rss_2.0DANUBE FeedSciendo RSS Feed for DANUBE Feed Volatility: Harnessing VUCA Methodology for Sustainable Collaboration in Bintan Island’s Mangrove Ecotourism Governance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Collaborative Governance has emerged as a critical strategy for achieving public goals through collaboration with diverse organizations and individuals. The policy process requires the participation of various public institutions, with stakeholders directly or indirectly involved in addressing societal problems. In developing countries such as Indonesia, the power of stakeholders in implementing existing programs is critical to the success of collaborative governance. Indonesia has adopted an ecotourism strategy emphasizing sustainable practices, while the tourism industry emphasizes environmental preservation. Bintan Island is an attractive location for ecotourism activities due to its many prospective tourist destinations, ranging from land to sea, including mangrove forests in the coastal area. Due to its proximity to the Indonesia-Singapore-Malaysia border, the island has tremendous economic value for the local community. However, our research shows that the current situation regarding stakeholder participation in collaborative governance shows a weak correlation between actors. Significant gaps in collaborative governance dimensions and indicators must be addressed during the VUCA (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguity) period. In particular, many stakeholders lack the knowledge and understanding to engage interested parties and foster positive social interactions. To address this shortcoming, we propose to adopt the VUCA methodology as an alternative evaluation method for collaborative stakeholder-based governance. By doing so, we can integrate a more dynamic and adaptable framework to better adapt to rapidly changing socio-economic conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Changes of the Labour Market in the Czech Republic in Terms of Skills: Is There Any Job Polarization?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Job polarization has been proven mainly in the United States and many Western European countries, but the Czech Republic has been relatively neglected in these surveys. This paper explicitly focuses on the Czech Republic and fills this gap from 2004–2017. Moreover, the Czech Republic is examined at the level of individual regions, making this paper new. Descriptive results show that the labour market has been polarized – employment in the high- and low-paying occupations has increased, while employment in the middling occupations has decreased. Furthermore, polarization has been demonstrated in seven regions. The workforce relocation took place to a greater extent in low-paying occupations (both at the level of individual regions and the level of the whole Czech Republic). Regression analysis results show job polarization only between 2004 and 2010 in the occupations of the private sphere.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Property Civil Relations With the Participation of State-Owned Enterprises: Shortcomings of the Soviet Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article examines the peculiarities of the exercise of freedom of contract and freedom of entrepreneurial activity by state-owned enterprises in the USSR under the conditions of the state monopoly in the production of property goods, planned regulation of production and administrative-command economy in general.</p> <p>The author examines certain historical aspects of the formation of state-owned enterprises as subjects of property relations on the basis of state-owned industries. The article highlights the problems of granting state-owned enterprises with civil legal personality and their participation in property turnover within the framework of the concept of economic calculation, the impact of the planned approach on the scope of freedom of contract and freedom of entrepreneurship of state-owned enterprises in the course of their activities. The author determines the correlation between the plan and the contract as means of regulating property relations and outlines the functions of the contract in the property turnover of the USSR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Household Income in EU Countries Ensuring a Life Out of Poverty<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The identification of the structure of sustainable household disposable income in times of economic uncertainty is the aim of this paper. The research provides household income components in order to achieve a sustainable income ensuring life out of poverty. The analyses were based on the EU-SILC 2020 database of primary data (N = 232,816 EU households). The binary logistic regression verified that households capable of generating savings have the highest chances of achieving a sustainable income. There is also a positive influence of the investment income (interests, dividends, rental income), but with a lower impact than expected. On the contrary, the presence of social transfers in income reduces the likelihood of sustainable income. Social income is beneficial to households in poverty but it is essential to ensure that it is properly targeted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Improving Advocacy in Civil Proceedings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The relevance of the study is due to the presence of some problematic aspects in the institute of representation of Kazakhstan, in connection with which the level of effectiveness of citizens’ realisation of their inherent rights decreases. The study aims to evaluate recommendations for removal, necessitated by the critical importance of safeguarding citizens’ rights and ensuring the effective implementation of this mechanism. Methods such as logical analysis, deduction, induction, synthesis, legal hermeneutics, etc. were used. In the course of the study, it was revealed that the criteria for lawyers are more formal in nature, which contributes to the unqualified legal assistance to the citizens. There is also no concept of legal responsibility for the provision of this kind of assistance by specialists. Conflicts related to the implementation of their activities by lawyers of other states were considered. This provided an opportunity to characterise them and make an appropriate assessment. A study of the activities of the institute of representation was conducted and its features, principles, and signs were highlighted. A significant aspect of the study was the analysis of international experience, particularly from the European Union (EU), regarding the functioning of the institution of representation in civil proceedings. This analysis identified the main ways of development, the course of integration, and the specific features of legislation in EU countries, allowing for the identification of promising areas for application in Kazakhstan’s legal practice. The practical value of the results obtained is the provision of recommendations that will contribute to improving the effectiveness of lawyers in civil proceedings and greater protection and guarantees of citizens’ rights and freedoms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the Resolution of Tax Disputes: Advantages, Application Experience, Prospects for Implementation in Ukraine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to analyze the utilization of alternative approaches for resolving tax disputes across various countries worldwide in order to evaluate the feasibility of introducing such approaches in Ukraine. It provides an overview of mediation, which is considered one of the most efficient methods for alternative dispute resolution. The article also presents a classification of mediation mechanisms employed in different countries. Furthermore, it examines the trends in the feasibility of introducing tax mediation in Ukraine. Lastly, the article suggests a roadmap for implementing judicial mediation as the most comprehensible and effective method for resolving tax disputes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Legal Advisers in Civil Proceedings in Kazakhstan: Is Advocate Monopoly Required?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper intends to assess the feasibility of introducing a lawyer’s monopoly in Kazakhstan. The main purpose of the study is to analyze the current legal provisions of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding judicial representatives authorized to provide legal assistance on behalf of civil proceedings. The work examines foreign experience from the point of view of the applicability of best practices. The study notes the shortcomings of the recently adopted legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of regulation of advocateship. Attention is focused on the fact that it is the legal profession that should serve as the key to the effective implementation of the constitutional right of citizens to receive qualified legal assistance. An advocates’ monopoly on judicial representation will contribute to the establishment of a single ecosystem that consolidates special professional groups and independent lawyer associations capable of providing qualified legal assistance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Foreigners in Public Health Insurance in the Czech Republic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Foreigners from third countries are not entitled to participate in the Czech public health insurance system unless they have either permanent residence in the Czech Republic or a Czech employer. This article aims to analyse the economic impact of the possible inclusion of such foreigners into the public health insurance system in the Czech Republic. First, we estimate the size of the group of foreigners concerned and follow with the estimation of contributions paid and the cost involved. The analysis is based on publicly available data that entail simplifications. The conducted research shows that the inclusion of foreigners from third countries into the public health system of the Czech Republic would positively impact the economic balance of the system in that the estimated contributions would surpass the estimated costs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Mutual Influence of Labour Market Polarisation, Wage Polarisation and Political Polarisation in the European Union<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to prove a hypothesis concerning the dependence of the political polarisation of the European Union on recent developments in labour market structure. The labour market is undergoing changes that stem from technological progress as well as outsourcing of low-skill activities, which are causing an increase in labour market and wage polarisation. The premise is that the depopulation of the middle class is increasing political polarisation. The hypothesis is tested on a sample of 27 European Union countries from 1990 to the present using OLS with fixed effects regression analysis. Political polarization is represented by an own constructed political polarization index based on the ideological division of political parties’ data of the ParlGov project (2022). The index is constructed by combining the election results and four ideological spectrums. In conclusion, the dependence of political polarisation on labour market polarisation and wage polarisation is rejected.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Refugee: From Historical to Legal Development<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 2015 refugee crisis, Hungary’s strict border controls and legal reforms drew international criticism, straining EU relations. This article employs the qualitative legal historical methodology to investigate the historical dynamics underpinning Hungary’s shifting refugee policies. The analysis uncovers a significant shift in Hungary’s approach to refugees. Following World War I, the Trianon agreement, which led to territorial loss and population displacement, posed migration challenges that Hungary addressed on a case-by-case basis. Furthermore, after 1989, Hungary aligned its legal systems with international standards. It ratified the 1951 Refugee Convention, marking the first official regulation of refugees under Decree 101. In 2007, upon EU accession, Hungary enacted the Asylum Act 2007, aligning it with the Dublin regulation and relevant EU directives, which formed the foundation for refugee crisis legislation in 2015. The study also examines the 2011 constitutional amendment, indirectly creating sociocultural barriers between Hungarian society and refugees.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Vulnerability to Human Trafficking Amidst Migration Patterns: A Case Study of Kazakhstan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Kazakhstan, with its open borders with CIS nations and significant migration flows, emerges as a key origin, transit, and destination point in human trafficking. While acknowledging Kazakhstan’s modest progress in combating human trafficking, this study aims to develop comprehensive proposals for enhancing the protection of trafficking victims’ rights in Kazakhstan. It seeks to identify legal and enforcement gaps, analyze available social and legal protections, and address key issues in victim rights protection. The study aligns with the burgeoning academic discourse on human trafficking, which has significantly influenced policy and methodological approaches in estimating trafficking prevalence. It encompasses research focusing on defining human trafficking, factors contributing to its incidence, and evaluating the effectiveness of countermeasures. Addressing a relatively nascent area of research in Kazakhstan’s context, this study will enhance existing knowledge and contribute to developing effective anti-trafficking strategies within the country. The overall assessment underscores a lack of consistency in Kazakhstan’s approach to its mandate to curtail human trafficking. Despite this, the study presents a promising path forward, concluding that with the introduction of a dedicated anti-human trafficking law and strategic organizational reforms, substantial advancements could be realized to reinforce legal accountability and prevent such exploitation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Firm Succession Plans of Students in the Visegrad Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The recognition of the social and economic role of entrepreneurship has brought to the fore the question of what influences entrepreneurial ideas and how entrepreneurship can be encouraged. One possible route to an entrepreneurial career is to take over the family business. This article focuses on the pre-succession period and examines the factors determining students’ decisions to take over the family business, using the sample of Visegrad countries from the 2018 GUESSS (Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey) database. Our results show that some factors influencing the family business’s succession are company-specific (such as the size and performance of the company). Others depend on the students’ commitment (ownership, involvement in the work) and individual characteristics (attitudes, self-efficacy) and are also determined by the perception of the student’s environment about the succession.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a New Challenge in the Legal Field<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The discovery of epigenetics as hidden external influences on genes could in the future affect all aspects of our lives. This includes also legal life, both in terms of its different application or enforcement of liability and the understanding of law itself. Epigenetics is a path towards personalised medicine, and with this to personalised and transgenerational justice. The aim of this paper is – based on the literature review and the critical evaluation of the material – to present epigenetics as a new legal perspective that allows a more personal perspective on issues of individual and transgenerational justice which brings to the fore intergenerational solidarity. The result of this is the increased awareness of the importance of changes in genetic profiles that can affect a person’s actions and thoughts, which can affect the way cases are handled. As epigenetics is focused on actual rather than chronological age, new discoveries on rejuvenation give us a new basis for a different interpretation and application of legal provisions. If the law changes during use and its violation (as proteins patch the DNA chain), thereby lowering the rule of law, an epigenetic view of the rejuvenation or reprogramming, resetting, and restarting of the DNA backup may offer a new-old, i.e. always baseline, perspective on the understanding of law.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on the Czech Labour Market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper deals with the situation on the Czech labour market from the point of view of the sectors, namely Agriculture and Mining Sector, Manufacturing Industry, Energy, Construction Sector, Service Sector Requiring Mostly Personal Contact, Service Sector Rather without Personal Contact and Service Sector Usually Provided by the Public Sector. Wages and salaries together constitute the investigated variable. The main aim is not only to capture the wage and salary level in individual sectors, but an equally important objective is the construction of models of the entire distribution of wages and salaries in individual sectors. Special attention is paid to employees of individual sectors, separated into men and women, whose remuneration for work is at the level of the minimum wage. An important aim is to determine the most frequent occupations of the CZ-ISCO classification in individual distinguished sectors, while this classification codes are considered for the first three digits. Important attention is paid to the representation of foreign nationals in the position of employees in individual sectors, separated into men and women. Three-parametric lognormal curves are used in the construction of wage and salary distribution models. The amount of the minimum gross monthly wage valid on January 1 of the previous year represented the beginning of the curves, the other two parameters were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Accuracy of lognormal curves is evaluated using Akaike and Bayes information criterion. The results show that the highest levels of wages and salaries are mainly achieved by men in the Service Sector Rather without Personal Contact. In all five monitored sectors, the level of wages and salaries of women is lower than the level of wages and salaries of men. The overall distribution of women’s wages and salaries is more skewed, with higher skewness, but with lower level and variability compared to the overall distribution of men’s wages and salaries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue VAT Gap Progress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to estimate the VAT Gap amount development from 2010 to 2016 in the Czech Republic. The methodology of the VAT Gap identification was based on the indirect top-down method for each year of the reporting period, using the authors’ calculation of the weighted average VAT rate in the Czech Republic. The results of the years under review show a VAT gap of more than CZK 100,000 million per year. The breakdown of the VAT Gap into individual parts shows that it is mainly due to the intentional misrepresentation of data by business entities. The VAT Gap associated with this factor ranged from CZK 40,004 to CZK 52,765 million in the monitored years. Only 3.53%–7.03% of the VAT Gap of unlawful tax evasion is subject to prosecution for the tax evasion offense.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Management and Improvement of Payment Planning Processes in Production Engineering<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper was to propose an innovative solution for the management and payment planning processes in manufacturing enterprises with the support of an in-house SAP system in accounting and administration of services in order to streamline enterprise processes. The methods used were analysis of internal environment, observation method, analysis of written documents, analysis of microenvironment of manufacturing enterprises, SWOT analysis, internal data from the SAP system, process structural analysis and process map. The results obtained, in conjunction with application of scientific research methods, contributed to development of an application that reduces risk of negative reputation of manufacturing enterprises and promotes business partnerships in supplier-customer relationships where late payment of obligations occurred due to an out-dated management and payment planning processes. The new application is a potential solution reducing risks of payment of obligations in processes of managing and planning payments for SMEs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aspects of Virtual Assets Regulation in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Virtual assets are a concept that has made its way into the modern financial and legal lexicon in recent years. Markets are formed around them, transactions are conducted with them, they are the object of increased interest in the field of investment activities. The need for legal regulation of new types of social relations transiting to the virtual plane stimulates lawmakers to take active measures concerning the formation of a legislative basis in this area. This study intends to consider the challenges facing the Ukrainian legislator in the light of the adoption of this law based on existing foreign practices. The study suggests that such obstacles now include not only terminological differences, but also issues of legal qualification of illegal actions with cryptoassets, issues of theoretical and legal understanding of the new legal relations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Gap in Refugee Protection in Non-Signatory Countries: An Evidence from Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As of December 2021, about 13.399 asylum seekers had entered Indonesian territory. As a non-signatory party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol, refugee protection is becoming ambiguous and uncertain; specifically, about the treatment of asylum seekers and refugees who are in transit in Indonesia. This study used a sociolegal technique to answer that question, using data from the UNHCR High Frequency Survey: Communication with Communities 2022, which included 400 respondents from the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, collected between 15 December 2022 and 09 January 2023. The finding stated that detention is still utilized to treat asylum seekers, sexual and verbal abuse is still happening in detention centres, also illegal deportation is still common. The legal analysis found that it happens because the asylum seeker does not belong to the subject of protection and categorized as illegal migrant by the current legal framework.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Education of Mothers Affect Their Experience pf Motherhood and Parenthood? Selected Aspects in the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to assess how mothers’ education affects their experience of motherhood and parenthood. The selected topic is based on the theoretical views of selected authors who deal with the issue of motivation and experience of maternity and parental leave. The core of the paper is an evaluation of primary research aimed at the motivation and perception of maternity and parental leave in relation to the degree of education achieved by women mothers. The sub-objectives of the research were to analyse and evaluate the motivational factors for mothers’ return to the labour market and the related concerns about the loss of professional skills and competences. The contribution of the article is the comparison of theoretical background with the results of primary research, which are significantly complementary and thus expand the knowledge from the Czech environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Administration Effectiveness of the Agro-Trade between Ukraine and the Slovak Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agricultural development fuels economic growth and is crucial to poverty alleviation and food security. Agricultural trade plays an important role in the sustainability of global and regional food systems. Trade between countries allows food to shift from surplus to deficit areas. The efficiency of the public administration for the agricultural products trade is vitally important for the sustainability and prosperity of any country. The aim of the article is to assess the effectiveness of the public administration of the agro-trade sphere through the analysis of the dynamics, general trend line building and forecasting of the agricultural products trade between Ukraine and the Slovak Republic. According to the trend line direction, the agricultural products trade amount between Ukraine and the Slovak Republic is to increase during two projected years. The projections for two years following the analysed time frame for all the components of the agro-trade between Ukraine and the Slovak Republic have an upward trend, except the agro imports one. The research presented in the article can be used by public administration bodies, politicians and decision-makers of Ukraine and the Slovak Republic, big and small companies involved in the agro-trade, the EU international trade bodies and beginners as well as experienced specialists in data analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue