rss_2.0Business Systems Research Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Business Systems Research Journal Systems Research Journal Feed EPP Boxes in a Dark Store: A New Approach to Simplify Food Retail E-Commerce Deliveries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> E-commerce has emerged as a good response to the pandemic of COVID-19. However, the costs of providing a service, which includes a driver and a vehicle, in a regular vehicle that can transport goods that need positive cold (0° to 5°C) are very high.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> This paper aims to investigate how a big Portuguese retailer company can reduce its dependence on refrigerated vehicles, simplifying operations and reducing the costs of transporting positive and negative cold food.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> This research was carried out in a food retailer Portuguese company, more precisely in a Dark Store dedicated to the online channel. The study was developed based on the AS-IS/TO-BE process analysis methodology, starting with the analysis of the current situation, giving rise to the so-called AS-IS model.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> It was possible to reduce costs associated with transporting positive cold goods. As a result, there are 30% fewer costs associated with order transportation. With an additional 10% in space optimization with the gain of space within the galley of each vehicle.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The costs of transporting positive and negative cold foods were decreased, and substituting vehicles with room temperature transport reduced the need for refrigerated vehicles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Corporate Social Responsibility in Duopoly<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Recent scientific research explains corporate social responsibility as an economic activity. This paper interprets social responsibility as a means of power to increase firms’ market share in a duopoly.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> This paper analyses the duopoly model in which firms decide on optimal social investments and production in two phases. The basic research question is how the significance of the conflict affects social investments, market shares, production quantities, profits, and social welfare.</p> <p><bold>Methods / Approach:</bold> Conflict technology is described by contest success functions determining market shares. Game theory, optimization, and comparative statics are used in the analysis.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The conditions of equilibrium existence and its characteristics are described. Conflict adversely affects the profit of the inefficient firm while it favourably affects social welfare. Conflict’s impact on an efficient firm’s profit depends on the marginal cost difference.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> If there is no significant cost difference, it is more favourable for firms not to invest in socially responsible activities by agreement, which hurts social welfare. When marginal cost difference is significant, corporate social responsibility increases an efficient firm’s profit, positively impacting social welfare.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Economy and Consumer’s Engagement: An Exploratory Study on Higher Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Circular Economy has been considered one of the most powerful principles of modern society. The concerns about increasing resource consumption have forced governments and companies to look at the circular models as a hedge against resource scarcity and an engine for innovation and growth.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> This research aims to bring together the Circular Economy and the consumer’s perspective to perceive the impact of its choices on CE initiatives.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> A survey was conducted considering the consumer’s engagement with the circular economy concepts.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The results pointed out the awareness and willingness of consumers for the transition from the linear to the circular production model, providing an added value to consumers for reducing environmental impacts.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Consumers’ behaviour can have a forefront role in building a guide with best practices to be considered by companies, designers, and consumers on implementing initiatives in the field of Circular Economy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for the Special Issue: “Novel Solutions and Novel Approaches in Operational Research”:<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This special issue of Business Systems Research (SI of the BSR) is being co-published by the Slovenian Society INFORMATIKA – Section for Operational Research (SSI -SOR). It focuses on recent advances in Operations Research and Management Science (OR / MS), with a particular emphasis on linking OR / MS with other areas of quantitative and qualitative methods in the context of a multidisciplinary framework. The ten papers that were chosen for this Special Issue of the BSR present advancements and new techniques (methodology) in the field of Operations Research (OR), as well as their application in a variety of fields, including risk management, mathematical programming, game theory, gravity, spatial analysis, logistics, circular economy, continuous improvement, sustainability, e-commerce, forecasting, Gaussian processes, linear regression, multi-layer perceptron, and machine learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Flows through the Lens of Human Resource Ageing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Ageing and shrinking of the European population influence the shrinking of central places and the hinterland of cities in a spatial structure. Migration also influences the shrinking or growing of spatial units. Various factors influence migration and, thus, spatial units’ demographic, social and economic stability. The age structure of citizens in a spatial unit may change not only due to population ageing but also because these factors influence the migration flows of different cohorts differently, which has not been studied so far.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> We used data on internal migration between Slovenian municipalities in 2018 and 2019 to develop a cohort-based spatial interaction model to estimate future inter-municipal migration.</p> <p><bold>Approach:</bold> In a spatial interaction model, we analyzed differences in the attractiveness and stickiness of municipalities for different cohorts, focusing on those over 65 who may wish to prolong their working status. We also tried to answer the question of how to mitigate shrinkage processes in spatial units by investigating the potential to contribute to the social value of communities.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The study’s results show that the 65+ cohorts do not have the same preferences regarding the attractiveness and stickiness factors as younger migrants.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The results of our study could contribute to better decisions at the national, regional, and/or local level when designing strategies for regional, urban, and/or rural development, exploring the best solutions for long-term care, and investing in appropriate networks, or considering the revitalization of rural municipalities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Logistics Process Improvement using PDCA: A Case Study in the Automotive Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> The Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle methodology for a continuous improvement project implementation aims for the internal logistics upgrade, which is especially important in the industrial context of a component manufacturing company for the automotive sector.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The goal is to quantify the gains from waste reduction based on the usage of the PDCA cycle as a tool in the implementation and optimisation of a milk run in an assembly line of a company in the automotive sector by determining the optimal cycle time of supply and the standardisation of the logistic supply process and the materials’ flow.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> The research was conducted through observation and data collection in loco, involving two main phases: planning and implementation. According to the phases of the PDCA cycle, the process was analysed, and tools such as the SIPOC matrix, process stratification, 5S, and visual management were implemented.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Using Lean tools, it was possible to reduce waste by establishing concise flows and defining a supply pattern, which resulted in a reduction of movements. The transportation waste was reduced by fixing the position of more than half of the materials in the logistic trailers. The developed Excel simulator provided the logistic train’s optimal cycle time.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The assembly line supplied by milk-run was fundamental to highlight a range of improvements in the process of internal supply, such as better integration of stock management systems, greater application of quality, or the adoption of better communication systems between the different areas and employees.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Regional Socioeconomic Development through Logistics Activities: A Conceptual Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Regional Development (RD) allows countries to balance regional differences by providing economic and social benefits to communities. This research highlights the importance of logistics activities to regional social development, and a framework to assess these connections is proposed.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> How to boost regional socioeconomic development through logistics.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> The contributions of logistics to socioeconomic development are analysed based on the previous research, and the case of the Alto Minho (AM) region in Portugal was used to illustrate the connection between logistics and regional development. Results showed that logistics had created jobs, increased company turnover and exports, and increased GDP growth in several regions. For the AM region, results indicate that many companies are operating in this area, contributing to supporting municipalities to reduce regional disparities.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> A framework for assessing regional logistics performance is proposed together with several logistics performance indicators. This approach is essential for future developments integrating logistics into socioeconomic development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of Risk Management Strategies with Farm Model on a Mixed Farm Type<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Farm-level models have become an important tool for agricultural economists as there is a growing demand for microsimulation and analysis of farms at the individual level.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> In this paper, we present a mathematical model with the main objective of assessing the effectiveness of production and various possible strategies for agricultural holdings by reducing risks. At the same time, we were also interested in the environmental impacts of such strategies. The latter was measured using the indicator of GHG emissions.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> The model applied is based on linear programming and upgraded with QRP for risk analysis. The approach was tested on medium size mixed agricultural holding, which often faces challenges in light of the structural changes taking place in Slovenia.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The results suggest that such a farm could improve financial results with a more efficient risk management strategy. With a slightly modified production plan, the expected gross margin (EGM) can be increased by up to 10% at more or less the same risk. However, if the farmer is willing to diversify the production plan and take a higher risk (+23%), the farm’s EGM could increase by up to 18%. This kind of change in the production plan would also generate 17% more GHG emissions in total, calculated as kg equivalent of CO2 at the farm level, as both BL and C scenarios have the same relative ratio at 3.12 GHG CO2 eq. /EUR.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Through this research, we concluded that diversification has a positive potential on a mixed farm, and the farm could achieve better financial results. With flexibility in management, the farmer could also achieve higher risk management efficiency and better farm results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Risk and Return of Traditional and Alternative Investments Under the Impact of COVID-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> In making investment decisions, asset risk and return are two crucial criteria on which investors base their decision.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> This paper provides risk and return analysis and compares different traditional and alternative investments with special emphasis on the COVID-19 crisis. Assets included in the analysis are stocks, bonds, commodities, real estate, foreign exchange, cryptocurrencies, renewable energy sources, gold, and oil.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> The risk measures of standard deviation, Value at Risk (VaR), Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR), and Sharpe ratio are used to compare the representatives of each asset class.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The crisis had the highest impact on the risk of crude oil, renewable energy sources, real estate, and stocks, a slightly lower impact on the risk of commodities and gold, and a very low impact on the risk of bonds, foreign exchange, and cryptocurrencies. The order of assets regarding earning potential during the crisis, compared to the period before the crisis, changed significantly for commodities in a positive way and for gold and bonds in a negative way.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> This research shows that stocks won against all other assets, including gold and cryptocurrencies, during the COVID-19 crisis. The good features of a new alternative investment – renewable energy sources – with excellent earning potential are shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Machine Learning Approach to Forecast International Trade: The Case of Croatia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> This paper presents a machine learning approach to forecast Croatia’s international bilateral trade.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The goal of this paper is to evaluate the performance of machine learning algorithms in predicting international bilateral trade flows related to imports and exports in the case of Croatia.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> The dataset on Croatian bilateral trade with over 180 countries worldwide from 2001 to 2019 is assembled using main variables from the gravity trade model. To forecast values of Croatian bilateral exports and imports for a horizon of one year (the year 2020), machine learning algorithms (Gaussian processes, Linear regression, and Multilayer perceptron) have been used. Each forecasting algorithm is evaluated by calculating mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE).</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> It was found that machine learning algorithms have a very good predicting ability in forecasting Croatian bilateral trade, with neural network Multilayer perceptron having the best performance among the other machine learning algorithms.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold> Main findings from this paper can be important for economic policymakers and other subjects in this field of research. Timely information about the changes in trends and projections of future trade flows can significantly affect decision-making related to international bilateral trade flows.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for the Management and Acceptance of Customer Orders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> This paper focuses on activities related to Customer Orders Management withing an auto components plant in the Automotive Industry. The main challenge was highlighted: customers don’t always regard the flexibility rules agreed with the company. Hence, planners must decide if variation in ordered quantity can be accepted in the forecast period or if adjusting is necessary.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The purpose was not only to streamline the decision-making process in the planning team but also to provide essential tools for the execution of their daily tasks – a visual and interactive dashboard to assess whether variations in customer orders were within the limits agreed with the company.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> Following Lean information management and business intelligence principles, a thorough process analysis was carried out, centralized and standardized reports were created that served as databases, and the dashboard was developed.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The proposed tool allowed reductions from 3,5h per week, spent mainly on collecting data, calculating variations, and selecting and adjusting the flexibility limits, to 0,2h a day per planner.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Besides streamlining planners’ daily activities, main contributions regard the promotion of digital transformation, data-driven decision-making, and an automated record of customer order variations that could easily be adapted to suppliers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of e-Learning during Covid-19: Case Study of Economic Disciplines in Croatia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the digitalisation level of education. Many institutions had some knowledge and practical background in delivering lectures online. Some countries apply a top-down digitalisation approach driven by policy or strategy and externally impacted by the government. Some other countries rather initiate digitalisation internally by teachers and universities.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The main goal is to investigate the digitalisation level of the higher education system in Croatia, exploring the digitalisation of economic disciplines compared to other scientific fields.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> We assess the digitalisation level of higher education based on the regulatory framework, applied approach of digitalisation, the agility of transition to online teaching and the existing number of courses and online study programs. Education digitalisation in different countries is compared with the Croatian experience.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Although the satisfactory level of higher education institutions’ agility to switch online exist, there hasn’t been a centralised project led by the government and supported by proper funds to increase digitalisation in Croatia. Even before the pandemic, many e-courses from economics and business had been offered to students, but online study programs were exceptions, covering mainly the economics and business field.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The Covid-19 pandemic has improved the digitalisation process in the Croatian education system. A general framework for the digitalisation of education should be developed containing the detailed administrative processes and appropriate funds to be implemented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue is more eager to use Gamification in Economic Disciplines? Comparison of Students and Educators<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> In this paper, the focus is on the application of digital and mobile technologies as supporting tools for the implementation of gamification in the field of education of future economists.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The paper’s main objective is to explore whether educators and students are motivated and willing to apply additional technologies as main gamification components in their work and education. Moreover, the paper aims to assess how their more comprehensive application affects the quality of teaching, work flexibility, new learning opportunities, and outcomes.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> The survey method was used to collect answers from educators and students primarily interested in accounting, finance, trade and tourism from higher and secondary education institutions in Croatia, Poland, Serbia and Germany. Afterwards, the responses were compared using statistical methods.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Research results confirm that educators and students are willing to use gamification in teaching. Still, they also expressed the need for better administrative support in using particular e-learning tools. Surprisingly, educators are more eager to use gamification in their work than students.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The study’s general conclusion is that educators and students are both aware of the advantages of using e-learning tools provided through digital and mobile technologies and are eager to implement more gamification in the teaching process. However, continuous education in applying new digital technologies is needed on both sides.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Competencies among Higher Education Professors and High-School Teachers: Does Teaching Experience matter?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> To provide high-quality education and remain innovative, thus contributing to sustainable development goals, educational institutions use digital tools and implement ICT in the teaching process. In addition to providing technical resources, it requires the appropriate education of teachers who should have the appropriate knowledge and skills to take full advantage of the opportunities provided by ICT.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The main objective of this article is to identify the current state of ICT knowledge and skills of university professors and high school teachers and to establish if there exists a relationship between their digital competencies and teaching experience. We strive to discover areas where digital competencies are already relatively high and ICT knowledge and skills gaps.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> Survey was conducted on a sample of university and secondary school professors who were asked to estimate their perceived level of knowledge and skills in various ICT domains.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The results of our research show that the total self-assessed level of competence is intermediate, with slightly higher values for ICT knowledge than for ICT skills. The results vary depending on the different subcategories of competencies and the years of respondents’ teaching experience.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Our research findings, which revealed variations and gaps in digital knowledge and skills among professors and teachers, may have significant policy implications for policymakers and educators committed to ensuring quality education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Competencies in Selected European Countries among University and High-School Students: Programming is lagging behind<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Constant integration of digital technologies in economic and social life is rapidly and significantly shaping and changing our environment and ourselves. To function in such a world, even in daily routines, it is necessary to possess certain digital competencies.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> This paper aims to examine how university and high-school students of economic orientations from selected European countries self-assess their digital competencies, and to analyse the identified differences. This will enable further understanding of university and high-school students’ digital competencies that can serve as guidance for improving teaching practices and curricula.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> A survey was conducted to collect data that were analysed using non-parametric statistic tests (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test) and Spearman Rank-Order Correlation coefficient.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> University and high-school students consider to have below intermediate level of digital competencies. High-school students self-assessed digital competencies at a higher level than university students. University students of higher years of study self-assessed digital competencies at a higher level. There is no universal pattern among high-school students of different years of study. University students in the Accounting module and high-school students in the Tourism module assessed their digital competencies at the lowest level in several areas. There is a consistency in self-assessment of digital knowledge and digital skills. Conclusions: The identified below intermediate level of digital competencies and discovered discrepancies indicated the need for educational process improvements to provide university and high-school students with a higher degree of digital competencies. Programming is the most lagging behind in all the observed groups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Teaching Economic Disciplines: Past, Current and Future Perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This special issue of Business Systems Research (SI of the BSR) highlights the past, current and future perspectives of digitalization in teaching economic disciplines. The emphasis has been put on digital competencies, the quality of e-learning, e-exams, digital tools, gamification, and digital and mobile technologies used in the teaching process in the field of economics. The main focus groups of the research are teachers and students from the economic field of education at both university and secondary school levels. Seven papers selected for this SI of the BSR present the digitalization era’s impact on teaching economic disciplines. The conducted research and publication of the papers are funded under the project “Challenges and practices of teaching economic disciplines in era of digitalization” (project no. 2020-1-HR01-KA202-077771), which is co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Digital Tools dominate Secondary and Higher Education in Economics: Google, Microsoft or Zoom?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Due to the Covid 19 pandemic, in many countries, higher, secondary and even primary education experienced the unannounced shift from traditional classroom lessons to distance teaching using different technologies.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The main objective of the research was to identify the most important digital tools applied by educators and students during the pandemic and evaluate their satisfaction with applying these tools in four countries; Croatia, Germany, Poland and Serbia.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> The questionnaires were sent via emails to educators and distributed through the classes to students using digital teaching platforms or emails. The answers were analysed by descriptive statistics.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Research showed that Google tools most commonly used by students and educators are; YouTube, Gmail, Google Translate, Google Maps and Google Drive. Microsoft digital tools most commonly used by educators and students in observed countries are; Word, PowerPoint and Excel. Other digital tools most commonly used by educators are Zoom and Moodle, while students mostly use Zoom and Kahoot. Moreover, this paper identifies the main reasons for educators’ insufficient use of digital tools.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Google, Microsoft and Zoom dominate their specific domains: Google for networks, Microsoft for documents, and Zoom for online meetings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Higher Institutions and Secondary Schools during Covid-19: Crisis Solving and Future Perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> The pandemic of Covid-19 brought significant changes to the education system and forcibly accelerated the process of digitizing teaching. Students and educators had to adapt to the new way of education, facing challenges such as technical problems and a lack of technical skills and social contact.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The purpose of the paper was to explore the attitudes of the university and high school educators and students towards the pandemic’s impact on digitization in teaching.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to university and high school educators and students in Croatia, Poland, Serbia and Germany in the field of accounting, finance, trade, tourism, and other areas of interest, resulting in 2,897 responses. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The research showed that: 1) high school students were less optimistic about the positive impact of the pandemic on applying digital tools in teaching than university students, 2) educators generally prefer traditional exams, while students generally prefer e-exams, 3) a higher proportion of university respondents believe that e-learning should be used as an important addition to traditional teaching when compared to high school respondents.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The pandemic has changed how the teaching process will be performed, but we should learn from experience and address the issues with e-learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Cons of e-Learning in Economics and Business in Central and Eastern Europe: Cross-country Empirical Investigation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> The ongoing information and technological revolution, as well as the Covid-19 pandemic, accelerated the use of e-learning worldwide.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> This article aims to present the results of our empirical research among students of economics and business from Central and Eastern Europe on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> The article uses a survey, and the research sample included 1647 respondents (students of economics and business) from universities in three countries: Croatia, Poland, and Serbia. We used the multivariate comparative analysis (factor analysis and principal components analysis) by applying Statistica computer software.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The assessment of individual forms of e-learning in the three countries is similar. In e-learning, investigated students appreciated, first of all, the time-saving. At the same time, it is difficult to concentrate and harder to develop the interpersonal skills needed to work in a real environment.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> E-learning seems to be a vital instrument complementing traditional learning, as the respondents declared. However, it should not replace traditional face-to-face education; it should only support it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Framework of Information Systems Development Concepts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Information Systems Development (ISD) is responsible for designing and implementing information systems that support organizational strategy, leveraging business models and processes. Several perspectives on this activity can be found in the literature, addressing – often in an undifferentiated manner – approaches, lifecycles, methodologies, and process models, among others.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> The vast diversity of ideas and concepts surrounding ISD and the multiple underlying views on the subject make it harder for researchers and practitioners to understand the relevant aspects of this important activity. This article aims to systematize and organize ISD’s main concepts to create a coherent perspective.</p> <p><bold>Methods/Approach:</bold> We conducted a literature review and thematic analysis of ISD’s main concepts.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> To contribute to filling the research gap, this article proposes a new framework that addresses the key aspects related to ISD.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The framework comprises ISD’s core concepts, such as lifecycles, process models, deployment approaches, and methodologies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue