/IEC 27005:2022, performed on the Hungarian eID card can serve as a basis for the planning and development of appropriate IT security best practices and training materials. Previously, no risk analysis of the Hungarian eID was published based on the ISO/IEC 27005:2022. The results can contribute to making existing use cases safer, but it can also be used to create new use cases keeping IT security in mind.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00102024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Enhancing Operational Protection: A Step-By-Step Counter-Deception Guidehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It has long been recognized that military deception is an effective strategy for confusing and disorientating adversaries, thereby creating favorable operational conditions for the deceiver. Moreover, the current characteristics of the operational environment provide the perfect landscape for such operations, enhancing the desired effects. In this context, dealing with such malicious actions can create serious dilemmas for the targeted forces. Under such circumstances, the development of a counter-deception tool to protect mission accomplishment becomes a must for any military organization. However, this requires a great deal of expertise and self-awareness. Today, more than ever, the ability to use timely and accurate information is the key to gaining decisive advantage on the battlefield. In this regard, countering the enemy’s deception operations is an important contribution to this objective. Moreover, from a NATO and Romanian perspective, the Russian Federation’s high level of expertise in this type of operations requires solutions to counter it. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research in this area in Western countries, which contributes to the creation of major vulnerabilities that potential adversaries could exploit. In this landscape, the article aims to provide solutions that enhance operational protection against such a scourge through a structured counter-deception process. Beginning with an analysis of deception doctrines to identify solutions to counter common identified themes, I have then reconstructed them into a specific process that is linked to the operational process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00192024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of Physical Qualities on the Training and Development of the Specific Training of the Fighter Operating in Extreme Conditionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The war carried out in extreme conditions requires exceptional training involving a degree of difficulty far above most situations encountered on the battlefield, because, on the one hand, the fighter performs missions in conditions totally different from those of a classic warfare and, on the other on the other hand, he must face special physical and mental demands. In order to be able to meet all the demands imposed by the hardness and complexity of these areas of action, it is necessary for the fighters who act in such environments to have a versatile training. Along with the intellectual, technical, tactical and psychological training, the physical component of the training plays a basic role, which in my opinion constitutes a pivot of all the other components of the training. In the paper, along with the demands and rigors of extreme environments, there are presented a series of benefits of an exceptional physical training which, by ensuring a solid motor capacity, also ensures a part of the mental preparation for the fight, elements that are the basis of the training and consolidation of specific combat aptitudes and skills.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00172024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of Social Media on EFL Learning and Student Motivation: A Literature Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is intended to synthesize some of the literature on the effects of social media on EFL learners’ acquisition of language and its main goal is to find out how social media motivates students and affects their ability to acquire English language skills. Social media platforms contribute to language development, and it is necessary to determine the extent to which they influence learners’ vocabulary acquisition, grammar, comprehension, and overall language proficiency. Through this paper, we hope to gain a better understanding of the potential benefits and the drawbacks of incorporating social media platforms into language learning environments, as well as provide educators with recommendations on how to develop effective teaching strategies and improve English language instruction for EFL learners.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00072024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Diagnosis of the Managerial Potential of the Public Institutionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article explores the detailed analysis of the public institution, focusing on the evaluation of the organizational structure and decision-making processes, alongside the analysis of the organizational culture, ethics and human resources management. Financial aspects, communication and public relations, performance evaluation and monitoring of policy implementation are also covered. The comprehensive analysis identifies potential improvement points for more efficient and transparent governance within public institutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00052024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00The Qualitative Design of an Internationalization Framework Strategy for Military Higher Educationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>International military relations are complexly determined by the strategic and political framework of cooperation, and by the dynamics of diplomatic relations within the volatile geostrategic and geopolitical context, with relevance and impact at the regional, European, and trans-Atlantic levels. In this context, the present paperwork aims to disseminate the most efficient methods and tools through which the military higher education institutions can contribute to the enrichment of international military cooperation policies, directly by stimulating the academic process of internationalization, which is extremely beneficial for promoting higher standards in the harmonized training of military personnel, in line with the updated technical, technological, and operational requirements at the European and international levels. For this purpose, the authors have considered the present importance of the Internationalization process of the Higher Education System, aiming to offer a strategic instrument for conceiving an operational framework in designing the qualitative and quantitative expressions of international actions, as part of the institutional strategic plan and medium and long run perspectives. The article represents in fact, the first step toward a wider research, where the authors are aiming to identify the way in which the internationalization process can bring a competitive advantage on the academic services sector. The examples are brought from the Military Higher Education System, where the academic, training and research services are connected to a higher level of international affairs and diplomacy, the present paperwork configuring the prior analysis of how the internationalization strategy could became a strong vector for international cooperation process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00142024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Supply Chain Leadership in Crisis: The Military Model for Resiliencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores the potential of military strategies to enhance the resilience and effectiveness of civilian supply chains. The recent pandemic underscored the vulnerabilities of these supply chains, prompting a need for robust solutions. This article investigates this through a comparative analysis of military and civilian supply chain models, drawing insights from primary (semi-structured interviews) and secondary sources (literature review). Key military strategies such as contingency planning, rapid deployment, and adaptive leadership are discussed. Hence providing practical strategies for their integration into civilian operations and considering the challenges. The article concludes by emphasizing the importance of adaptive leadership in navigating crises, offering a new lens for future research within the realms of national security and economic stability. The aim is to equip civilian supply chain leaders with comprehensive strategies to enhance their resilience and effectiveness during crises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00152024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainability Trends and Dynamics: An Integrative Approach to Economic, Social, and Environmental Perspectiveshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, there is a growing interest in sustainability and sustainable development and their implications for organisations and management around the world. The aim of this paper is to identify areas of interest and highlight key aspects of sustainability trends and dynamics, which were identified through searches on Google Trends and Web of Science (WoS). Analysis of the categories in WOS reveals the multidisciplinary nature of sustainability research, with a predominant focus on environmental challenges. There is also identified significant attention for technology and engineering, as well as notable research in management, economics, and business. In the context of sustainability concerns, organizations should not only adapt but also transform to address pressing issues. It is imperative that every organization integrates sustainability at its core. This requires aligning values, strategy, goals, objectives, key performance indicators (KPIs), targets, and initiatives/projects with sustainability. Achieving this is a complex process that also requires changes at the macro level. Regulations and governments play a central role in promoting corporate responsibility and accountability for sustainability initiatives. Moreover, education for sustainable development (ESD) can be a powerful tool in shaping behaviour and fostering a mindset and a culture of sustainability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2024-00062024-06-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Military and Defence Expenditures in the Current Security Context. Concepts and Influencing Factorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2023-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, perhaps more than ever, the world has become increasingly aware of how vulnerable it is to the harsh challenges it must face, sometimes arising out of nowhere or with causes that have spanned years and for which no sustainable solutions have been found. As the most recent challenges come from the security environment and have profound influences on economic and social life, this paper presents relevant aspects concerning the financial efforts of some states to support security and defence and brings attention to a series of factors that can determine the level of military expenditures incurred. To document this work the author has used a series of studies and databases from national and international institutions and organizations in the field, as well as elaborations by researchers recognized for the value and relevance of their opinions expressed in relation to the issues addressed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bsaft-2023-00192023-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1