rss_2.0Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences Feed of Epstein-Barr virus among chronic kidney disease patients in Najaf, Iraq<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many people across the world have been infected with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), a kind of a human herpes virus. Loss of kidney function happens progressively with time in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with CKD may be more susceptible to viral infections such as EBV due to their compromised immune systems. The purpose of this research is to quantify the frequency with which EBV infection occurs in patients with CKD in the Al-Najaf governorate. Blood samples from 50 people with CKD and 50 healthy controls were collected for the study at the Specialized Centre for Diseases and Kidney Transplant at Al-Sadder Medical City in Al-Najaf city. Nineteen of the CKD patients were men, whereas 31 were women. The age range of individuals who took part in the research varied from 17 to 47. The time frame for this study’s data gathering was from January 2022 to December 2022. Fifty hemodialysis patients gave blood samples for analysis. Researchers measured anti-EBV IgG antibodies using the ELISA method to evaluate the efficacy of humoral immunity. Eleven (22% of all samples) were found to have positive results for Epstein Barr nuclear antigen2 (EBNA2) IgG. This number was 43.1% of all males and 38.4% of all females. However, the serum concentration was found to be statistically significantly higher in the age range of 17-26 years (p0.05) than in any other age group. The RT-qPCR method was also applied to detect EBV infection in the study. Only 18 (36% of the sample) of the 50 patients had positive RT-qPCR results for EBV. This number was 15.7% of all males and 48.4% of all females; however, the positivity rate increased to 71.4% in the (17-26) age group and decreased to 28.5% in those older than 57. Results from the control group were negative for EBNA2 IgG antibodies and EBV DNA. Findings of this research demonstrate that the prevalence of EBV antibodies is considerably higher among patients undergoing hemodialysis than in the group serving as a control, regardless of age. In addition, the results of the study support the use of real-time PCR for detecting EBV among patients with CKD, due to its high sensitivity and specificity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue reductase levels and gene expression in leukemia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Leukemia is a neoplastic disease that affects the proliferation of white blood cells and their progenitors. Folic acid deficiency is well-known as a risk factor for leukemia. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme functions in the folate metabolism route, DNA synthesis and methylation processes. Numerous research has been conducted to investigate the link between MTHFR and several human illnesses, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric disorders and neurological issues. The current study aimed to examine MTHFR levels and gene expression in patients with leukemia. The research was carried out between February and October of 2022. There were 130 subjects in total, 80 with leukemia, 45 with AML (Female = 16, Male = 26) with a mean age of (32.32±2.69), and 35 with ALL (Female = 16, Male = 19) with a mean age of (35.794±0.63). The study included 50 healthy subjects as a healthy control group (Female = 28, Male = 22), with an average age of (41.8±1.57) years. MTHFR and Folic acid were measured using ELISA, while MTHFR mRNA was assessed using qPCR in blood and plasma. Folic acid and MTHFR levels were found to be lower in patients with AML and ALL compared to controls (p &lt;0.01). MTHFR gene expression was found to be downregulated in leukemia patients (p &lt;0.01).</p> <p>The findings of the study give support for future research into the effect of folic acid level and supplementation on leukemia-associated pathological outcomes. Folic acid deficiency may affect the folate mediate-one carbon metabolism pathway, as evidenced by changes in the expression of the mRNA MTHFR gene. As a result, more research into the effects of folate status and folic acid supplementation on leukemia is needed to investigate potential therapeutic strategies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of chlorogenic acid in L. stem ethanolic extracts and its antioxidant activity<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chlorogenic acid (CA) is an important phenolic acid antioxidant. It is found in <italic>Pluchea indica</italic> L. (Asteraceae). However, it has only been extensively studied in the leaves, while studies on the stems have not been reported. This study aimed to identify and measure the levels of CA in the stem extract of <italic>P. indica</italic>. The extract was also determined for its antioxidant activities. In the course of the work, <italic>P. indica</italic> stems powder was extracted using the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) technique employing 50%-ethanol as solvent directly and sequentially. The extract was then measured for total phenolic content (TPC) and CA content using RP-HPLC. Meanwhile, antioxidant activities were determined by the DPPH, ABTS, and reducing power (RP) methods. TPC in the sequential and the direct of <italic>P. indica</italic> stems ethanol extracts were 1.4694±0.0228 and 1.9314±0.0318 mgGAE/g DW, respectively. We found that the CA content of 50%-ethanol extract of <italic>P. indica</italic> stems from sequential extraction (0.2045±0.0128%, w/w) was higher than 50%-ethanol extract from direct extraction (0.1984±0.0113%, w/w). The two extracts demonstrated good antioxidant capacity, while the ethyl acetate and <italic>n</italic>-hexane extracts did not. Identifying of other antioxidants phenolics using other extracting methods still needs further study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue consequences of enzymatic induction and inhibition during the interaction of drugs and the role of CYP3A4, CYP3A45 enzymes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The microsomal enzyme system is responsible for the metabolism of pollutants, toxic agents and drugs. With regards to drug metabolism, the activity of the constituent microsomal enzymes results in the reduction of pharmacological and toxicological activity through conversion of hydrophilic (water soluble) compounds to allow urinary excretion. Microsomal enzymes oxidize drugs and steroid hormones in reactions that require adenine nucleotide diphosphate (NADPH). Reversible inhibition reduces enzyme activity through reversible interaction. A covalent bond between the inhibitor and the enzyme can promote the destruction of essential functional groups of the enzyme. Enzyme induction and inhibition are problematic in drug polytherapy. Often the lack of effect of a drug or the side effects that a certain drug exhibits are problems of interaction of drugs with each other in that individually they inhibit or stimulate enzyme activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue evaluation of anti-anemic effect of Sucrosomial iron in experimental model of iron deficiency anemia in Wistar rats<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Anemia is a grave public health issue that affects 25% of the global population. Conventional iron formulations used in treatment have drawbacks such as poor bioavailability and gastric intolerability. The current study aimed to evaluate the anti-anemic effects of different iron salts in Wistar rats with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). IDA was induced by the validated pre-clinical model by retro-orbital bloodletting (1 ml) for 21 days along with an iron-deficient diet in Wistar rats. The rats (n=48) were assigned into 8 groups: Control group, IDA rats, IDA rats receiving either vehicle or different iron salts (ferrous sulfate, ferrous ascorbate, ferrous fumarate, and Sucrosomial iron) for 21 days at a dose of 30 mg/kg p.o. Hematological parameters and iron store indices were assessed at each visit.</p> <p>Anemia induction markedly reduced hemoglobin levels in all IDA groups on day 21. In contrast, iron supplements showed significant improvement in hematological profile after 21 days of treatment. Interestingly, the Sucrosomial iron-supplemented group (group 8) showed significantly higher improvement in hemoglobin levels and hematocrit than did conventional iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate (group 5), ferrous ascorbate (group 6) and ferrous fumarate (group 7) (p &lt;0.05 for each group, respectively). Sucrosomial iron also showed slightly better improvement in iron store indices (serum iron &amp; ferritin levels, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation [%]) when compared with other iron supplements (non-significant difference).</p> <p>Authors concluded that Sucrosomial iron has a significant potential to improve IDA in Wistar rats compared to conventional iron salts. Sucrosomial iron can be useful for the management of IDA either prophylactically or therapeutically.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and aspirin in the clinical practice – a narrative review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The review aimed to illustrate the structure, role and effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) in combination with acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) in various clinical cases. This verification of earlier single studies may be a guide in the further treatment of civilization diseases. The results of the presented narrative review suggest that aspirin supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces pro-inflammatory biomarkers in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Including adequate amounts of omega 3-PUFAs in therapy, rather than increasing the dose of acetylsalicylic acid, may contribute to beneficial effects in treating thrombosis and preventing myocardial infarction or other cardiovascular diseases, which is particularly important in aspirin-resistant patients. As suggested in the literature, a low daily dose of omega-3 fatty acids was effective in slowing the progression of kidney disease with IgA nephropathy. Aspirin supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has improved clinical and immunological outcomes in the treatment of periodontitis or the therapy of colorectal cancer tumor lesions. The synergistic effect of both compounds is proposed as a new therapeutic option in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Further research into the synergistic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with acetylsalicylic acid may provide a breakthrough in drug dose reduction, ultimately enabling more effective and safer pharmacotherapy for the patient. Therefore, studies on polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs <italic>in vivo</italic> are needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue comparison of the potential of Clinical Trials Centers within both public and commercial trial facilities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Clinical trials are an integral part of the process of developing new drugs, diagnostic methods and medical devices. Clinical trials offer patients the chance to access alternative treatment methods, thereby improving their quality of life, and even achieving recovery. Additionally, clinical trials provide the opportunity for regular contact with a specialist doctor and easier access to diagnostics, ensuring a faster therapeutic path for the patient. One of the key aspects of conducting clinical trials is choosing the right investigator and research center so as to meet specific criteria and guarantee high quality of the conducted studies. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the differences between conducting clinical trials in public and commercial centers. A diagnostic survey was used in the study and the research tool chosen was a proprietary questionnaire belonging to the research technique as survey questionnaire. Questionnaires were constructed for the appropriate stakeholders/respondents, namely: doctors and employees of pharmaceutical companies and CROs. The analysis showed that employees of pharmaceutical companies, given the choice, prefer to cooperate with commercial centers. They choose public centers only when they need a center for phase one trials or those requiring hospitalization. The research obtained shows that public centers should improve administrative processes in order to optimize tasks such as contracting or obtaining a study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of dietary and herbal supplements on global health of adult volunteers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The safety and efficacy of multivitamin-multimineral-multiherbal (MVMH) supplementation is in regular debate but should be studied in detail before recommendation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether MVMH supplementation affects the physical and mental performance of individuals taking these, as well as to ascertain its safety, doing so through blood, kidney and liver profiles.</p> <p>In this Cross over cohort study, we enrolled 30 healthy volunteers and established their anthropometric, stress, anxiety and depression levels before and after 30 days of the study. Their kidney function test, liver function test and blood profile results were also analysed to determine overall health effects of the supplement and assess its safety. Parametric data was examined via Paired T test, followed by One Way ANOVA, Non-parametric data is presented as percentage and analysed by applying Paired Sample Wilcoxon Signal Rank Test followed by Friedman ANOVA test.</p> <p>All the volunteers were in good health, had no change in medical state. No serious adverse event was reported during the study and after the completion of study. Treatment with MVMH tablets had shown very significant (p &lt;0.01) increase in the level of globulin, uric acid (p &lt;0.05), hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels (p &lt;0.05), BMI and body weight (p &lt;0.05). There was significant (p &lt;0.05) improvement in symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress.</p> <p>The daily intake of MVMH supplements in the form of a tablet once per day improved global health of individuals, along with improvement in mental performance without any significant adverse impact on the body. Based on the results, we recommend that MVMH tablets may be taken once per day for 30 days to improve the physical and mental health of individuals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in pharmaceutical prescription authorizations and their impact on the number of prescriptions issued by pharmacists in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Pharmaceutical Law Act of September 6, 2001 (PLA) initially granted pharmacists the authority to issue pharmaceutical prescriptions upon its enactment. However, the legislation regulating this matter changed significantly in 2015. Article 96, section 4 of the PLA defined that, in the front of a direct health threat to a patient, a pharmacist could dispense a medication classified under the availability categories Rp or Rpz. In April 2020, the imprecise term “sudden” in relation to health threats was clarified and removed. Concurrently, all active pharmacists were granted the authority to issue prescriptions, commonly known as <italic>pro auctore</italic> and <italic>pro familiae</italic>. The aim of the study was to illustrate the influence of legislative processes on the number of prescriptions issued by practicing pharmacists. To conduct the study, we employed a legal and comparative analysis of relevant legal provisions, followed by a statistical analysis of data obtained from the E-Health Center about the number of prescriptions issued. The results indicated that since the extension of pharmacists’ rights (after April 2020), the average number of pharmaceutical prescriptions issued per month was 151,082. Between May 2020, when pharmacists were granted the authority to issue <italic>pro auctore</italic> and <italic>pro familiae</italic> prescriptions, and October 2023, 1,460,385 such prescriptions were dispensed. As a result, a significant relationship between the form of the legislative norms empowering pharmacists to independently prescribe Rx status medicines and the effectiveness of these amendments as measured by the number of prescriptions issued was demonstrated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue miRNAs in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) with HPV and EBV coinfection<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Different levels of miR-625-5p, miR-31-5p and miR-5100 have been reported in many cancers. Viral infections have been linked to miRNA levels in tumors, including those in the head and neck, but a large proportion of studies only include infections with a single virus. The aim of the present study is to assess the level of miR-625-5p, 31-5p and 5100 in oropharyngeal cancer with single HPV and EBV infections and HPV/EBV co-infection. The study examined 128 oropharyngeal cancer patients infected with EBV and HPV alone or co-infected with both viruses. For the determination of miRNAs, the enzyme immunoassays was used. Both miR-625-5p and miR-31-5p were higher in the HPV/EBV co-infection than in the single infection HPV or EBV. However, in the case of miR-5100, the values in co-infection were lower than in a single EBV infection. The analysis of miRNAs in relation to the histological grade and tumor classification, nodes (TN) showed that in poorly differentiated tumors the level of the studied miRNAs was higher compared to well-differentiated lesions, and in cases with larger tumor sizes and lymph node involvement, the miRNA values were both higher in single infections and co-infections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue activity and chemical analyses of seven L. species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study was to present a comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extracts from seven <italic>Juniperus</italic> L. species, together with a tentative analysis of their total flavonoid and <italic>o-</italic>dihydroxyphenolic acids content. The chemical analyses were performed by colorimetric methods and the antimicrobial activity was assessed via broth microdilution. The studied extracts showed total content of <italic>o-</italic>dihydroxyphenols in the range of 26 to 34 µg of caffeic acid equivalent/mg DE and total flavonoid content of 13 to 24 µg of quercetin equivalent/mg DE. The sensitivity of Gram-positive bacteria to the studied extracts differed significantly with the following order of activity: <italic>J. sabina</italic> var. <italic>balkanensis &gt; J. communis ‘</italic>Laxa’ <italic>&gt; J. formosana</italic> &gt; <italic>J. pinchotii &gt; J. ashei &gt; J. excelsa</italic> ≈ <italic>J. sibirica</italic>. Weak activity was observed for all extracts against Gram-negative bacteria and <italic>Candida</italic> strains. The analysis of the MBC/MIC ratio showed that the extracts exhibited bactericidal effect against Gram-negative bacteria (MBC/MIC≤4), while bactericidal or bacteriostatic action (MBC/MIC&gt;4) was determined towards Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, these extracts showed fungicidal (MFC/MIC≤4) or fungistatic effect (MFC/MIC&gt;4). Best antibacterial activity was registered for the <italic>J. sabina</italic> var. <italic>balkanensis</italic> leaf extract. The multivariate data analyses were carried out by SIMCA 16 (v16.0.2) software. The hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, based on phytochemical and antimicrobial data, classified the studied juniper species into four groups: 1. <italic>J. ashei</italic>; 2. <italic>J. excelsa</italic>, <italic>J. sibirica</italic>; 3. <italic>J. sabina</italic> var. <italic>balkanensis</italic>, <italic>J. communis</italic> Laxa, <italic>J. formosana</italic>; 4. <italic>J. pinchotii.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue perspectives on the use of glucagon-like peptide 1 in diseases of the central nervous system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Glucagon-like peptide 1 is a neuromodulatory peptide that regulates the carbohydrate metabolism. It can cross the blood-brain barrier, and, indeed, while mostly produced in the distal small intestine and colon, it is also synthesized in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the brain stem. The wide distribution of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors in the different areas of the brain is responsible for the pleiotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the central nervous system. Notably, the peptide plays important roles in regulating food intake, in memory functioning, as well as in neuroprotective processes and emotions. This makes it an important tool in the treatment of many central nervous system related abnormalities, such as neurodegenerative diseases, addictions and neuropsychiatric disorders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue potential and chemical composition of new generation extruded snack pellets supplemented with fresh broccoli addition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The therapeutic potential of broccoli has been highlighted by its function in the prevention of cancer, diabetes and other diseases. As a result, there is a great deal of interest in creating innovative functional foods supplemented with broccoli. In the extrusion-cooking process, raw materials based on potato mixes with the addition of fresh broccoli (<italic>Brassica oleracea</italic> L. var <italic>italica</italic>, <italic>Brassicaceae</italic>) were used to create new generation extruded snack pellets. A prototype single screw extruder-cooker with L/D=20 was utilized, and various processing conditions (screw speed 60 and 100 rpm, as well as either 32 and 36% levels of initial moisture content) were applied. Mixtures of 10% and 30% fresh broccoli contents were investigated. The final snack pellets obtained under such processing conditions were determined for their antioxidant potential, polyphenols, proximate composition and fatty acids profile. We found that in the presence of fresh broccoli in blends, higher screw speed and higher moisture content allowed obtaining (in most samples) a higher polyphenal content in the resulting pellets. Over all, the antioxidant potential of snack pellets increased with the addition of fresh broccoli. Pellets with 30% addition of the broccoli processed at screw speed 100 rpm at moisture content of 32% displayed the highest total polyphenols content and highest antioxidant activity. Moreover, such samples demonstrated notable increase in the content of total protein, crude ash, as well as MUFA and PUFA in the total amount of fatty acids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of parenteral injection skills of medical undergraduates on mannequins in a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India – A cross-sectional study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Appropriate knowledge and expertise of parenteral injection is vital in the medical field. Hence we impart training on mannequins before the students practice on patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the skill exhibited by the students in parenteral injection skills, namely intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal and subcutaneous injections. The students were assessed for step based on the pre-validated check list created for Objective Structured Practical Examination. In this study, 16 % of the students failed to check the prescription order before starting the procedure. The name and the expiry date of the drug was not checked by 22 % of the students. Hundred percent of the students sterilized their hands. Loading of drug was done properly by 80 % of the students and 88 % of the students checked for air bubbles in the syringe and removed them properly. The site for injection was not sterilized by 26 percent of the students. Tourniquet was not applied by 19 percent of the students and 28 % of the students did not hold the bevel up during insertion for intravenous route. The steps where frequent faltering happened needs to be emphasized for them to perform better in a more efficient manner during the summative assessment as well as for future practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue predictive biomarker for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: serum neuron-specific enolase<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The early stages of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are symptomless. A reliable dependable and sensitive biomarker is needed for the purpose of early identification of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) as a biomarker for early identification of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Patient samples were collected from the National Diabetes Center, Mustansiriyah University; a case control study was done from April 2022 to November 2022, in Baghdad, Iraq. One hundred sixty individuals between 30 to 60 years-old were included. Participants were divided into three groups: group one included 40 type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy, group two consisted of 40 type 2 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy and group three included 80 apparently in good health as the control. Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring System (TCSS) was used for clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by the CLOVER A1c system. In addition, serum NSE levels were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique.</p> <p>Age, sex, and other standard variables were used as a basis for comparisons between groups. Statistically, diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy demonstrated higher level of NSE (28.42±6.93 ng/ml) than did either diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy (21.07±2.0 ng/ml) or controls (12.54±2.34 ng/ml) with a high degree of significance (p &lt;0.001). In the context of Discrimination between DPN patients and diabetic patients without neuropathy, the area under curve for neuron-specific enolase was 0.812, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.716-0.909, p &lt;0.001. Cut-off value of serum neuron-specific enolase was 22.53 ng/ml, sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 77%, respectively. In the context of discrimination between DPN and controls, the area under curve for neuron-specific enolase was 1.00, 95% confidence interval was 1.0-1.0, p &lt;0.001. At a cut-off value of serum neuron-specific enolase = 18.3 ng/ml, both the sensitivity and specificity were 100%. Neuron-specific enolase could potentially be used as a biomarker to detect early diabetic peripheral neuropathy and prevent it from developing to an advanced state.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue activity against strains isolated from urine specimens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Urinary tract infections are caused mostly by uropathogenic <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> strains. The aim of this paper was to assess the activity of fosfomycin <italic>in vitro</italic> against 74 <italic>E. coli</italic> strains isolated from urine samples of outpatients with acute cystitis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the recommended method of serial drug dilution in Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose-6-phosphate (25 mg/L). The estimated MIC values were in the range of 1-32 mg/L. The prevalence of fosfomycin-sensitive strains was 45.9%, while that of fosfomycin-resistant strains – 54.1%. The time-kill assay was performed for a chosen clinical strain (MIC = 1 mg/L) in Mueller-Hinton broth also supplemented with glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of various concentrations of fosfomycin (0.5-64 mg/L). The bacterial population density was expressed as log CFU (colony forming units)/mL. The decrease of the bacterial population viability after 6h incubation was found with ∆log CFU/mL = 1.05-5.02, depending on fosfomycin concentration. However, bactericidal effect of this antibiotic (∆log CFU/mL &gt;3) was observed only at the highest concentrations (32-64 mg/L). Moreover, after prolonged incubation (24 h), the re-growth of bacterial population revealed as the increase of its viability (∆log CFU/mL = 1.03-3.03) was observed at fosfomycin concentration in the range 0.5-32 mg/L, but not at 64 mg/L. This phenomenon may be due the presence of subpopulations of spontaneous mutants sensitive only to higher concentrations of this antibiotic comparing to MIC. The presented data confirm a need to monitor the sensitivity of uropathogenic <italic>E. coli</italic> strains to fosfomycin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the extraction dynamic of the biologically active substances of the raspberry ( L.) shoots<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study has the intent of exploring the dynamics of biologically active substance (BAS) extractions from red raspberry (<italic>R. idaeus</italic>) shoots in order to determine the appropriate extraction frequency. A secondary objective is to assess the relationship between extract antioxidant activity and BAS content.</p> <p>The focus of the study revolved around <italic>R. idaeus</italic> shoots, and the spectrophotometric method of analysis was applied to determine the amount of the catechins, polyphenols, hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives and flavonoids, while the gravimetric method was used to determine the dry residue of the extracts and the potentiometric method applied for evaluating antioxidant activity.</p> <p>The polyphenols amount was 1.74±0.03, 0.58±0.01 and 0.016±0.005%, catechins – 1.50±0.02, 0.50±0.01 and 0.11±0.01%, flavonoids – 0.08±0.005, 0.046±0.005 and 0.016±0.002%, hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives – 0.24±0.005, 0.078±0.005 and 0.017±0.002%, organic acids – 0.15±0.005, 0.05±0.005 and 0.01±0.002, dry residue – 2.14±0.005, 0.72±0.01 and 0.16±0.005%, antioxidant activity – 94.80±1.90, 47.40±0.95 and 7.90±0.16 mM-eqv./m for the 1<sup>st</sup>, 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3rd extraction, respectively. The optimal extraction frequency of raspberry shoots with distilled water was two times. The highest value of Peasorn‘s correlation coefficient was between the antioxidant activity and catechins (r = 0.9813) and the lowest in the case of organic acids (r=0.9112).</p> <p>The appropriate extraction frequency of <italic>R. idaeus</italic> shoots with distilled water was two times. The antioxidant method of determination extraction frequency was not inferior to the traditional method. The catechins dominated in the extracts from <italic>R. idaeus</italic> shoots. A significant positive correlation was content of catechins and antioxidant activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of Indonesian propolis from in carbon tetrachloride (CCl) induced liver injury in mice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Propolis has been reported to have a broad spectrum of biological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of propolis on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>). Twenty-five adult mice were randomly divided into five groups of five. The normal group received distilled water; positive control group was given CCl<sub>4</sub> at 2.8 mL/kg BW orally, other groups were given the same dose of CCl<sub>4</sub>, followed by oral propolis at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg BW, respectively, for 14 days. On the 15<sup>th</sup> day, the mice were sacrificed for the measurements of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin, as well as examination of liver histology. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and, subsequently, by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results demonstrated that propolis had a hepatoprotective effect as shown by significant improvement of the biochemical parameters (p &lt;0.05), which was confirmed by the liver histological analytical results. The most potent hepatoprotective effect was found after the dose of 100 mg/kg BW.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue alleviates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats by inhibiting metalloenzymes expression<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diabetes patients are more prone to acute kidney injury (AKI). Endopeptidases known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cause extracellular matrix destruction and are responsible for ischemic organ damage. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects almost one third of all diabetic patients. MMP-2 and MMP-9 lead to the breakdown of the basement membrane of the glomeruli and thereby the advancement of ischemic injury in diabetes. In addition, histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC-2) is the primary regulator of important signalling processes in the diabetic kidney. A possible treatment approach for diabetic kidney preservation is the flavonoid luteolin (LT), which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our aim was to investigate the renoprotective potential of LT in diabetes by modulating MMP-2, MMP-9 and HDAC-2 activity. The expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and HDAC-2 were statistically higher in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat renal homogenate after renal ischemic reperfusion injury. These changes were reversed with 2 weeks of pre-treatment with LT (50 mg/kg po). In diabetic rats, pre-treatment with LT significantly reduced oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis compared to control animals. Preventive LT prior to renal ischemia showed improvement in body weight, kidney weight/body weight ratio, reversal of renal injury and biochemical changes with lower activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), hydroxyproline (HP), pathological damage and fibrosis in renal tissue. Our data imply that LT prevents DN in rats by inhibiting MMP-2, MMP-9 and HDAC-2 expression, as well as by lowering the indices of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory factors and fibrosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue response after breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains an important public health problem in both developing and developed countries. In addition, the recent COVID-19 pandemic has revealed furthel risks for diabetes patients in terms of symptoms and disease progression. Higher mortality and morbidity are related to the complexity of the pathology of this chronic underlying disease, which negatively affects the immune response to the SARSCoV-2 virus. The humoral response plays an important role in the eradication of the virus; thus, it was analyzed in vaccinated diabetics who underwent COVID-19, as well as in the control group. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and level of IgG antibodies raised against the nucleocapsid protein (NCP), S1 subunit receptor binding domain (RBD) and subunit Spike 2 (S2) subunit of the virus’s S protein using the Microblot Array test. The results demonstrated significantly lower prevalence and titers of anti-SARS antibodies in diabetic patients compared to the control group. In addition, antibody titers were negatively related to the duration of this chronic disease, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities and HbA1c concentration. Further research is needed to develop the best strategy for specific prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in diabetic patients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue