rss_2.0CONTEMPORARY MILITARY CHALLENGES FeedSciendo RSS Feed for CONTEMPORARY MILITARY CHALLENGES MILITARY CHALLENGES Feed 20 Years in the Alliance’s Dilemma: Russia and the Slavic Dimension of NATO Enlargement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The potential weaponization of Slavdom is a poorly researched topic in the literature on hybrid warfare, despite the Slavic dimension of NATO after several rounds of enlargement. Part of the reason is the traditionally reserved attitude of Russian authorities to the Slavic idea, which runs counter to the idealized supranational character of Russia and can incite domestic ethnic populism. Even though Moscow has not used this instrument so far, the historical record shows that it could do so at a later stage if its very existence is at stake. The instrumentalization of Slavic identity therefore requires attention, not only as an impending threat, but also as a potential catalyst for change on the Russian side.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Balancing for Future Conventional Arms Control Agreements in Europe<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A qualitative assessment of the conventional military balance between NATO and Russia may form a basis of any potential conventional arms control (CAC) agreement in Europe. Article discusses methods to assess force capability and military balances, and then suggests updates to the methods based on insights from recent conflicts, military capability trends and developments. The article offers a weighted static force analysis model to assess military balances, that can be used for CAC agreements, called the Quantitative Approach to Conventional Arms Control (QuACAC). This approach may help narrow areas of disagreement between negotiating parties, and provide a basis for CAC agreement adaptation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue 20 Let V Zavezništvu, Humiliation And Saving Face: National Identity and Great Power Politics<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper argues that a prestige-humiliation dynamic is a systems-level force that shapes state behavior. Connecting psychological factors to structural realism, we observe the following: the more powerful a state becomes, the more it could seek to overturn past humiliation through aggressive prestige-seeking acts. This is done to reassert its power and status to erase past humiliation and achieve prestige even at the expense of others. Three historical examples will be discussed: Nazi Germany’s erasure of the Treaty of Versailles, China’s Century of Humiliation, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s expansion into Eastern Europe against Russia. The paper will then define face-saving behavior, allowing a competitor to preserve prestige and avoid humiliation as a way to deescalate tension.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue – The Future of the Atlantic Alliance in Tumultuous Times<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article takes an in-depth look at the Atlantic Alliance as it is approaching its 75<sup>th </sup>anniversary. It analyses the prevalent strategic environment in which NATO operates, with its multiple risks and rivalries; and addresses the main elements on its agenda as it manages the numerous challenges to Euro-Atlantic security and defence of today and tomorrow. To this end, it offers insights into NATO’s main efforts in such areas as deterrence and defence, Ukraine, partnership, enlargement, transatlantic relations, resilience, upholding and protecting the international rules-based order, emerging and disruptive technologies, and climate change and security. .</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Years of the Republic of Slovenia in NATO: Some Impressions about a Tiny Part and the Whole<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Smart states, through alliances, synergistically enhance the capacity, readiness, responsiveness, resilience, sustainability and interoperability of their instruments of national power. NATO is constantly continually responding in a multidimensional way to changing security threats and operational circumstances, including by updating and upgrading concepts, plans and measures. The Alliance is also an opportunity for self-reflection; not to judge in retrospect, but to prevent mistakes in the future. We need to discuss honestly why we might be elsewhere, as had been desired and planned, but at the same time, despite our small size, we could be more courageous in pursuing different and original solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Problem of Lexical Gaps in Teaching Military English<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since anisomorphism, the absence of an exact correspondence between words in two different languages, often impedes the process of second language (L2) acquisition, L2 teachers need to recognize effective methods for dealing with it. In an experiment involving a total of 109 students, we tested several methods of teaching English language military vocabulary particulars which lack direct Polish language equivalents. The results suggest that L1 translation is less effective in dealing with lexical gaps than monolingual explanations, presentation of the terminology in context, and illustrating its meaning with examples. However, the results also indicate that the use of L1 for contrastive analysis may help students cope with anisomorphism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Power in Military Education: Awareness and Understanding of Learning Analytics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid development, use and availability of technology is creating new opportunities in all areas of human life. The amount of data generated is enormous, followed by advances in the collection, processing and analysis of big data for a variety of purposes, such as various industries, science, healthcare and even education. Data science in education aims to better understand and improve learning processes through data–driven insights. Learning analytics studies how to use data mining, machine learning, natural language processing, visualisation and human– computer interaction approaches to help learners, educators and institutional leaders improve learning processes and teaching practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Armed Conflict: A Case Study of Lord’s Resistance Army<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the longest-running terrorist groups on the African continent is the Lord’s Resistance Army, originating from Uganda. Using the Christianity combined with local animism and Islam as the basis of their ideology and focusing at first on the protection of the Acholi people, this group evolved from fighting their enemies to oppressing their own people. Initially an internal conflict, the activities of the Lord’s Resistance Army spread throughout the region through a proxy war between neighbouring countries, until eventually international intervention was called for. Based on the Conflict Assessment Framework, combined with other methods, this armed conflict is analysed, showing the progress of the conflict through the time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue War: Its Philosophy and Ethics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since the Second World War, proxy war has become one of the most widespread forms of war. One recent example, the war of Ukraine and its supporters against Russia, is being fought close to Europe. Although the theoretical features of proxy war in general have been researched in recent decades, the character of proxy war has changed since that time, which makes it necessary to study these features again. This article examines the concept of proxy war, and the ethical and particularly the justice-related implications of that concept, with the help of military philosophical and military ethical enquiry, and finds that the new style proxy relationship contains the satisfaction of the interests of the supporter and the supported at the same time, which, however, can hamper the consolidation of the conflict and reaching a lasting peace.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Paradigme Security Paradigms Dynamics of an (Armed) Conflict: The Albanian Minority in the Republic of North Macedonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Macedonia was considered an oasis of peace in the Balkans during the 1990s, as it was the only country of the former Yugoslavia where there was no armed conflict. This changed in 2001 with a so-called “war”, which ended quite quickly, partly thanks to international intervention. Although armed conflicts in the region have not recurred in a prolonged form, almost every year new short-lived disturbances, protests, and incidents arise. This article analyses the conflict’s dynamics from the establishment of independent Macedonia to the present day as North Macedonia continues to develop and implement positive reforms for minority integration. It emphasizes the root causes of the dispute, which remain unresolved, as the Albanian minority is growing in numbers, while Macedonians, whose population is falling, observe the changes with uncertainty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Autonomy of Military Barracks Through Renewable Energy Solutions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a concept of establishing a network of energy self-sufficient nodes in Slovenia and the EU, within the Defence RESilience Hub Network in Europe project initiated by the Ministry of Defence of Slovenia (MORS). The goal is to reduce the energy dependence of military facilities on external suppliers. A mathematical model of a military site’s micro-grid incorporates multiple energy vectors and their conversion and storage, with a focus on hydrogen technologies. A case study of a military site in Belgium shows that an energy system with solar and wind power can provide sufficient hydrogen for transportation needs and operate the site autonomously for up to 30 days. Additionally, the carbon footprint of the military base as an energy system was calculated, indicating potential reductions in environmental impacts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the War in Ukraine on the Information Security of the European Union’s Banking Industry – A Case Study of Hungary And Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates, for the first time, the impact of the war on the information security of the EU’s banking industry. This domain is critical, as i) a significant cyber incident may lead to the financial and political instability of the Member States, and ii) the efficiency of the financial sanctions adopted by the EU depends on the appropriate operation of the EU’s banking systems. Qualitative methods were used in the study; relevant literature and publicly available sector specific data were analysed, and senior information security experts from Hungarian and Slovakian banks were interviewed. The results underpin the fact that banks in the EU are facing an exceptionally high level of cyber risk; the paper attempts to provide actions responding to these risks to keep the banking industry secure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Defence Research, Development and Innovation and Ethics: How are Ethical Leaders Produced?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ethics is an important element of military professionalism, and a factor in military work and behaviour, especially during operations. Studies and surveys show that ethical military leaders are crucial in promoting ethical conduct within the armed forces. This article presents the work of the Science and Technology Organization’s research team on Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership, which focuses on the study of military ethics, ethical education and training, national practices of teaching ethics in the armed forces, the documentation of relevant ethical cases, and surveying the opinions of military personnel with regard to ethical military leadership.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue O Osamosvojitvi Slovenije Z Vidika Vojaške Strategije Raziskovalno-Razvojna in Inovacijska Dejavnost Na Obrambnem Področju