rss_2.0Confrontation and Cooperation: 1000 Years of Polish-German-Russian Relations FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Confrontation and Cooperation: 1000 Years of Polish-German-Russian Relations and Cooperation: 1000 Years of Polish-German-Russian Relations Feed of Internal Political Threats to the National Security of Ukraine at the Local Level in the Process of Administrative and Territorial Reform<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article presents theoretical and practical aspects of political and legal instruments aimed at minimizing the risk of intra-Ukrainian political character. The priority in the implementation of administrative and territorial reform in Ukraine should be the implementation of the interests of local communities, and not the administrative, political and economic priorities of local elites. It should be emphasized that the territorial organization of Ukraine as a mandatory, indispensable element of the general organization of the state is considered mainly as part of the formed social structure and as a division of the country’s territory into certain parts. It is necessary to take into account the historical and legal nature of the tasks and functions of the state, as well as the organization of the system of state authorities and local self-governments.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tourism Cooperation Based on “the Belt and Road”: Strategy and Path<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Culture is the soul of tourism and tourism is the carrier of culture. With the help of regional cooperation platforms and historical and cultural symbols of the ancient Silk Road, “The Silk Road Economic Belt” and “The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road” will develop economic cooperation among countries along the belt and road, and jointly build a community of Shared interests, destiny and responsibility featuring political mutual trust, economic integration and cultural tolerance. In order to implement the “Belt and Road” initiative, promote international cooperation and meet the development needs of its own industries, it has important practical significance to carry out international tourism cooperation under the strategic background of “Belt and Road”, which enhances the in-depth exchange of cultures of various countries, broadens the service choice of international tourism, and learns from advanced service concepts. Following the “Belt and Road” strategy, as the pilot industry of connectivity tourism led to the development of international tourism cooperation, but is still in its infancy, the overall scale is still small, with a larger space for future development. At this stage, there are four problems and challenges in international tourism cooperation under the Belt and Road Strategy: the foundation of cooperation is not solid enough, cultural resources are not fully utilized, brand awareness is insufficient, and the degree of convenience needs to be improved. Therefore, to achieve a stable and sustainable development of tourism in the countries along the route through four paths:the development of permanent mechanism of international tourism cooperation, the creation of unique Silk Road cultural characteristics of tourism products and routes, the creation of tourism boutique projects and the cultivation of international brands, enhance infrastructure construction and tourist visa facilitation.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Armed Conflicts on the State of Ecological Security<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Contemporary armed conflicts, although not as global in scope as the two world wars in the 20<sup>th</sup> century, create serious threats in many dimensions. One of the areas of their influence is the natural environment.</p><p>In fact every armed conflict, also one that takes place in a relatively small territory, causes a number of negative consequences in the natural environment. These, in turn, may have further consequences.</p><p>Apart from the damage caused by military operations, accompanying phenomena appear on a large scale. In recent years, a series of armed conflicts in Africa and West Asia resulted in huge migrations of millions of people. In addition to the resulting humanitarian crises, large-scale environmental problems are observed.</p><p>Thus, it clearly shows that even potentially minor military conflicts can lead to serious disturbances of the natural environment.</p><p>The author shows the various consequences of armed conflicts for the natural environment over the last half century.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Fight for Free Navigation. Construction of the Channel by the Vistula Spit as Part of the Political Struggle with the Russian Federation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>As a consequence of Stalin’s decision, the Vistula Lagoon was divided between Poland and the Soviet Union. Since the Soviet fleet created a naval base in Bałtisko, from 1945 the possibility of using the waterway through the Bay by Poland was practically excluded. The Soviet side allowed iPoland to use the Gulf outlet only to a small extent.</p><p>In practice, this meant the destruction of the seaport in Elbląg, but also radically limited the possibilities of economic development of this part of Poland, which for many centuries operated on the basis of the Polish economy.</p><p>After 1989, the Russian side made it even more impossible for the Polish side to use transport routes through the Bay.</p><p>Ultimately, Poland decided to build a canal through the Vistula Spit. This channel is to enable the revitalization of the port in Elbląg, but also the northern areas of Poland.</p><p>The article presents the arguments of the Polish side, including economic ones, justifying the implementation of this undertaking.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Issues in the Integrated Management Perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Security is a system of interrelated elements that interact with each other and must be effectively managed. At the same time, security is one of the key areas of administrative activity. Nowadays, an integrated approach to the development process in the context of shaping local security policy becomes extremely important. Integrated management is based on a territorial-functional approach and exposes mutually balanced links between the economic, social and environmental systems of which security is a common element.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Threat to the Life of the Nation as an Introductory Premise of the Derogation of Obligations in the Domain of Human Rights<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The subject of the study is the issue defined in international documents by the term “threat to the life of the nation” as a preliminary condition for departing from obligations in the field of human rights. This premise was adopted both in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as in similar regulations for individual continents, including the European Convention on Human Rights.</p><p>However, on a practical basis, this issue has raised and continues to raise multiple interpretation doubts. In the presented considerations, various aspects of this problem are presented in the light of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.</p><p>On the basis of these, it can be assumed that one cannot identify the category of the nation with the categories of the state and//or the population, since each of these categories has its due autonomy; while on the other hand, they accompany, coexist and remain in mutual relations and interaction. Hence, in international norms, both the treaty provisions and the treaty bodies in their rulings consistently confirm “the life of the nation” as the fundamental protected value, which does not prevent them from associating this value with values important for the state as such and for the population/society.</p><p>The classic model of this approach has already been established by the ECtHR in the Lawless case, where the Court described a derogation situation as “an exceptional crisis or emergency situation that affects the entire population and poses a threat to the organized life of the community that comprises the state</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s stance on the idea of the constructionof a federal European Union economics: security of economic system and transboundary crisis People’s List – the outlineof the issue in historic and legal perspective. Part I Federal Structure of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16–18 Centuries as a form of social communication – the example of Polish film ‘Róża’ growth in a time of even higher public debt in the European Union countriesin the years of 2001–2015 Reception of Roman Obligations in China<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Chinese legal system has got many keystones. One of them is Roman law. It can be seen in obligations, in the very important part of private law. China has got a unique history and the Latin civilization has got the same characteristic too. Despite the fact of the independent development of the Roman Empire and the Chinese Empire those two legal systems were able to meet in the reception of Roman obligations in China in the twentieth century.</p><p>That process may create some disputes. Roman law is one of the features of Western civilization. In the Far East, the situation is different. It is not possible to understand the Chinese legal culture without Confucianism, other philosophies, the role of relationships and the heritage of communism.</p><p>The connection of two different legal systems in the sphere of obligation which was ended in 1999 when The Contract Law was promulgated may be evaluated in different ways. Maybe the most appropriate is the phrase that in current China everything is possible but nothing is easy.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Behaviour on the New Silk Road: Space for Improvement?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A number of studies point out a positive influence of entrepreneurship on economic growth. This is due to the role that entrepreneurs play in the economy by utilizing new knowledge, shaping markets, and pushing out unproductive incumbents. The ambitious One Belt One Road Initiative, which recently includes sixty Asian, African and European countries, aims at stimulating global economic development and prosperity. From the theoretical point of view, entrepreneurship is crucial for achieving the aim. Consequently, the intent of this paper is to analyze entrepreneurial behavior of the countries participated in the One Belt One Road Initiative, using the data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Distinct country clusters are identified and their entrepreneurial characteristics are interpreted.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Eastern Europe as Partner of Chinese One Belt One Road Project<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Chinese One Belt One Road initiative refers to the idea of the so-called New Silk Road. This ancient trade route connected Asia’s Far East with Europe from the earliest times. In various historical periods, this way of trade has often been interrupted by violent events and rivalry of hegemons that are changing in this huge space.</p><p>The current OBOR project assumes an important role of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It is an area that includes a large number of countries interested in intensifying cooperation with China and Asian countries.</p><p>However, the implementation of this project will certainly take many years. While the countries of this region are expecting quick infrastructural investments, in particular in the area of communication. This is a condition for the future success of the Chinese project.</p><p>On the other hand, there are many serious conflicts on the route of the planned route of major transport connections (i.e. in Syria, areas inhabited by Kurds). Without a long-lasting calming of this area, the implementation of this project will not be possible.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Creating Evacuate Tube Transportation Technology for Connecting European Union and China<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article presents an economic potential of the trade exchange between China and European Union using the new type of transport – basing on vacuum trains. This technology bases on transporting goods in a capsule. The capsule is moving inside an airtight tube, where the air pressure is decreased to about 100Pa. Owing to the low pressure, an air friction value is very low too, what is enabling to move the capsule inside the tube without meaningful energy loss from the air friction. The transport will provide a very fast and economical shipping of goods between China and Europe. It is expected, that the capsules can reach the speed about 1000 km/h.</p><p>Taking all these factors into account, there are new opportunities for the trade exchange with China. It applies especially to the transshipment- industrial districts like Sichuan, Yunnan, Kweichow, and the Chongqing city. The potential of these provinces is a population about 200 millions people, a territory which is twice the size of France and quick economic growth – about 10%. In 2016, the train from Chengdu to Łódź have left 463 times, in 2017 there are 1000 trains planned. The economy of Sichuan is basing on: agriculture, hydropower, big resources of natural gas, heavy industry, and electronics. In Chongqing, there are mainly: automotive, heavy industry, electronics, and chemical industry. In Yunnan dominate agricultural processing, natural resources, and heavy industry. From the viewpoint of polish business, the Sichuan province and the Chongqing city are especially noteworthy. These two are firstly making use of developing Chinese economy. They are also contributing to the „New Silk Road” – OBOR project (One Belt and One Road Initiative) and aspiring to become the trade, financial, scientific-technological and telecommunication-transport center.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comparativism About Search of Common Ways of Ecological Problems Based on the Dialogue of Cultural Matrices of the East and West<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article talks about a common searching by the Western and Eastern countries the ways of solving environmental problems of humanity based on the improving the worldview reflections. The authors propose the dialogue of cultures as a methodological key solution to these problems. In the context of comparative analysis the authors characterize the ecologism of tao-Buddhistic traditions and values of the Oriental attitude, that have a great influence on Western civilization. The environmental philosophy of attitude towards nature is offered in the article as a common product of dialogue of cultures. The authors also present the experience of using the Eastern philosophical concepts of attitude towards nature in Ukraine.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Adenauer as a German Statesman and Politician of Integrating Europe<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article is a synthetic outlook at Konrad Adenauer’s life, activity and the legacy of that politician, described in a tendentious way in the past period, and nowadays – after a temporary increase in the interest during the first years of systemic transformation – deserving a closer examination. In the initial part of the article, some integration concepts of past centuries have been outlined. Then, in a biographical sketch, Adenauer’s private and public activities were characterized, falling into diverse political periods, ranging from imperial Germany, to the post-war formation of the foundations of a reborn democratic state. His participation in these events is outlined. The main achievements of Adenauer during almost 30 years of work in the Cologne municipality are pointed out and the repressions he suffered during the Nazi regime and his participation in the post-war reconstruction of Germany were discussed: long-term leadership in the CDU and the 14-year period of government as the first chancellor of democratic post-war Germany. It was pointed out that the political line he designated, the active presence of Germany in the uniting Europe, proved to be very stable and continued by his successive successors.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Phenomenon of Chinese Culture<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the presentation is to <bold><italic>Define the scope of Chinese Culture</italic></bold> 正確的說明中國文化 and to introduce Chinese civilization, history, Chinese religions, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism (in general but also specific meaning), the concept of Chinese archeology, <italic>Beijing man</italic> – 北京人, including discoveries like: china-ware, powder, silk 生絲, (Kung-fu, <italic>zhonguogongfu</italic> 中國功夫, Tai-chi-chuien, <italic>taijichuen</italic> 太極拳, and famous Chinese medicine, <italic>zhongyiao</italic> 中藥. Chinese Anthropological philosophy, Confucian ethic – 孔夫子的倫理. Silk road which linked Rome 羅馬 to Xian – 西安. The idea of harmony 和諧: joy of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism 佛家, 道家, 孔教 is included in Christianity. Taking into account Confucian humanism and traditional Chinese society 傳統的社會… Summing up everything is embraced by the definition of Chinese culture 中國文化.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Disparities on The New Silk Road: Some Thoughts about Regional Convergence<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Regional disparities are a research and political theme that has received considerable attention. This is also because regional disparities constitute a pull factor of migration, because high regional disparities may seriously threaten territorial integrity, and because socioeconomic development potential is not fully realized in lagging regions. Not surprisingly, regional disparities are an important research and political theme for New Silk Road countries and this is also reflected in the focus of this paper. The primary aim of this paper is to characterize regional disparities in selected New Silk Road countries, namely in China, in Russia and in Visegrad Four countries, and subsequently to discuss the relationship between regional disparities and the One Belt, One Road Initiative. The results point out the presence of a pattern of regional disparities in the countries. In this regard, the importance of the East-West gradient, of spatial hierarchy, and of inherited specialization is particularly emphasized. Reflecting the pattern of regional disparities, the potential of the One Belt, One Road Initiative to stimulate development of lagging regions is indicated.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue