rss_2.0Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences 's Cover role of appetite-controlling hormones in the development of eating disorders in diabetic 2 patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are common eating disorders (EDs) in individuals with diabetes type 2 (DT2). They worsen metabolic control, have a negative impact on physical and mental health and reduce quality of life. The roles of appetite-controlling hormones – leptin and ghrelin – is not clear enough in EDs and need to be investigated in order to establish new approaches and markers of EDs. Aim: To assess the difference in leptin and ghrelin levels in DT2 patients with and without EDs. 57 patients with DT2 were involved in the study. After physical examination and screening for EDs, blood samples for leptin and ghrelin measuring were obtained.</p> <p>Results: 19 participants (33.3%) were screened positively for ED (BE or NES). Leptin levels were higher in participants with ED (p&lt;0.05). Conversely, ghrelin levels were lower in those with BE or NES (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p>Leptin level is increased in DT2 individuals with BED and NES, whereas ghrelin is decreased. Leptin and ghrelin alterations maintain emotional eating, increase the frequency of binge and night eating episodes. In screening for EDs, assessing leptin and ghrelin levels will facilitate obesity reduction and improve metabolic control in diabetic patients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Experimental study of the antiulcer effect of cryopreserved placenta extract on a model of acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcerogenesis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> The gastrotoxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a leading side effect that significantly limits their clinical use, among other types of their toxicity (nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, etc.). Cryopreserved placenta extract has drawn our attention as a potential modifier of the ulcerogenic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> To characterize the cytoprotective properties of cryopreserved placenta extract by the condition of the mucous membrane of the proximal (esophagus and stomach) and distal (small and large intestine) parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on the model of ASA-induced ulcerogenesis.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The study was performed using 28 male rats weighing 200-220 g. Subchronic ASA-induced ulcerogenesis of the digestive tract was reproduced by intragastrically administration to rats of ASA in a dose of 150 mg/kg. The effect of the studied drugs on the condition of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract was assessed macroscopically by the following criteria: edema, redness and hemorrhage on the surface of the mucous membrane. The ulcer index for each group of animals was calculated.</p> <p><bold>Results and discussion.</bold> Five doses of ASA 150 mg/kg cause damage to the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines in all of the rats. The use of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has pronounced gastrocytoprotective properties, but does not affect the ulcerogenic effect in the small intestine, and in the colon, it enhances it. This is indicated by ulcerative lesions of the colon in 57.1% of all rats administered ASA and esomeprazole, as well as in the folding of the gastric mucosa. In contrast, mild hyperemia of the gastric mucosa was seen in 28.6% of all rats and moderate hemorrhage in 57.1% of all rats due to the combined use of ASA and cryoextract placenta.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The use of cryopreserved placenta extract is statistically significantly (p &lt;0.05) inferior to the antiulcer activity of esomeprazole in the stomach. Thus, the ulcer index on the background of the use of ASA and cryopreserved placenta extract was 0.97, and on the background of the use of ASA and esomeprazole – 0.39. In the distal parts of the GI tract cryoextract placenta showed cytoprotective properties against the background of induced ASA ulcerogenesis, in contrast to esomeprazole.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Legal protection of the human genome – excessive or disproportionate?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Throughout the 20<sup>th</sup> century, life expectancy in developed countries considerably increased from 40 to 70 years. This stemmed mainly from the technological advancements in medicine that have been taking place since the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. Although the development of contemporary clinical medicine is undoubtedly beneficial to public health, it may also entail certain hazards. Hence, both in international and national law systems one can find legal regulations setting the limits of this development and taking into account the principles of public safety in its contemporary understanding. Both the human being as a whole and the human genome are protected <italic>de jure</italic>. The article attempts to answer the question whether the currently binding genome regulations are excessive or disproportionate. The authors use the dogmatic-legal and the theoretical-legal methods in the study. The article ends with conclusions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Thin-layer chromatography of DNS amino acids derivatives in systems with silica gel and silanized silica gel plates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Investigations into separation selectivity of High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) of dansyl (DNS) derivatives of amino acids in silica gel (Silica gel 60 F<sub>254s</sub> plates) and silanized silica gel (RP-18 W plates) systems are presented. The results have been obtained for mobile phases containing different concentrations of acetonitrile (ACN) in formic acid (FA) water solution (final concentration of FA in the mobile phase was equal to 265 mmol/dm<sup>3</sup>). The data obtained show differences in separation selectivity of the solutes between employment of HPTLC silica gel and RP-18 W systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The recent guidelines for pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s Disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is one of the most frequent disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). PD is an age-related disease in that morbidity increases with age. The main symptoms of it are motor symptoms like bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor. These symptoms diminish the comfort of the patient’s life and may lead to immobility. Hence, rapid diagnosis and start of treatment are very important.</p> <p>The pharmacotherapy of PD is difficult. PD involves an imbalance between the dopaminergic and cholinergic systems. Therefore, the mechanisms of action of currently available drugs are highly connected with the pathology of PD, and follow dopaminergic or anticholinergic control strategies. However, long-term use of many PD medications comes with serious side effects. Therefore, the search for new, more effective drugs involving different strategies to that current and having different targets is still on-going.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The epidemiological situation in Ukraine in terms of the implementation of preventive vaccinations according to the Protective Vaccination Program<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The level of immunization of children and adolescents under the Protective Vaccination Program in Ukraine is lower than in Poland, and, due to the outbreak of the war in Ukraine, many people now live in conditions that are often unsanitary. Centers for refugees are also places of increased risk of outbreaks of infectious diseases. This risk is increased by the low percentage of the vaccinated, limited access to healthcare (including diagnostics) and overcrowding.</p> <p>The paper presents the state of vaccination in Ukraine against poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, the most important problems in the field of infectious diseases, as well as the resulting risks and the need to prevent them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the reasons for delays in treatment of oral cavity cancer patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The growing increase in oral cavity cancer (OSCC) incidence constitutes a severe diagnostic-therapeutic problem – and early diagnosis, as well as medical treatment remain important priorities of maxillofacial oncology. The aim of this paper was to determine the reasons for delays in the diagnostics and treatment of oral cavity cancer patients. The study focused on 248 patients (=56.1 years) post-surgery, in which delays in diagnostics and treatment were reported. As for the causes, most frequently, in 171 cases (69.0%), patient delays were reported, in 56 cases, physician delays were observed, and in 21 cases (8.5%), organizational reasons were to blame. The median time period between the onset of the symptoms and seeking medical attention was 143 days. Time interval between the first contact with a doctor and commencement of oncological treatment was 33.2 days approximately. The majority of the patients were not aware of the oral cavity cancer risk. Misdiagnosis of symptoms as inflammation, as well as prolonged antibiotic therapy and diagnostics constitute main reasons for physician and organization-al/health care system delays. Raising patients’ awareness of cancer risk, as well as educational and promotional programs for physicians are the principal goals of a strategy aiming to enhance oral cancer diagnosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Coumarin derivatives against amyloid-beta 40 – 42 peptide and protein<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In preclinical studies, simple coumarins (scoparone, limettin) and furanocoumarins (imperatorin, xanthotoxin, bergapten) have already found to demonstrate procognitive abilities. This suggests that they hold antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and inhibitory action towards acetylcholinesterase activities. However, little is known about their influence on the amyloidal structure formation, the leading cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). <italic>In vitro</italic> and <italic>in cellulo</italic> assays were applied to evaluate the effect of selected coumarins on the different stages of Aβ40/42 and <italic>tau</italic> protein aggregation. Kinetic analyses were performed to evaluate their inhibiting abilities in time. Limettin revealed the most potent inhibiting profile towards Aβ40 aggregation, however, all tested compounds presented low influence on Aβ42 and <italic>tau</italic> protein aggregation inhibition. Despite the preliminary stage of the project, the promising effects of coumarins on Aβ40 aggregation were shown. This suggests the coumarin scaffold can serve as a potential multitarget agent in AD treatment, but further studies are required to confirm this.