rss_2.0The EuroBiotech Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for The EuroBiotech Journal EuroBiotech Journal Feed Approaches to Generate Biogenic Solvents and Energy Carriers from Renewable Resources<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: Current threats connected to the ongoing depletion of fossil resources and elevated levels of greenhouse gases accelerating climate change and global warming provoke a renaissance of biotechnological production of various organic bulk chemicals, which, particularly during the second half of the 20th century, were almost exclusively produced from fossil resources via chemosynthetic processes.</p> <p><bold>Scope</bold>: Besides the manufacture of bioethanol, a product obtained by microbial fermentation, biogenic production of solvents and energy carriers like acetone, isopropanol, 2,3-butanediol, or 1-butanol, hence, processes known since the beginning of the last century, experiences now a substantial revival.</p> <p><bold>Summary of new synthesis and conclusions reached in the review</bold>: The review illustrates how to produce these products by resorting to fossil raw materials instead of petrochemical production processes, and how this can be accomplished by the cultivation of anaerobic organisms, namely facultatively anaerobic yeasts and bacteria (production of ethanol or 2,3-butanediol), and strictly anaerobic Clostridia (1-butanol, acetone, or isopropanol) on renewable resources. Moreover, novel methods for producing biodiesel-like methyl-esters of aerobically produced bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolyester building blocks combine the synthesis of microbial biopolyesters from wastewater with the progress of innovative renewable energy carriers. The biochemical background, the current state of research and development, and the status of industrialization of these processes are reviewed.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Challenges to make these bioprocesses, based on inexpensive renewable resources, competitive with or even superior to petrochemical production routes in terms of sustainability, scalability, and economic feasibility still exist: however, they can be overcome by the concerted action of various scientific disciplines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue metabolic mechanism of growth inhibition by co-culture of Y-11 and y37<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Bacteroides xylanisolvens</italic> Y-11 and <italic>Bifidobacterium longum</italic> y37 isolated from human gut were found to inhibit each other's growth after co-culturing in previous studies. To further reveal the potential mechanism of mutual inhibition between them, ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to investigate the metabolic changes of the strains after monoculture and co-culture, and the key differential metabolites were subject to the validation. The results showed that the types and amounts of metabolites were significantly changed during co-culture, with hydrocarbons and their derivatives, organic acids and esters being the main differential metabolites, which posed a greater influence on the metabolism of <italic>B. xylanisolvens</italic> Y-11 than on <italic>B. longum</italic>y y37. Further studies suggest that cycloserine and succinic acid may be the main metabolites that inhibit the growth of both strains, and the decrease of pH may be the main reason for succinic acid to inhibit the growth of the two strains. Moreover, <italic>B. longum</italic> y37 played a dominant role in the co-culture and its metabolites influenced the growth of <italic>B. xylanisolvens</italic> Y-11 to a greater extent. This study provides a new perspective for further understanding of the interaction between intestinal microbes and the influence of intestinal microecology on the occurrence and development of diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Screening for Identification of Hits against SARS-Cov-2 Variant of Concern B.1.617 and NSP12 Mutants by Molecular Docking and Simulation Studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as SARS-CoV-2, have caused global epidemics with high morbidity and mortality. Active research on finding effective drugs against 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 is going on. <italic>In silico</italic> screening represents the best approach for hits identification and could shorten the time and reduce cost compared to <italic>de novo</italic> drug discovery. Recently, CoV2 mutations have been a big concern in India, particularly on non-structural proteins (NSPs) and Spike Protein (B.1.617) which are the key targets that play a pivotal role in mediating viral replication and transcription. Herein, this study analyzed the NSPs and spike’s structural aspects of mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2. The three-dimensional structures of NSPs and S Spike proteins were retrieved from the protein data bank or modeled. And a dataset of an antiviral compound library containing 490,000 drug-like ligands and structurally diverse biologically active scaffolds was used for our studies. Initially, the molecular alignment was performed for library compounds with the reference drug molecule to find targets that match the field points. Antiviral compounds having a similarity score &gt;0.6; were selected for further docking studies with wild and mutant NSPs and S Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.617. The docking studies identified a potent analog MA-11, which exhibited the highest binding affinity towards wild and mutant proteins. Further, molecular dynamics simulation studies of selected compounds confirmed their perfect fitting into NSP12 and spike active sites and offer direction for further lead optimization and rational drug design.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biotechnology Congress 2022 - Poster Presentation Abstracts of PAP-IgM FcK fusion protein with J-chain expressed in transgenic plant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Transgenic plants expressing immunoglobulin (Ig) M Fc-fused Prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) antigenic proteins (PAP-IgM FcK) and J-chain proteins were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Fc region was tagged with the ER retention motif (KDEL) to make PAP-IgM FcK. Two transgenic plants were crossed together to generate F<sub>1</sub> expressing both PAP-IgM FcK and J-chain proteins (PAP-IgM FcK × J-chain). PCR and RT-PCR analyses confirmed the transgene insertion and mRNA transcription of PAP-IgM FcK and J-chain in leaf tissue of PAP-IgM FcK × J-chain F<sub>1</sub> plant. Western blot confirmed the expression of PAP-IgM FcK × J-chain protein. Size exclusion (SEC)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Bio-transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses were performed to show the size and shape of the PAP- IgM FcK × J-chain fusion proteins. These results suggest that PAP-IgM FcK with J-chain can be produced in plant expression system with plant crossing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biotechnology Congress 2022 - Invited Speaker Abstracts Fibroin Hybrids for Biological Scaffolds with Adhesive Surface and Adaptability to the Target Tissue Change<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold> Regenerative Medicine (RM) is a branch of medicine that aims to regenerate tissues and organs to overcome the problems transplants entail (poor availability, risk of rejection and intense immunosuppression). To do this, RM makes use of tissue engineering (TE). This fundamental branch deals with creating biological scaffolds capable of performing the role that physiologically belongs to the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we report how specific characteristics of the scaffolds (bio-compatibility, biodegradability and mechanical and conformal properties) can be obtained using 3D printing, which facilitates the emulation of physiological tissues and organs.</p> <p><bold>Purpose and scope</bold> This review reports recent advances in the fabrication method of bioactive scaffolds that can be used clinically, providing support for cell seeding and proliferation. To this end, silk fibroin, tannin and graphene were used to improve the scaffold’s electro-bio-mechanical properties. These materials in different compositions are studied to demonstrate their potential use as bio-ink in bioadhesives and cellularized and implantable 3D-printed scaffolds.</p> <p><bold>Summary of new synthesis and conclusions reached in the review</bold> Silk fibroin is a natural biopolymer; tannin, on the other hand, is a biological polyphenol, highly reactive with other molecules by nature and with promising antioxidant capabilities. Finally, graphene is nothing more than a monolayer of graphite that has been shown to implement the mechanics and electrical conductivity of the compounds in which it is inserted; it also has excellent biocompatibility and surface area, qualities that promote cell adhesion and growth.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold> Polyphenols and graphene have been shown to work in synergy in improving the electro-mechanical properties of silk fibroin scaffolds. We reported optimal and potentially market-competitive bioadhesives, but above all, the proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in vitro was successfully demonstrated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biotechnology Congress 2022 - Oral Presentation Abstracts Biotechnology Congress 2022 Biocompatibility of a Nitinol Capsular Tension Ring (CTR)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: The biocompatibility of nitinol in the human body has extensively been demonstrated. Although nitinol is already being used for intraocular surgeries such as lens fragmentation and foreign body extraction, little is known about its intracapsular, long-term behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term uveal and capsular biocompatibility of a nitinol CTR placed in the capsular bag after cataract surgery in an animal model.</p> <p><bold>Method</bold>: After approval of the study by the Institutional Animal Care and the Ethics Committee, bilateral phacoemulsification was performed in 6 rabbits; 1 eye received a nitinol CTR and the other a control polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) open-ended ring. Ophthalmic evaluation for the presence of infections in all 12 eyes was performed after 7 days, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months follow-up period. After a follow-up period of 6 months, the eyes were enucleated, and a histopathologic evaluation was performed.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Neither of the groups showed any clinical signs of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or inflammation. The nitinol group showed slightly less inflammation during histopathologic examination compared to the PMMA group.</p> <p>No biocompatibility issues have been observed in this animal study.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: There were no histological differences between eyes implanted with nitinol and eyes implanted with PMMA rings. Nitinol has proven to show high biocompatibility when implanted in the capsular bag of the rabbit eye.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Microbially Extended Phenotype of Plants, a Keystone against Abiotic Stress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: Climate change affects every region across the globe with heterogeneous effects on local temperatures and precipitation patterns. In plants, sessile organisms, climate change imposes more drastic effects leading to loss of yield or even death. However, plants establish mutualistic interactions with microorganisms that boost plant tolerance against abiotic stresses or strengthen the plant immune system against pathogens, thus, enhancing their survival and fitness. Moreover, in the wild, microbial endophytes provide important ecosystem services.</p> <p><bold>Purpose and scope</bold>: Little we know about the mechanisms of response against the adverse effects of climate change on natural populations of wild plants and even less about the potential role played by microbial biostimulants. In this article, we review the effects of biostimulants on plant responses against abiotic stresses, with a particular focus on the role of mycorrhizas and leaf endophytes.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: We have reviewed the effects of the main abiotic stresses in plants, the mechanisms that plants use to face these abiotic challenges, and the interaction plant-biostimulant-abiotic stress, highlighting the primary responses and parameters to evaluate different plant responses.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Abiotic stresses can check the phenotypic plasticity of plants and also trigger a complex and heterogeneous array of responses to face different abiotic stresses, and beneficial microorganisms do play an essential role in enhancing such responses. Our laboratory has initiated a project to characterise microbial populations associated with plants from wild areas and analyse their potential role in aiding the plants to cope with abiotic stresses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aspects and Test Characteristics of Eponymously Named Psychometric Tests by Women: The Period up to 1970<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: Prior to 1970, women authored or co-authored a variety of eponymously named psychometric tests predominately in children and young adults with developmental and behavioral disorders. Gaps remain in understanding and appreciating the extent of their contributions to these psychometric tests.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: Two authors adjudicated psychometric tests in the text, Tests in Print, to identify those eponymously named after women. To be eligible for this study, the psychometric test title must contain the name of a woman and be published prior to 1970. If a woman published more than one eponymously named test, the earliest one, if available, was chosen to be included in this study. A search for individual and a combination of related Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords of the “name of the women author” and “name of the test” was performed using the Google web browser, PubMed, APA PsycNet, and APA PsycInfo from inception to August 1, 2021. Further papers were identified using bibliographic search from source papers and reference books.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Three hundred eighty-six eponymously named psychometric tests were identified, with 124 (32%) of them named in whole or in part by or for a woman. Of these 124 psychometric tests, 93 represent unique women’s names. Before 1970, there were twenty-three (19%) eponymously named psychometric tests with women, with twenty-one (17%) representing unique women’s names.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: These tests were published by women whereby they served either as a single author or in collaboration with others or their spouse. In the latter case, the woman’s name universally appeared after their husband’s name. In only a few cases, are these women’s names well-referenced in biographical source materials. These women made essential contributions to the development and revision of psychometric tests and the field of psychology in general.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the gene Ser23 variation with childhood allergic asthma<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Objective</bold>: Allergic asthma is the most frequently observed subtype of individuals with asthma. The effects of serotonin plays in the pathophysiology of asthma has not been clearly determined. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between the <italic>5HTR2C</italic> gene rs 6318 G&gt;C polymorphism and allergic asthma in pediatric patients in Cyprus.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: This study included total number of 177 individuals with 118 control and 59 pediatric patients (43 atopic and 16 non-atopic asthma patient). A skin prick test was performed for each patient to confirm asthma diagnosis and to evaluate atopic status. Genotyping for the 5HTR2C was completed by Real Time-PCR analysis.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The genotype distribution frequencies were not in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the patients’ group (p&lt;0.00001). The frequency of the risk allele (allele C) was not significantly different between the patient and control groups (p=0.255). The genotypic distribution between atopic asthma and non-atopic asthma within the patientsts groups was not in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p=0.006). However, risk allele presence showed a statistically significant association with atopy-related asthma (p=0.037).</p> <p><bold>Discussion &amp; Conclusion</bold>: Overall, despite the finding of no association between the 5HTR2C rs6318 C allele and childhood asthma, the current results indicated that there is a strong association between the 5HTR2C rs6318 C variant and childhood atopic asthma.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comprehensive Assessment of The Eight Vital Signs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The term “vital sign” has been assigned to various phenomena with the presumptive intent to emphasize their importance in health care resulting in the emergence of eight vital signs with multiple designations and overlapping terms. This review developed a case definition for vital signs and identified and described the fifth through eighth vital signs. PubMed/Medline, Google and biographical databases were searched using the individual Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, vital sign and fifth, vital sign and sixth, vital sign and seventh, and vital sign eighth. The search was limited to human clinical studies written in English literature from 1957 up until November 30, 2021. Excluded were articles containing the term vital sign if used alone without the qualifier fifth, sixth, seventh, or eighth or about temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate. One hundred ninety-six articles (122 for the fifth vital sign, 71 for the sixth vital sign, two for the seventh vital sign, and one for the eighth vital sign) constituted the final dataset. The vital signs consisted of 35 terms, classified into 17 categories compromising 186 unique papers for each primary authored article with redundant numbered vital signs for glucose, weight, body mass index, and medication compliance. Eleven terms have been named the fifth vital sign, 25 the sixth vital sign, three the seventh, and one as the eighth vital sign. There are four time-honored vital signs based on the case definition, and they represent an objective bedside measurement obtained noninvasively that is essential for life. Based on this case definition, pulse oximetry qualifies as the fifth while end-tidal CO<sub>2</sub> and cardiac output as the sixth. Thus, these terms have been misappropriated 31 times. Although important to emphasize in patient care, the remainder are not vital signs and should not be construed in this manner.