rss_2.0Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering Feed survey for Communication security of the embedded system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The embedded operating system is a task-oriented computing platform that can be tailored, low-cost, and has high requirements for reliability and real-time performance. It plays an extremely important role in engineering applications. With the gradual application of embedded systems in various fields, the shortcomings of its insufficient ability to respond to security threats have gradually emerged, and many hackers have turned their attack targets into embedded systems. The important reason for these attacks is that embedded systems lack sufficient multi-layer protection mechanisms. This article focuses on the threats embedded systems face in terms of communication security. Then analyze the existing communication security-related technologies from the perspectives of the network layer, the transport layer, and the application layer. Finally, it summarizes the research direction of embedded system security countermeasures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue control using TCP IP communication under LabVIEW USB6001 environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article introduces a basic LED control using the USB6001 hardware, which is a LabVIEW product. It may be thought of as an extension device for real-time testing of simulation results. LabVIEW2014 is the software used. TCP is the communication technique, which has already been incorporated in LabVIEW via one of the communication modules. It might also be done on the same platform. There are two objects in this article, a server and a client, that may transport data or messages between these two applications. The Transmission Control Protocol governs the transmission process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Parameters Monitoring System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The project presents the development of a system for monitoring environmental parameters. At the base of this system is the ESP-32S board that collects, processes and transmits data from the three sensors to the two web interfaces. The role of these web interfaces is to display the data collected from the sensors. The local web interface consists of two windows, the first window contains the table of sensors that displays the data measured by the sensors at that time. In the second window you can see the data measured by the sensors through graphs. They store the sensor data, giving the user the ability to view previously measured data. The local web interface provides sensor data only in the Wi-Fi network coverage area, and its data is deleted when the server is closed. The global web interface displays data using graphs. At the base of this web interface is the ThingSpeak platform that allows the system to transmit data anywhere in the world, store data in the Cloud space and the possibility of using special analysis functions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Survey on Automatic Design Methods for Swarm Robotics Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Swarm robots are a branch of robotics that draws inspiration from biological swarms to mimic their collective behavior. Automatic design methods are part of swarm engineering, depend on artificial intelligence algorithms to produce the collective behavior of robots. In general, they follow two-approach evolutionary algorithms like practical swarm optimization and reinforcement learning. This paper studies these approaches, illustrating the effect of modifications and enhancements of algorithms for both directions, showing important parameters considered for the best performance of the swarm, and explaining the methods and advantages of using deep learning to reinforcement learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue a Low-Code CRUD framework<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays programmers write source code for inserting, editing and deleting records of a relational table. The majority of commercial relational databases include a specific management tool that offers such possibilities and most database programmers take this ability as granted. When it comes to real life applications, programmers use Object Oriented (OO) paradigm to build user friendly windows/screens/forms for database operations. The current work shows a different approach using a Low-code CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) framework. Views and guidelines of how to design a Low-code CRUD framework will be detailed. “Low-code” motivation is due to the fact that the new framework will provide the ability to use less code in order to build fast and efficient complex applications. It will be up to the reader to envision a specific framework.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Database for TIAGo Service Robot<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper we present an updated version of the audio database acquired by the TIAGo service robot and by the simulated TIAGo service robot. To the initial database which consists in 1380 audio signals we have added 1920 more acoustic signals. The audio database consists now in 3300 isolated audio events corresponding to 110 classes. All the recorded sound events correspond to the indoor environment, and they are spread into five different scenarios: kitchen, room, appliances, voice and non-verbal. The audio database is intended to be used in order to identify indoor events based on audio signature, especially when elderly or chronically ill people live alone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue System Aided by Voice Fingerprint<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of this paper is to create a security system to identify a specific person who wants to access private information or enter a building using their voice. To perform this system, we identified a database containing the audio files of the users who will be able to authenticate with this system. Several steps were sequentially performed in order to extract the characteristics of the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients from the audio files. Based on the k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm with an Euclidean distance and 4 neighbors, a training model was created. Through experimental results we prove in two ways, using confusion matrix and scatter plot, that the overall voice fingerprint recognition is 100%, for this particular configuration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Energy Efficiency Using Photovoltaic Panels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper analyses the way of design of photovoltaic systems. The objective of this paper is to study the production capacity of electrical energy and the way it is influenced by real time conditions. In order to realize some energetic models that could be implemented on a large scale and used as a model of good practice we used photovoltaic systems of 3 dimensions: 60 PV panels, 100 PV panels and 160 PV panels respectively. The present study considered the climate conditions of the city of Cluj-Napoca for 12 months. It considered the consumption profile (hourly consumption) and the period of the year (summer, winter, etc.) for 3 typical buildings. We used Matlab/Simulink software for simulations. The result is an estimation of the production of electrical energy for renewable sources and the reduction of GreenHouse Gases (GHG). The aim is to reduce both GHG and the energy consumption from conventional sources.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue accelerated image processing on FPGA based PYNQ-Z2 board<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper we present the partial results of a research in progress made in order to develop a prototype of a self-driving car’s controller and processing unit. The framework that we used consisted of a camera for input of visual imagery information (Logitech 720p), a laser range finder for depth and object sensing (Parallax; PulsedLight LIDAR-Lite v2), and the main processing board, an FPGA based accelerator board PYNQ Z2.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Implementation of the Front-End of an N-bit/V ADC based on FPGA and FPAA<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Reconfigurability has made it possible, among other benefits, to replace traditional discrete components with chips, whose internal components can be programmed in this case FPAAs (Field Programmable Analog Arrays). This paper presents a design and implementation of FPAA of the analog front end dedicated to a new ADC architecture called “N-bit/V”. After validation of the algorithm in simulation, the experimentation results show that the obtained reconfigurable circuit can replace the traditional discrete components-based circuits.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue fault tolerance in service-level agreement constrained context-aware data networks<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Attribute study and analysis of fault tolerant data networks. This work is aimed at introducing SLA constrain into fault tolerance and thus increasing overall network availability. Proposed model will evaluate given constraints and select best path that fits requirements. Fault tolerance is increased by adding multiple constraints and thus reducing available paths to best fitting ones.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and experimental aspects of the controlled movement of solenoid actuators by means of the voltage static converter with logic gates<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of the scientific research in this paper is to control the movement of electromechanical actuators, through a new voltage convertor. The optimization of the system consists in finding new solutions to control the movement of electromechanical actuators in the gas valve, used in thermal power plants, which can be operated by static converters - with logic gates.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Survey about Intelligent Solutions for Autonomous Vehicles based on FPGA<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Safe driving and reducing the number of accidents victims have been the main motivations for researchers and automotive companies for decades. Today, humanity is very close to make the old dream of fully autonomous vehicles a reality, thanks to the rapid spread of AI (artificial intelligence) and the evolution of semiconductor technologies. But the real problem here is the increasing demand for computational power and that of course will increase power requirements, hence it will not be suitable for autonomous driving applications. GPU is not suitable for solving this problem due to its power consumption as well as heat generation. On the other hand, CPU also does not satisfy the performance requirements. For the above condition, FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) has drawn attention as a hardware accelerator since it features high performance with low power consumption. This paper reviews the common solutions involving artificial intelligence implemented on FPGA for autonomous vehicle applications. Research, development, and current trends related to the topic are emphasized.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Pathological Elements in Analog Circuit Analysis and Simulation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper is focused on some kind of mystery circuit nullator, nullor, current mirror, and voltage mirror, all of them known as pathological elements. These pathological elements can be used to perform circuit modelling, symbolic circuit analysis, circuit synthesis, circuit design and to develop applications that involve modern active devices. It is described a new modeling of nullor-based active devices from the circuit abstraction level. In this paper it is presented the way all types of equations which describe the circuit containing nullors can be directly formulated from the diagrams of these circuits if we took into account that a nullator is an over-determined two-port circuit element (zero voltage, zero current) and the norator is an undetermined two-port circuit element (any voltage and any current). To simulate the nullors with ideal voltage controlled voltage sources, ec = Ac_c uc, with the control gate an ideal independent current source, jC = 0.0 A and with the amplification (transfer) factor Ac_C very big (theoretically ∞), the analog circuits with nullors can be analyzed by using any of the existing simulation software. By this way, it was possible the elaboration of efficient algorithms for an automatic formulation of Kirchhoff’s equations, of loop equations, of modified nodal equations and of state equations for circuits with pathological elements. These procedures can be easily implemented in dedicated programs for the simulations of the complex analog circuits with pathological elements. The example presented in this paper validates the presented models for nullors.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review of Processing Methods and Classification Algorithm for EEG Signal<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The analysis technique of EEG signals is developing promptly with the evolution of Brain Computer- Interfaces science. The processing and classification algorithm of EEG signals includes three states: pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. The article discusses both conventional and recent processing techniques of EEG signals at the phases of preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. Finally, analyze popular research directions in the future.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Libraries {dendextend} and {magrittr} and Clustering Package scipy.cluster of Python For Modelling Diagrams of Dendrogram Trees<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper presents a comparison of the two languages Python and R related to the classification tools and demonstrates the differences in their syntax and graphical output. It indicates the functionality of R and Python packages {dendextend} and scipy.cluster as effective tools for the dendrogram modelling by the algorithms of sorting and ranking datasets. R and Python programming languages have been tested on a sample dataset including marine geological measurements. The work aims to detect how bathymetric data change along the 25 bathymetric profiles digitized across the Mariana Trench. The methodology includes performed hierarchical cluster analysis with dendrograms and plotted clustermap with marginal dendrograms. The statistical libraries include Matplotlib, SciPy, NumPy, Pandas by Python and {dendextend}, {pvclust}, {magrittr} by R. The dendrograms were compared by the model-simulated clusters of the bathymetric ranges. The results show three distinct groups of the profiles sorted by the elevation ranges with maximal depths detected in a group of profiles 19-21. The dendrogram visualization in a cluster analysis demonstrates the effective representation of the data sorting, grouping and classifying by the machine learning algorithms. The programming codes presented in this study enable to sort a dataset in a similar research aimed to group data based on the similarity of attributes. Effective visualization by dendrograms is a useful modelling tool for the geospatial management where data ranking is required. Plotting dendrograms by R, comparing to Python, presented functional and sophisticated algorithms, refined design control and fine graphical data output. The interdisciplinary nature of this work consists in application of the coding algorithms for spatial data analysis.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Experimental Aspects of Signal Analysis Applied to Solenoid-Type Actuators Used in Gas Valves<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of scientific research in this paper is to control the movement of solenoid actuators, by analyzing the applied signal. The actuator in a system is the execution element. The optimization of the system consists in finding new solutions for motion control for solenoid actuators, by designing and experimental realization of a static converter, also called alternating voltage inverter (VTA), which would become proposals for patents, or the realization of new experimental research stands. By analyzing the signal in this paper, it will be possible to design, experiment and test different types of VTA (with Arduino development boards, Raspberry Pi single board computers, logic gates) that will improve the reliability, future operation of thermal power plants.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study and Analysis of Microstrip Patch Antenna with Multiple Slit Positions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Parametric study and analysis of microstrip patch antenna with multiple slit positions is presented in this research contribution. This work is aimed to design a microstrip patch antenna, which can able resonate dual-band frequencies (i.e. 3.5 GHz and 5.3 GHz) with a trade-off between the geometrical parameters. The proposed antenna designed using the multiple slits on the patch, RT Duroid 5880 as substrate material, and with a defected ground structure. Owing to the geometrical miniaturization this antenna will be capable to work at sophisticated communication systems where size of the communication system is a desired parameter.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Modeling of the Optimized Motion Control of Electromechanical Actuators Used in Thermal Power Plants<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of scientific research in this paper is to improve the operation of thermal power plants. The experimental stand for the study was made for testing, verifying and adjusting the dynamic parameters of the electromechanical actuators that are integrated in the gas valve component. In order to improve the performance of the thermal power plants by increasing the energetic, mechanical, electrical efficiency, this will be achieved through an alternating-alternative static converter, experimentally realizing the single-phase alternating voltage variable module. System optimization is to find new solutions for controlling the linear motion of electromechanical actuators, including the choice of working principles that would become patent proposals, or new research stands.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue formulas and measurement technique for the built-in potential of practical semiconductor junctions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Based on Gauss’ law for the electric field, new formulas were deduced, that enable for the first time the writing of an analytical formula of the built-in potential of implanted and diffused semiconductor junctions. Consequently, in this work is devised a measurement technique for the built-in potential of such junctions. Such measurement is useful because new semiconductor materials besides silicon are more and more used today, like silicon-carbide (SiC) and gallium-nitride (GaN), which have larger bandgap and junction built-in potential. Finding the built-in potential helps adjusting the computer assisted design (CAD) tools and validates the simulation of such wide-bandgap devices.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue