rss_2.0Central European Journal of Public Policy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Central European Journal of Public Policy European Journal of Public Policy 's Cover Tax and Sustainable Development in Ekiti State: Citizens’ Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ekiti State government enacted a new tax policy, the taxation of buildings and landed properties, in order to ensure sustainable development and boost its revenue profile. Although increasing tax revenue represents a vital aspect of developmental policy, knowledge, motivation, and compliance activate tax for inclusive economic development. In line with the fiscal social contract theory and using an exploratory–descriptive research design, this study specifically assesses the citizens’ knowledge and their motivation to pay property tax, and how it affects their level of compliance. Multi-stage, stratified random, and simple random sampling techniques with questionnaires and key informant interviews were engaged. Findings suggested that citizens are not unaware of the property tax and the law backing it up, but due to their lack of trust in the government, their motivation and compliance cannot be improved. However, the government needs to set up practical actions in fulfilling their own part of the contract in order to gain citizens’ trust.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Reforms of Czech Hospitals in Multiple Streams Perspective: The Cases of Success and Failure<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Czech Republic experienced a significant transformation of health care as a consequence of society-wide changes which started 30 years ago. The article aims to identify factors of successful and unsuccessful processes in giving a legislative anchor to the new organisational–legal form of Czech hospitals after 2000. There were several attempts to change the organisational–legal structure of hospitals. Just two of them succeeded to enter the decision-making phase in the Parliament, and only one led to successful approval of the Act.</p> <p>In the article, we use the Multiple Stream Framework (MSF) to explain how different streams (policy, politics and problem stream) couple and open a policy window that allows a policy change. We chose modified MSF, which broadens the concept by including the agenda-setting as well as decision-making processes and offers two coupling processes. In a comparison of two cases of the policy process, we identified the factors that cause closing the window before the agenda is set.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-16T00:00:00.000+00:00No escape from COVID-19 consequences: cross-sectoral evaluation of impact on unemployment in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which hit the world in 2020 and is still persisting, has significantly impacted many areas of people's lives. The shutdown anti-pandemic measures implemented by the governments also caused the development of unemployment worldwide. In Slovakia, the restrictions or even complete closure of the operation and activities of the companies caused rising unemployment in some sectors, while in some sectors, the impact was not so substantial. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyse and quantify the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on unemployment in various sectors of economic activities in Slovakia. For impact evaluation, a counterfactual approach was used, with analysis of time series development and statistically created counterfactual situation. The analysis was based on real data about the unemployment situation in Slovakia in the period January 2013–April 2021. The results of the study showed that the most affected sectors according to the NACE classification were F – construction, I – accommodation and food service activities and R – arts, entertainment and recreation, showing an increase in unemployment of 89%, 88%, and 65%, respectively. The analysis in this study showed that the impact of a pandemic should be quantified among the sectors, as there are large differences in unemployment caused by the pandemic. From these findings, it is necessary to deduce the different intensities and amount of state aid to companies or employees in these sectors. The results of the study should help to target the policy interventions better to mitigate the impact of the pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Public Policy and Administration in the Age of Donald Trump<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Donald Trump’s presidency produced a few legislative victories. Instead, as with his predecessors, the Trump presidency had to rely more on executive orders and other actions to move its agenda. But even this unilateral approach produced fewer results than his supporters hoped for or his detractors feared. This article will examine public policymaking and administration under the Trump Administration. It will argue that while the 2016 electoral victories for Republicans gave Donald Trump an enormous opportunity to move his political agenda, several factors prevented that from occurring.</p> <p>These factors include indecision on the part of the Trump presidency whether to move a policy agenda or cripple the administrative state; denial of personal responsibility for policies or actions, a failure to understand the constitutional underpinnings of American politics and policymaking, especially when it comes to administrative agency action; intra-party disputes; party polarization; ethical, legal, and impeachment issues; governmental inexperience; and an overall inability to appreciate the differences between the American presidency and business leadership.</p> <p>Overall, the article describes the political context of the Trump presidency and to explain how it, the structure of American government, and the overall indifference or failure of the Trump administration to understand how the government works rendered this presidency far less effective than it could have been. The lesson of the Trump presidency for the USA and other states is despite rhetoric and claims that outsiders or nontraditional leaders can affect governmental and policy change, they are often ineffectual or dangerous.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Implications of Corruption in Developing Countries: Case Study of Pakistan and India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The existence of corruption threatens all aspect of a society, be that social, economic or political. Corruption is more pronounced in developing countries; however, it attracts very little attention from decision-makers. This paper analyses the social implications (health and education) of corruption in India and Pakistan. According to the <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_cejpp-2022-0003_ref_027">Corruption Perception Index Report (2019)</xref>, these countries are perceived to be the most corrupt ones.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>Corruption has been researched enormously with respect to its economic and political consequences, but not much attention has been given to its social implications on human rights. Corruption violates human rights directly or indirectly. Therefore, this paper aims to elaborate the links (direct and indirect) between corruption and human rights and focus on the consequences of corruption on health and education; it also aims to present anti-corruption policies to curb corruption in the investigated countries.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The research employs a systematic literature review method (PRISMA-P 2015) that identifies currently available research, selects and assesses contribution, analyses and synthesises data, and presents pieces of evidence with a justified conclusion. It also encourages researchers to apply PRISMA protocols in future researches.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results show that more than 80% of the reviewed articles argue that corruption is one of the invincible reasons for the people's dire social condition in India and Pakistan; moreover, corruption remains ignored, which shows that there are gaps to understand how corruption can extremely dent the right to education and health.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Political rationalities related to the public participation as exemplified by the Warsaw #housing2030 project<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article analyses political rationalities positioning residents in decision-making in the context of #housing2030 project in Warsaw, Poland. The paper applies a governmental approach, a policy analysis tool reconstructed (on the ground of existing studies) by <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_cejpp-2022-0001_ref_023">Greg Marston and Catherine McDonald (2006)</xref>. As reported in the article, two political rationalities were identified: (1) public participation designed in the context of local communities and neighbourhoods and (2) public (tenant) participation designed in the context of neoliberal governance in housing. It was found that in the case of the #housing2030 project, the contradiction of political rationalities leads to an incoherent vision of public participation in housing policymaking and to some residents (social tenants) being treated differently. The article argues that this contributes to the micro-practices of social scepticism and distrust on the part of tenant organisations and urban movements towards the #housing2030 project.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Martin Potůček – 70 years Laudation E. Stiglitz: Euro – How a Common Currency Threatens the Future of Europe evaluation of professional traineeships for young people up to 30 years of age<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this article, we evaluate ‘Professional traineeships for young people up to 30 years’, an active labour market policy measure implemented in the Czech Republic. Professional traineeships were one of the possibilities for suitable offer to young people within Youth Guarantee in the Czech Republic in 2014 and 2015. First, we conducted a process evaluation (document analysis and interviews) to uncover the design and implementation aspects of the program. Next, we followed the counterfactual impact evaluation approach towards the estimate of returns to unemployment (competing risk analysis) based on individual administration data from public employment services. We have found that professional traineeships were successful in attracting the interest of both young people and employers. Mainly young people with middle and high level education have entered the program. Most of them have been provided with on-the-job subsidies in the private sector. When considering the impact of the program on the unemployment of participants and a control group, it was shown that after two years, the measure was effective only for young people with long pre-program Employment Office registration. When we consider the reasons for leaving Employment Office registration, the measure seems to be more effective, since many young people in the control group left the Employment Office register in favour of options that were outside of the labour market.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-01T00:00:00.000+00:00The European Union as a Trigger of Discursive Change: The Impact of the Structural Deficit Rule in Estonia and Latvia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Our paper explores how a rule prescribed by the European Union can bring about changes in the policy discourse of a member state. Drawing on the literatures of discursive institutionalism and Europeanization, the theoretical part discusses the factors that influence discursive shifts. The empirical part examines the discursive impacts of the introduction of the structural budget deficit rule, required by the Fiscal Compact, in Estonia and Latvia. It demonstrates how the discursive shifts have been shaped by the localized translations offered by civil servants, the entrance of additional actors to the policy-making arena, crisis experience, and the strategic interests of policy actors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Technology Roadmaps, Innovation Journeys, and Nanoworld: A Spatio-temporal Consolidation of the EC Nanotechnology Policy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Technology roadmaps have become an essential part of the European Commission’s (EC) nanotechnology policy strategies. They represent socio-technical landscapes and evolving pathways, suggesting the underlying or otherwise supportive metaphorical patterns and narrative structures. For the same reason, however, roadmaps are problematic assemblages: they can simplify and distort reality, and filter things that don’t fit. The presented study combines cognitive linguistics with narratology to scrutinise the European Commission’s nanotechnology roadmapping as a discursive formation. It targets the systematic metaphors in approximately two-hundred news and reports on nanotechnology, compiled ad hoc from the CORDIS database (between the years 1999–2015). It is argued that the identified metaphors correspond to a discourse topology of ‘locations’, ‘events’, and their structures, especially as regards to the dilemma of ‘path dependence’, overcoming ‘knowledge gaps’, and reaching ‘nanoworld’. These are accompanied by a narrative climax of developing mature science policy model, in the arrangement of actions and roles for the European governments, science (nanotechnology), policy, and the public. The study demonstrates how systematic metaphors engage all the actors in the narrative of ‘innovation journey’ to form stabilised structures of meaning, that is, spatio-temporal consolidation of nanotechnology policy. It is imperative to continuously assess the context of such consolidation, being less overt but not necessarily less effective, in privileging some meanings, interests, and practices over the others, thereby excluding other political alternatives.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-02-01T00:00:00.000+00:00From a Caring State to an Investing State. Stages of a Changing Welfare Model in Labour Market Policy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, we investigate the changing model of social security. The analyses are focusing on changes in labour market policies which have taken place in the countries of the European Union. With the critical review of scientific literature of welfare changes, we try to answer the next questions. What circumstances led to the shift from the welfare state focusing on welfare benefits and services to the generally accepted model of the activating? What reforms and what stages lead to the transformation of the welfare model especially in the area of labour market policies? How the earlier integration efforts, which had mainly focused on entitlement, was replaced with a market-based approach like social investment?</p> <p>The most important result of the critical analysis is the presentation of the policy model transfer between the states of the European Union and the steps of the reform process, which jeopardise the enforcement of the citizen's social rights.</p> <p>The first part of the study presents the theoretical framework for the transformation of the labour market policies, the key pillars of the welfare state and the term “activation state” and “investing state”. The second part examines the key features of five stages of changing model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling the impact of Artificial Intelligence on the labour market in Czechia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article describes an original model developed in the Technology Centre CAS for the estimation of the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the labour market in Czechia. On the contrary to the previous estimates, this model is based on the comparison of projected future technical capabilities of AI with a mix of capabilities needed in different job categories. Both the importance and the level of capabilities are taken into account in order to assess the impact of AI on jobs in three different time horizons. Based on the model calculations, it can be expected that on the five-year horizon the AI will be able to replace more than 50% of the required capabilities in 11 % of the occupations. On the thirty-year horizon, AI can replace over 50% of capabilities in the vast majority of the current professions. At the same time, new professions will continuously emerge, though they will place different demands on their performers and will require different skills and capabilities in comparison to current professions. The model and its results may be effectively used for efficient adaptation of education, lifelong learning and retraining to the changing nature of work, and related new demand for workers’ capabilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00A policy window and a network of global and local policy entrepreneurs: The introduction of opioid substitution therapy in Belarus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Why does a regime that is predominantly characterised by conservative ideology introduce opioid substitution therapy (OST), a liberal policy? This article applies the Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) to examine the introduction of OST in Belarus. Methodologically, the research draws on qualitative content analysis of drug policy documents and reports as well as on interviews. Results show how an increased HIV prevalence among injecting drug users opened a policy window in the problem stream. The increase in HIV cases could be used by a network of global and local policy entrepreneurs to frame OST as a public health policy instead of a drug policy measure. Findings suggest that, in nondemocratic regimes, global policy entrepreneurs can play a dominant role in introducing new policy ideas. However, the sustainability of the policy change remains questionable when acquiescence by key policymakers is lacking.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Between incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium: the case of budget in Poland, 1995–2018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium theory (PET) have secured their standing in public policy research when studying change in budgetary data. On the other hand, however, new empirical evidence is constantly developed to confront it with theoretical assumptions. In line with the above, the aim of the paper is threefold. First, it is examined if budgetary outlays in Poland follow either incrementalism or PET's core premises. Second, the paper aims at facilitating discussion on identifying punctuations. It is claimed that any cut-off point should be data-driven, category-responsive, and generalizable across different types of outliers. And third, it is investigated which of the budget categories have the most punctuations. Methodologically, the study is based on descriptive and distributional statistics provided to tackle the above two issues comprehensively. Consequently, the paper aims at filling the gap in theory-driven literature on Polish budget shifts and their empirical rigorous explanations. Thus, it is claimed that the Polish case study contributes to the debate on the verification of empirical research on public policy agendas and public policy change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Realising South Africa's National Development Plan goals: The need for change to a collaborative democracy to facilitate community participation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A democratic government should adhere to firm public administration principles, legal instruments, structures and mechanisms. However, providing these elements is insufficient to guarantee integrated participative service delivery. This article aims to unravel the most important elements required to create a participative governance model that fuses horizontal intra-relationships between public officials and departments and vertical interactions between public and private networks. The research methodology entailed a critical desktop document analysis of books, articles, regulatory policy and strategy documents. Network governance was conceptually and contextually analysed through unobtrusive research methods. It served as a possible analytical model for democratic governance, where citizens take centre stage in participative decision-making. The findings provide both a description and a contextualisation of the themes that emerged from the research. The article highlights that the network governance model could help South Africa move forward from a dated, elitist democracy based on a dependency model, to a participative democracy model, where communities and government work together. The article concludes that South Africa can only realise the National Development Plans (NDPs) 2030 goals (to maximise people's development, strengthen governance networks and enhance state's capacity to provide adequate public services) by drawing on partnerships within a network governance framework.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of activities in later life across European regions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The active ageing policy supports several types of activities, including labour force participation, caregiving, social participation, and physical activity. The paper illustrates the prevalence of supported activities across individual characteristics and four supra-national European regions to assess how these activities are available for specific groups of older people. The analysis draws on wave 6 from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe held in 2015. A set of figures describes the availability of activities sorted by gender, age, health status, and the level of education in 17 European countries divided into four regions, and thus, presents the unavailable descriptive data important for researchers and policymakers. The results most of all show that the majority of the 50+ population engages in vigorous physical activity, whilst labour force participation and caregiving concern about one-third of it, and other activities much less. The findings show the inadequacy of the active ageing as a uniform context-insensitive EU policy and detect its potential for raising inequalities in later life, whilst the theoretical implications are discussed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The Covid-19 pandemic: collective action and European public policy under stress<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The European continent faces an apocalyptic pandemic that poses mortal danger to millions of citizens. This paper seeks to address the role played by European public policy in addressing the Covid-19 pandemic. Currently, each Member State across Europe is applying its own measures to deal with the coronavirus; namely, decentralised decision-making that could trigger political tensions among the states. The paper argues that European public policy must change rapidly and fundamentally if these tensions are to be successfully managed; otherwise, such policy might simply cease to exist. Moreover, the known and notorious problem of collective action, information asymmetries, irrationality, negative externalities and the related free-riding phenomenon persistently are distorting the Member States’ combined efforts, resulting in deficient attempts to contain the spread of Covid-19. The paper also argues that the current unprecedented outbreak of this superspreading virus calls for a bigger EU-wide coordinated response. We argue that the Covid-19 pandemic is a good example of an area in which the central EU level holds a comparative advantage over lower levels of government. In addition, the paper offers several substantive insights into ways to improve the public policy response in the ‘war’ against Covid-19.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) a New Alternative to Governance Challenges of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs)?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article aims to analyze the current theory of managing the State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) with the use of Single Ownership Entity and to suggest alternative solution, particularly, managing SOEs with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).</p><p>After a thorough review of the literature analyzing the connection between CSR and SOEs, the article states that there are important missing points in the previous research and academic debate: (1) no scholar directly emphasizes CSR as the answer to the problems of SOEs; (2) there is no research conducted on the comparison of Single Ownership Entity and CSR, evaluating their potential positive effects on SOEs; (3) accordingly, academic literature does not discuss the ways and tools of implementation of CSR in SOEs.</p><p>The article aims to fill this gap and emphasize the links between CSR and SOEs. Due to the challenges, goals and ownership structure of SOEs, CSR is the most suitable corporate governance model for SOEs and its effective implementation is more vital than the execution of recommendations on creating the single ownership entity suggested by international organizations. The research question of the article is to compare managing the SOEs with the use of the CSR model (Alternative Theory) to single ownership mechanism established by OECD (Current Theory) and find out whether CSR is a better solution to the existing problems of SOEs.</p><p>Finally, the article discusses the institutional context of SOEs based on the examples of the countries of Eastern and Central Europe where the problems regarding SOEs remain remarkable; presents the balance of interests of stakeholders’ in SOEs in connection to Alternative and Current Theories; and combines analysis, research and recommendations of international organizations and academia towards the problems of SOEs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Public policy responses to the spread of COVID-19 as a potential factor determining health results: a comparative study of the Czech Republic, the Russian Federation, and the Slovak Republic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The goal of this paper is to identify critical factors in success/failure of public policies focusing on fighting the spread of COVID-19 pandemic using a sample of three countries from Central and Eastern Europe with different results regarding COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates, namely the Czech Republic, the Russian Federation, and the Slovak Republic. Based on comprehensive literature review, three independent variables were worked out: the scope/scale of public policy anti-pandemic interventions, the timing of public policy interventions, and the success of public policies in motivating compliance with anti-pandemic measures. Taking into account the similarity of measures introduced by national governments, the results suggest that the timing of public policy responses and success in motivating compliance may be critical factors in containing the pandemic.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-27T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1