rss_2.0Contributions to Tobacco & Nicotine Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Contributions to Tobacco & Nicotine Research to Tobacco & Nicotine Research Feed Phenolic Compounds in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke, CORESTA Collaborative Study and Recommended Method *<abstract> <title style='display:none'>SUMMARY</title> <p>A collaborative study among 20 participating laboratories was conducted in an effort to publish a recommended method for determination of phenols in mainstream cigarette smoke. The study was conducted using 10 test samples including reference cigarettes and commercial products from various regions (ISO 3308 total particulate matter 1–16 mg/cig) smoked under two regimes (ISO 3308 and ISO 20778). Health Canada method T-114 was chosen as a basis for the analytical methodology and therefore mainstream cigarette smoke was trapped on 44-mm glass fiber filter pads which were subsequently extracted with 1% aqueous acetic acid for analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Statistical analysis was carried out following ISO 5725 to generate repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) data for results from linear and rotary smoking. For reproducibility (R) expressed as a percentage of mean yield across all of the studied products and both smoking regimes, values ranged from 17–150%. The lowest “tar” yielding products had the most variable data. Results trended as expected for total particulate matter, blend type, regime, and relative analyte yields. Results supporting a robust method for hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, phenol, <italic>o</italic>-cresol, <italic>m</italic>-cresol, and <italic>p</italic>-cresol are reported herein and support establishment of CRM 78, ISO 23904 and ISO 23905 standardized methods. [Contrib. Tob. Nicotine Res. 32 (2023) 18–25]</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Techniques for the Analysis of WS-3 With Potential Application to the Analysis of Other Cooling Agents *<abstract> <title style='display:none'>SUMMARY</title> <p>WS-3 (N-ethyl-<italic>p</italic>-menthane-3-carboxamide) is a compound used as a cooling agent for tobacco or nicotine products. Three other similar compounds WS-23 (N,2,3-trimethyl-2-propan-2-ylbutanamide), Evercool 180 (N-<italic>p</italic>-benzene-acetonitrile menthanecarboxamide), and Evercool 190 (N-(2-pyridine-2-yl)ethyl-3-<italic>p</italic>-menthancarboxamide) also have cooling properties and can be used as tobacco additives. A few previously reported methods for WS-3 analysis were rather complex, and the goal of present work was to develop a simple, rapid, and accurate procedure for simultaneous analysis of WS-3 and of the other three cooling compounds. For this purpose, a LC/MS procedure has been developed that requires 6-min runs. The method was calibrated to analyze solutions containing each analyte in the range of concentrations between 48.8 ng/mL to 12.5 µg/mL. The procedure is selective and shows excellent precision with typical RSD lower than 3%. In parallel to the LC/MS method, a GC/MS procedure was also developed mainly with the goal of having a proof of the accuracy for both methods. This GC separation requires 20-min runs. The GC/MS technique was calibrated to analyze solutions containing each analyte in the range of concentrations between 1.56 µg/mL to 125 µg/mL for WS-23 and WS-3, from 6.25 µg/mL to 125 µg/mL for Evercool 180, and from 3.13 µg/mL to 125 µg/mL for Evercool 190. The sensitivity of the LC/MS method is significantly higher than the GC/MS one, and for the analysis of traces of cooling agents the LC/MS method is recommended. The LC/MS method was applied for the analysis of WS-3 in tobacco, cigarette smoke, flavor solutions, and in nicotine pouches. No samples containing the other cooling agents were available. [Contrib. Tob. Nicotine Res. 32 (2023) 26–33]</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Onset of Health Conditions to Changes in Tobacco/Nicotine Use — Analyses based on the U.S. PATH Study *<abstract> <label>1.</label> <title style='display:none'>SUMMARY</title> <sec id="j_cttr-2023-0001_s_001"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Evidence is limited on how the onset of health conditions affects tobacco/nicotine use. We report analyses from adults in the U.S. PATH study relating changes in established cigarette and/or e-cigarette use between Waves 1 and 4 to onset of conditions in Waves 2 or 3.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_cttr-2023-0001_s_002"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Nine conditions had sufficient onsets for analysis. The main analyses adjusted for sex and age. Additional analyses excluded other tobacco/nicotine product users, controlled for more variables, restricted changes in one product to never users of the other, or restricted attention to changes occurring after onset of the condition.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_cttr-2023-0001_s_003"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In the main analyses, onset of each condition predicted significantly increased overall e-cigarette initiation rates, with highest odds ratios (OR) for any major respiratory condition (2.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10–3.90) and cancer (2.51, 1.52–4.14). Each onset also predicted higher cigarette smoking initiation rates, but ORs were lower than for e-cigarette initiation, and only significant for any cardiovascular condition (1.65, 1.31–2.08), high blood pressure (1.34, 1.13–1.58), and any major smoking-related condition (1.35, 1.12–1.62). For quitting smoking only six conditions showed increased ORs, significant only for high cholesterol (1.29, 1.02–1.62). The additional analyses generally confirmed these patterns. Relationships with re-initiating cigarettes or becoming dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes were inconsistent. Onset of conditions also tended to reduce amount smoked by smokers.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_cttr-2023-0001_s_004"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>While PATH is nationally representative, its sample size does not always allow precise estimates. There is concern about accuracy of statements by some older participants claiming to be Wave 1 never smokers but Wave 4 ever smokers. Nevertheless the previously unreported association between onset of the health conditions and e-cigarette initiation (which mainly occurs in Wave 1 cigarette smokers) appears real. [Contrib. Tob. Nicotine Res. 32 (2023) 1–10]</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Continuous Flow Methods for Determining the Content of Reducing Sugar in Tobacco *<abstract> <title style='display:none'>SUMMARY</title> <p>Reducing sugar in tobacco can reduce the pungent odor of cigarette smoke and is the important indicator of tobacco routine chemical analysis. In order to improve the stability of the continuous flow method for the determination of the reducing sugar content in tobacco, the current ISO method, ISO 15154:2003, was intentionally modified as follows: the 5% acetic acid solution in the blue/blue pipeline was replaced by 0.2 mol@L<sup>-1</sup> hydrochloric acid solution in the red/red pipeline; the concentration of sodium hydroxide was reduced from 0.5 mol@L<sup>-1</sup> to 0.4 mol@L<sup>-1</sup>; and the volume of the heating tank was increased from 7.7 mL to 10.6 mL. It was found that the repeatability and reproducibility of the revised method kept comparable to those of ISO 15154:2003, the effective sampling in one experiment of the revised method was increased to 90 cups without precipitates in the pipeline, the main reaction time was extended by 45 s, and the lifespan of the heating tank was prolonged by more than 100%. In addition, the modified method was evaluated via a general validation procedure, and the detection limit and the quantitation limit were 0.0057% and 0.0190%, respectively. Furthermore, the relative standard deviation was less than 5%, and the recovery of added standard was between 98.22% and 103.65%. These results indicate that the modified method is a promising alternative to the current ISO method. [Contrib. Tob. Nicotine Res. 32 (2023) 11–17]</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Note of in the Southeastern United States<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Bacterial (Granville) wilt, caused by <italic>Ralstonia solanacearum</italic> is a major disease of tobacco in both North and South Carolina. In contrast, Granville wilt rarely occurs on tobacco in Georgia and Florida. This difference was documented over fifty years ago and, today, it is still not understood. Isolates of R. <italic>solanacearum</italic> from tobacco and tomato were collected from Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina. All isolates were identified as race 1, biovar 1. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fingerprinting technique, rep-PCR, was used to generate genomic fingerprints that were used to assess the genetic diversity of the R. <italic>solanacearum</italic> isolates. Bands were scored as present or absent and converted to band-sharing distances. A similarity matrix was generated and used to produce neighbor-joining trees. A highly branched tree that is indicative of the heterogeneity of the isolates in each of the states was constructed. South Carolina isolates segregated from Georgia, North Carolina and Florida isolates. Additionally, South Carolina isolates clustered as a function of the host from which they were isolated. Two isolates from tobacco and two from tomato, from both Georgia and South Carolina, were evaluated for aggressiveness on the susceptible tobacco cultivar, K 326, under controlled environment conditions. Five aggressiveness groups were defined. The tobacco isolates caused the most severe wilt symptoms, however one tobacco isolate was only weakly virulent. Only two of the four tomato isolates were pathogenic on tobacco. There was no correlation between genotypic and aggressiveness groupings. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2001) 323-331]</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Quantitative Analysis of Nicotine, Nicotine Derivatives, and Nicotine-Related Alkaloid Optical Isomers: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>During the last 35 years technologies and hardware for the separation of enantiomers have advanced tremendously. Today, complete resolution of the enantiomers of nicotine and related compounds can effectively be attained within a few seconds and most often less than 10 minutes. In some unique cases, enantiomeric separation for nicotine-related compounds having a wide variety of functional groups has been demonstrated. Particularly, the successful wedding of short HPLC and SFC columns containing very small particle size materials bonded to chiral stationary phase materials coupled with information-rich detectors like electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry has facilitated this remarkable transition. Taken collectively the HPLC and SFC technologies will allow for very rapid (seconds), reliable, and reproducible (% RSD routinely &lt; 5%) for nicotine and related alkaloid enantiomers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue William M. Coleman III, Recipient of the 2022 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award Comprehensive Study of Biodegradation of Cigarette Filters and Bidi Butts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down into carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) and water (H<sub>2</sub>O) by living microbial organisms. With the advancement in analytical techniques, standard methods have been developed and published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), eliminating the ambiguity associated with biodegradation testing for several materials. There is no data available on biodegradation of cigarette filters that follows a standardized and validated ISO method.</p> <p>The objective of this study is to understand the biodegradation of conventional and non-conventional cellulose acetate (CA) Cigarette Filters, Infused Paper Filter (IP), and Combined Material Filter (CMF), Condensed Tobacco End Filter (CTEC) and bidi butts. In this study, cigarettes and bidis were smoked on a smoking machine following the standard ISO 3308 for cigarettes and the standard ISO 17175 for bidis. After smoking, cigarette filters and bidi butts were subjected to biodegradation testing, adopting the standard ISO 14855-1.</p> <p>The study demonstrated 92.1% biodegradation in 151 days for cellulose acetate cigarette filters, 91.9% biodegradation in 97 days for DE-Tow<sup>TM</sup> (Cellulose acetate with additives) filters, 96.2% biodegradation in 86 days for CMF, 93.4% biodegradation in 55 days for paper filters, 92.1% biodegradation in 54 days for bidi butts, and 95.3% biodegradation in 37 days for CTEC filters were recorded. This study provided an unbiased proof that the cigarette filters made of cellulose acetate are biodegradable as per the standard ISO 14855-1. Also, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis was carried out on the smoked cigarette filters of Cellulose acetate, DE-Tow<sup>TM</sup> and CMF as well as their resulting compost to detect any cellulose acetate remaining in the final compost. The GPC analysis indicated cellulose acetate peaks in smoked cigarette filters of cellulose acetate, DE-Tow<sup>TM</sup> and CMF samples, whereas no cellulose acetate peak was observed in resulting compost samples. Hence it is concluded that cellulose acetate is not present in any of the resulting composts of cellulose acetate filters, DE-Tow<sup>TM</sup> filters and CMF samples.</p> <p>It is inferred from the results that cigarette filters and bidi butts chosen for the study have achieved the criteria of more than 90% biodegradation, which is well within the specified criteria of 180 days.</p> <p>This article will be beneficial for entire scientific community, regulators as well as manufacturers in understanding the biodegradability of cigarette filters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Detection of Stem Content in Tobacco Strips Using X-Ray Imaging Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>For tobacco strips used in cigarette production, the stem content is an important quality index to assess the impurity level of the cut leaves. The presented work developed a nondestructive detection method of stems in cut leaf agricultural products by the low energy X-ray imaging. The algorithm of stem image processing and weight calculation principle was established, and then a machine vision system with X-ray imaging and image analysis was set up to verify the quantitative detection method. The results showed that the relative error of the detection method ranged from −3.64% to 2.76%. The determination of stems with a different morphology, such as the thick stem, were also realized based on the image analysis. The accuracy of determining thick stem and long stem was 94.67% and 99.33%, respectively. The developed method is superior to the current ISO detection method of tobacco stem in leaves under the same testing conditions in terms of accuracy and efficiency, which could be applied as an effective online detection method to monitor the quality of processed leaf for cigarette production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Formation and Transfer in Open- and Closed-Ended Heated Tobacco Products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A lit cigarette forms a positive and negative pressure zone by a puff with respect to the position of its paper burn line. Smoke aerosols generated from the two zones are then pulled through the rod under the puff to form the mainstream smoke. This phenomenon is fundamental to the thermophysics and the resultant chemical composition of the mainstream smoke. In this study, we created two different airflow pathways inside a heated tobacco rod by a puff, and investigated the differences in aerosol formation and its chemical compositions. The two different pressure-induced conditions, one through an open-ended tobacco rod (marked as HNB, a label of a designed airflow pathway of commercial heated tobacco products called heat-not-burn prior), and the other through a closed-ended tobacco rod (marked as NSC, a label of a novel-designed airflow pathway of heated tobacco products), were compared for their aerosol collected mass (ACM), the contents of nicotine, water and added aerosol agents such as propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (VG), as well as selected aldehydes and ketones in the mainstream aerosol. Aerosol particle distribution and the heated temperature along different rod locations were also compared during a puff. The results indicated marked differences in the aerosol formation processes between the two HNB and NSC systems. The transfer ratios of the main aerosol components were significantly higher for the NSC; the levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were significantly lower under the NSC than the HNB condition. There were also significant differences for the aerosol particle number concentration (APNC) and count median diameter (CMD) for the two systems. The lack of convective heat transfer in the aerosol formation under the NSC condition resulted in a relatively stable thermal aerosol generation zone, reflected by the temperature difference between the two systems in the selected locations. The NSC mode of tobacco heating thus offers a novel and enhanced aerosol generation for heat tobacco product designs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue De-Oxygenation to Form Condensable Aerosol From Reconstituted Tobacco without Auto-Ignition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A novel concept is described here that utilizes externally applied heat to a solid rod of reconstituted tobacco biomass to form a stream of aerosol under progressively oxygen-deficient atmosphere. The boundary of auto-ignition was determined at oxygen concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 21% and then the effects of these different atmospheres on various parameters were studied. Experimental results indicated that the ignition temperature decreased with the increase of oxygen concentration and a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) for atmosphere with oxygen was observed at before but close to ignition temperature. Significant differences in the yields of CO and CO<sub>2</sub> between oxygen and oxygen-free atmosphere were observed. The mass of aerosol produced under an inert atmosphere and reduced-oxygen atmosphere were characterized with selected volatile and semi-volatile components, phenols, aldehydes, and other organic compounds of interests. In addition, higher oxygen concentration resulted in higher bulk and surface oxygen content of solid-phase residue, the reduction of carbon and hydrogen element content and related functional groups, and the content of inorganic compounds also exhibited an increase with oxygen concentration. By systematically changing oxygen concentrations of the biomass bed with increasing temperatures, an aerosol stream of controlled chemical composition and yields could be formed without leading to ignition. Key chemical markers of inhalation harm were measured and compared to each other under different degrees close to combustion. Studying reconstituted tobacco or other biomass materials in such a way could provide alternative and useful information in the design heated biomass aerosol generators.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Investigation of the Histology and Anatomy of Tobacco. 2nd Report / Mikroaufnahmen zur Histologie und Anatomie des Tabaks: II. Mitteilung Apparatus for the Measurement of the Pressure Drop of Cigarettes and Filter Rods / Automatisches Gerät zum Messen des Luftwiderstandes von Cigaretten und Filterstäben<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p> The prototype of an apparatus to measure the pressure drop of cigarettes is described. The apparatus works automatically at a speed of 400 cigarettes per hour. Results are indicated as number of cigarettes per draw resistance class of 5 mm WG</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Distribution of the Air Flow through a Cigarette / Die Verteilung des Ventilationsstromes auf einer Cigarette<abstract> <p>The distribution of the air flow through the porous wrapping of a cigarette is</p> <p><disp-formula><inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="graphic/Fig.1.png"/></disp-formula></p> <p>ν (λ, l) being the density of the air flow (cm<sup>3</sup> sec<sup>-1</sup> cm<sup>-1</sup>) on the paper wrapping at the position l if l is the length of the porous paper wrapping between the non-porous tip and the burning cone and l is the distance of the position in question from the non-porous tip. ν (λ, l) is given in air flow per cm rather than in air flow per cm<sup>2</sup> because of the cylindrical shape of the cigarette. I denotes the total stream at the mouth piece, a is the specific conductivity to air flow of the paper wrapping, b is the specific resistance to air flow of the tobacco rod, R<sub>G</sub> is the resistance to air flow of the burning cone [compare (1)]. The formula is derived and discussed. The dependence of the distribution of the ventilation stream on the length l and on the resistance RG is demonstrated for the case of a formerly investigated cigarette rod (1). The gradient of ν (λ, l) is</p> <p><disp-formula><inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="graphic/Fig.2.png"/></disp-formula></p> <p>so that the density of the ventilation stream through the paper wrapping decreases almost linearly from its maximum at the tip to its minimum at the burning cone if the degree of ventilation is low, i.e. if the air flow I (λ, l) in the cigarette is not much higher at λ = 0 than at λ = l</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Apparatus for the Determination of the Compactness of Cigarettes / Der Betriebs-Kompazitätsmesser<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstact</title> <p> An apparatus for the rapid determination of the compactness of cigarettes is presented. We may recall to mind that the compactness of a cigarette is the subjective measure of its filling regarded as average value of the whole of the cigarette. It does not take into account irregularities along the paper wrapping. The compactness thus applying to the total of cigarette filling has direct relation to the degree of exploitation of cut tobacco. In view of an optimum control of manufacture it is desirable to determine cigarette compactness by representative samples. The apparatus meets these requirements. It permits to measure the average compactness of a sample of 15 cigarettes in a short time and holds a device for the determination of tobacco humidity by which compactness values can be referred to a given standard of moisture. The apparatus is suitable for direct utilization in the factory</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Degradation by Microorganisms in Model Experiments / Über Nikotinabbau durch Mikroorganismen in Modellversuchen<abstract xml:lang="de"> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p> Zur Verminderung des Nikotingehaltes stehen heute technologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund. Eingangs wurde ein Überblick über die aus diesem Sektor vorliegenden Arbeiten über den mikrobiellen und biochemischen Nikotinabbau gegeben. An Hand von eingehenden Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, daß spezielle Bakterien nach Zugabe von Vitamin- und Wuchsstoffen und bei guter Belüftung bis zu 70% der vorgelegten Nikotinmengen abzubauen imstande sind. Schimmelpilze zeigten sich ebenfalls zum Nikotinabbau befähigt. Die innerhalb der eigenen Versuche erhaltenen Abbaustufen wurden chromatographisch dargestellt. Diese bedürfen der weiteren chemischen und physiologischen Bestimmung. Die aus den eigenen mikrobiologischen Ergebnissen gezogenen Folgerungen wurden diskutiert und, soweit dies heute möglich ist, auf die Belange der praktischen Tabakfermentation, Tabakanalytik und Tabakzüchtung ausgerichtet</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Challenges of Cigar Science, Testing and Regulation: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>On May 10, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Final Rule that extended its regulatory authority to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, cigars, hookah and pipe tobacco (Deemed Products). Effective August 8, 2016, this decision greatly expanded the scope of tobacco products being regulated by FDA and introduced significant testing challenges that need to be addressed. The major challenge for cigars in particular is testing as well as generation of accurate and reliable data, in the absence of certified reference products and standardized methodology for a product category with significant complexity and high inherent variability. In this article, we provide an overview of recent studies as well as active opportunities and on-going challenges associated with regulating and testing cigars. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of non-clinical research for this product category (cigars). We are therefore convinced that, tobacco scientists and farmers, analytical chemists, cigar consumers, tobacco legal counsels, state and federal regulatory authorities will find this review beneficial and insightful.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Note Waterpipe is not a Cigarette, it is not Even a Conventional Pipe