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Expiry of medicine in public health facilities of Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: a quantitative and qualitative study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Medicines are one of the critical elements of a well-functioning healthcare system, but their expiry remains one of the significant challenges in the healthcare sector. This study aims in assessing the extent of the issue and identifying the expired medicine types and their underlying causes in some selected public health facilities of Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. This study is a mixed-method, which includes both quantitative and qualitative components. The quantitative research was undertaken by retrospective data extraction of recorded medicines as expired for the specified period. At the same time, the qualitative part is a facility-based cross-sectional survey study with self-administered questionnaires and semi-structured in-depth interviews engaging the health professionals of study facilities to explore the reasons for the expiration of medicines. Fifteen health facilities were selected from the study zone. The total monetary value of expired medicines in the studied health facilities during 2017-2019 was 185,938.86 USD. In the same period, all study facilities received medicines worth 2,425,882.64 USD, resulting in an expiry rate of 7.66%. The top classes of wasted medicines through expiry in terms of value were anti-infectives (35.51%) and medicines for central nervous system (CNS) disorders (20.48%). In comparison, by dosage forms, nearly half were solid dosage forms (48.81%), followed by liquid dosage forms (41.82%). Delivery of near expiry date medicines by Ethiopia’s Pharmaceuticals Supply Agency (PSA), lack of a system to exchange nearly expired medicines between facilities, and presence of overstocked medicines due to improper forecasting of need were the common perceived factors contributing to the expiry of medicines. Thus, the Policymakers should make decisions to reduce the contributing factors of medicines expiry to reduce wastage of medicines and promote appropriate utilization of finite resources.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of linagliptin on morphine dependence in larval zebrafish ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drug addiction is a chronic, recurrent disease of the central nervous system that leads to the development of comorbidities and premature death. Despite extensive scientific research concerning addiction, no effective method of addiction pharmacotherapy has been known so far. Glucagon-like peptide 1 has been suggested to play a role in the rewarding effect of addictive drugs. Linagliptin is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that suppresses the rapid degradation of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1. In clinical practice, it is used as an antidiabetic drug, but recent studies have confirmed its role in the activity of the central nervous system. This pilot study was conducted to ascertain whether linagliptin might influence morphine dependence – a locomotor activity test was carried out to assess the intensity of morphine withdrawal symptom. The obtained results clearly confirmed that linagliptin (0.01 and 0.1 mM) reduced the locomotor activity in morphine-dependent larval zebrafish. The undertaken experiments clearly indicates that linagliptin is involved in the addictive effects of morphine, thus, further studies on higher organisms should be carried out.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of RF9 optimization with mass spectrometry verification<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The RF9 compound, which is an antagonist of the FF neuropeptide receptors is used as a therapeutic substance to improve the effectiveness of opioids in the chronic treatment of pain. The purpose of this study was to find the most efficient method of RF9 synthesis. The optimization experiment involved solid-phase peptide synthesis. The Fmoc strategy is based on the usage of the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl group to block reactive amino groups. Commonly applied RF9 synthesis is based on DIC/HOBt activation of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid prior to its substitution. The experiments carried out in this research were based on the routinely applied DIC/HOBt carboxylic group activation and this scheme was compared with the COMU/DIPEA and DIC approach. The obtained results showed that COMU/DIPEA was the most efficient and effective method of RF9 synthesis. Using this strategy, pure compound was obtained, without any by-products, and at a highest yield. The use of COMU/DIPEA can be an excellent alternative to the routinely used RF9 synthesis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The risk of increasing tumor malignancy after PET diagnosis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This manuscript reviews evidences underlying the estimation of risk of malignancy enhancement of advanced aggressive cancers as a result of the gamma radiation emitted by tracers used in PET diagnostics. We conclude that among many cancers, such a phenomenon likely occurs, particularly in tumor cells with an aggressive biology in the advanced stages of their development, <italic>e.g</italic>. prostate cancer, melanoma and colorectal cancer. Moreover, we surmise based on gathered evidence that fluorine -18 (<sup>18</sup>F) labeled pharmaceuticals (<sup>18</sup>F-deoxyglucose and <sup>18</sup>F-choline), commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET) can lead to malignancy enhancement of diagnosed cancer, manifesting as accelerated infiltration of the neighboring tissue, accelerated metastasis and/or radio- and chemotherapy resistance. In this review, some suggestions on future studies verifying this concept are also proposed. If our concerns are justified, it might be appropriate in the future to consider this assumption at the stage of deciding whether to undertake PET monitoring in some patients with advanced aggressive cancer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a widespread pathogen causing infection that occurs mostly in children. Even though infection of B19V is mainly asymptomatic, it can bring about a few conditions that may require medical intervention, including erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), slapped cheek syndrome, papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS), as well as other disorders related to the hematological system. Despite the fact that the most common route of transmission is through the respiratory system, B19V can be also transmitted transplacentally from mother to foetus. Vertical transmission may lead to myocarditis, thrombocytopenia, neural manifestations, and foetal hydrops, which may be life-threatening conditions to both mother and foetus. Detection of B19V infection is based mostly on molecular and serological screening and it is performed after suspected exposure to pathogen or exhibition of symptoms. Currently, there is no specific medication against B19V infection, therefore, treatment is based on the elimination of symptoms. New therapies are, however, under development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Allergic and non-allergic asthma in children hospitalized in the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin in 2016-2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Bronchial asthma is a common disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways. Paediatric asthma is still a current problem and children with exacerbation frequently are hospitalized. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of allergic and non-allergic asthma in children hospitalized at the Department of Paediatric Pulmonology and Rheumatology of the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin in 2016-2020, and to analyze the most common allergens associated with allergic asthma.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods.</bold> The study group consisted of 667 patients, aged 6 to 215 months (average 64 months). The data collected for this retrospective study includes: gender, age, month, quarter of year, and year of hospitalization, type of asthma and type of allergens.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> We observed a decrease of hospitalization in the analyzed years: in 2016 – 160 children, and in 2020 – 74. Children with allergic asthma (375 children) were more frequently hospitalized than patients with non-allergic asthma, and we found correlations between age and type of asthma and between age and type of allergy. Non-allergic asthma was observed in the youngest children, while in older children, allergic-asthma dominated. We also observed significant differences in children’s hospitalization depending on the season of the year. The most frequent allergen causing asthma was house dust mites.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The incidence of hospitalizations caused by asthma exacerbation is declining. Among the youngest population, exacerbations of asthma related to respiratory tract infection predominate, while in the older, allergy to inhalation allergens is the main cause.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00MicroRNA expression biomarkers of chronic venous disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common disease caused by hemodynamic disorders of the venous circulation in the lower extremities. The clinical image of this disease is complex and includes such signs as telangiectases, varicose veins, leg edema and skin changes, usually accompanied with ache, pain, tightness, heaviness, swelling and muscle cramps of legs. Venous ulcers develop in the advanced stages of the disease and lead to significant impairment of patient abilities and reduction of the quality of life. CVD is diagnosed based on physical and image examinations, and main treatment options include compression therapy, invasive treatments like endovenous ablation and foam sclerotherapy, as well as pharmacotherapy. Currently, there is no biochemical and molecular biomarkers utilized in diagnosis or treatment of CVD. With regard to this situation, one of the most investigated fields for identification of disease biomarkers is microRNA (miRNA). These constitute a pool of small, non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis through posttranscriptional regulation of genes expression. Dysregulations of miRNA expression profiles have been found in patients with various diseases, and this situation provides information about potential miRNA signatures involved in pathophysiology. In this review, the studies focused on investigations of miRNA expression patterns in patients with CVD were collected. The performed literature analysis provides contemporary knowledge in the field of miRNA-dependent mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of CVD and shows gaps that need to be filled in further studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Modern breast cancer diagnostic methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>World wide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Despite an increased incidence of this cancer, the mortality rates have been maintained at the same level. This is due to the continuous development of therapeutic, as well as diagnostic methods because appropriate, effective treatment is dependent on accurate diagnosis. At the same time, the success is that more and more patients undergo breast- and axillary lymph nodes-sparing surgeries, therefore, determining the initial advancement stage of breast cancer is absolutely essential for ensuring proper therapy. This is a review of current guidelines for both early and advanced stages of breast cancer diagnostics. The principles described are largely based on the work of the European School of Oncology (ESO) and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO). The review includes the rule of imaging studies, especially mammography screening and histopathological evaluation with molecular classification of breast cancer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00New uses of ketoprofen – a review of studies from 2015 to 2021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ketoprofen (K) belongs to the family of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and demonstrates analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. K is one of the most commonly used NSAIDs because of the speed and effectiveness of its activity. K is currently used for the treatment of pain and treatment of symptoms in rheumatic diseases, however, many researchers are looking for new uses of K. The aim of the review was to present the possible applications of K as indicated in current literature. We searched research literature and compiled all the reports (2015 onwards) we could find about new possible employments of K in health practices. Many studies have been aimed at obtaining new uses of K. This article describes the use of ketoprofen lysine salt for treating injured gastric mucosa, the anti-allergic potential of K, the employment of K in treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, human lymphedema and seizures, as well as the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of K, prospects for the use of K in oncology and transplantology. The findings of the review confirm that K, its derivatives and complexes have many newly discovered effects. It is likely that in the future, K will have more indications than it has today.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Walnut Kernel administration to mothers during pregnancy and lactation improve learning of their pups. Changes in number of neurons and gene expression of NMDA receptor and BDNF in hippocampus in 80 days rat pups<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Walnut (<italic>Juglans regia</italic>) from the Juglandaceae family contains high levels of omega 3 fatty acid, vitamin E and melatonin, hence its consumption is beneficial to would be mothers and their offspring. The current study was designed to determine the possible mechanism of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation and the positive effects on learning and memory processes in their offspring. Wistar adult female rats were placed into three groups: control (fed with pellet, 20 g daily during pregnancy and lactation), CASE 1 [fed with Walnut Kernel (WK) 6% of food intake during pregnancy and lactation] and CASE 2 (fed with WK, 9% of food intake during gestation and lactation). In order to evaluate offspring learning and memory, the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was performed for their adult offspring at 80 days of age. Histological and molecular studies were utilized in order to discover the protective mechanism and efficacy of WK consumption. The results revealed that learning was significantly improved in the females of CASE 2, in comparison to controls, while there was no difference in memory among the different groups. In addition, the number of neurons significantly increased in the CASE 2 group compared to the control group. However, the molecular study demonstrated that there was no significant difference among the study groups. The results herein show that feeding mothers with WK may improve the learning competence of their pups and increase the number of neurons in both sexes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of safety and effectiveness of oral morphine on patients attending pain and palliative care: a study on Indian population<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Opioid analgesics remain the corner stone of effective management of moderate to severe pain. Morphine in its oral and parenteral form is one of the most affordable options left to treat severe cancer pain in most Palliative centres in India. The main objective of our study was to assess the safety and effectiveness, as well as the prescribing pattern of immediate release oral morphine on the Indian population attending Pain and Palliative Care in a multi-speciality hospital. Within the sample population, 74.8% of all patients achieved a pain score reduction of less than or equal to 3 within the 72<sup>nd</sup> hour. Although the mean baseline pain score was similar in the cancer (8.23±0.75) and the non-cancer (8.26±0.98) group, the mean pain score at the 24th and 72<sup>nd</sup> hours were significantly different (5.6±1.29 in cancer and 5.09±1.26 in the non-cancer group within the 24<sup>th</sup> hour, followed by 3.66±1.479 and 3.12±0.88 after the 72<sup>nd</sup> hour, respectively). The majority of the patients (58.3%) were prescribed at a frequency of 5 mg every 4<sup>th</sup> hourly, with double dose at bedtime. A similar prescribing trend was seen in both the cancer and non-cancer groups. Moreover, 14 patients underwent dose escalation – with 12 belonging to the cancer group, while 11 patients falling under the cancer group required a switch to different therapy. The major adverse drug reactions (ADR) observed in both study groups were constipation (89.2%), fatigue (37.4%), dry mouth (36%) and nausea/vomiting (23%). The severity of nausea/vomiting and sleepiness was higher in the cancer group whereas itching was more predominant among the non-cancer group.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in virus-related cancers: a mini review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The modulation of the host innate immune system is a well-established carcinogenesis feature of several tumors, including human Epstein-Barr (EBV) and Papillomavirus-(HPV) related cancers. These viruses are able to interrupt the initial events of the immune response, including the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, and inflammation. The aim of the study is to review current data and summarize knowledge on the TLRs and their role in the development of cancer, especially viral-related cancers (EBV and HPV). Research work shows a correlation between the TLRs polymorphism and the development of oropharyngeal and gastric cancer (GC), especially related to viral infections. Many studies suggest the important role for TLRs in inflammatory, autoimmune disease and human cancers. However, further efforts are necessary to draw a precise conclusion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1