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue L. (Jute) leaf and seed extracts exerted high antibacterial activity against food and plant pathogenic bacteria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH), acetone (Ace), petroleum ether (PE) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R), and seed (S) extracts of <italic>Corchorus olitorius</italic> L. on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA), and quantitative and qualitative constituent analysis. Leaf PE has the highest strain susceptibility on both food- and plant-borne pathogens. <italic>Clavibacter michiganensis</italic>, <italic>Pseudomonas tomato</italic>, and Erwinia caratovora were susceptible to nearly all the leaf and seed extracts. Very low minimum inhibitory concentration (8-128 μg mL<sup>−1</sup>) and minimum bactericidal concentration (32-2048 μg mL<sup>−1</sup>) were determined for both leaf and seed extracts against <italic>C. michiganensis</italic>. Total phenolic contents were correlated to DRSA. The phenolic compounds tested were higher in the leaf MetOH, cholorogenic acid being the most abundant one. Palmitic acid was determined in leaf PE and seed PE extracts. Results presented here demonstrate high antibacterial activity of <italic>C. olitorius</italic> leaf seed extracts against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be important in plant disease control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a database of RNA helicase inhibitors (VHIMDB) of pathogenic viruses and in silico screening for the potential drug molecules<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The pathogenic RNA virus that infects human beings contains the RNA helicase enzyme, responsible for the replication of the viral genome. The enzyme is used as a suitable target against which the drug molecule acts. Therefore, the identification and proposal the novel compounds that can be targeted toward the helicase enzymes to stop the functioning of the enzyme is desirable. Although many viral helicase inhibitor molecules have been identified, still yet no unique database is available for these compounds. This research work envisages developing a curated database of RNA helicase inhibitors. The database contains in total of 353 entries that are computationally predicted and experimentally verified RNA helicase inhibitors. The database contains information like compound name, chemical properties, chemical format, and name of the target virus to which it acts against it with a user-friendly menu-driven search engine. Presently, the database is freely available at: <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>. Further, in silico screening of the whole database by drug-likeness and toxicity resulted in 14 potential drug molecules. The selected molecules were analyzed for their effectiveness in binding by using molecular docking score and interaction with the helicase enzymes of three categories of pathogenic viruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue induces death in human prostate cancer cell lines by inducing DNA damage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a relationship between a person’s diet and the development and prevention of some cancers. Carotenoids are found as various natural pigments in many fruits and vegetables. Studies on carotenoids and their potential roles in carcinogenesis are increasing in importance day by day. In this study, we aimed to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of capsanthin, a carotenoid compound, in human prostate cancer cell lines.</p> <p>After different concentrations of capsanthin were applied to human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3), the effects of the compound on cell viability were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. The single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay was then used to reveal the genotoxic effects of probable cytotoxic dosages on cell DNA. After the treatments, apoptotic cell death levels were determined by Tunel staining. At high concentrations, capsanthin dramatically reduced PC-3 and LNCaP cell viability (p&lt;0.05). In addition, capsanthin caused DNA damage and apoptotic cell death in the prostate cancer cells. The results show that capsanthin reduces cell viability by causing genotoxicity in prostate cancer cells.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue hydroperoxyl antiradical activity of Trolox in water: The effects of pH values on rate constants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid) is a highly hydrophilic α-tocopherol analog that is widely used as a standard against which the antioxidant ability of other chemicals is measured and represented in Trolox equivalents. However, the effect of pH values on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity has not been fully studied yet. In this study, the HOO<sup>•</sup> antiradical activity of Trolox in water was studied. It was found that the H-abstraction of the O1-H bond determined the activity of the neutral and monoanion states, whereas the electron transfer reaction of the hydroxyl anion state determined the activity of the dianion state. Although the total rate constant increased following the increase in pH levels, the overall rate constant of the Trolox + HOO<sup>•</sup> reaction in water changed when pH levels rose due to the decrease in HOO<sup>•</sup> molar fraction. The results also revealed that at pH &lt; 2, the O1-radical was the main intermediate of the Trolox + HOO<sup>•</sup> reaction in water, whereas, at pH ---gt--- 5, the anion-radical was the significant intermediate. Thus the rate constants and the reaction intermediates vary with the pH values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (PHA) Biopolyesters - Emerging and Major Products of Industrial Biotechnology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> Industrial Biotechnology (“White Biotechnology”) is the large-scale production of materials and chemicals using renewable raw materials along with biocatalysts like enzymes derived from microorganisms or by using microorganisms themselves (“whole cell biocatalysis”). While the production of ethanol has existed for several millennia and can be considered a product of Industrial Biotechnology, the application of complex and engineered biocatalysts to produce industrial scale products with acceptable economics is only a few decades old. Bioethanol as fuel, lactic acid as food and PolyHydroxyAlkanoates (PHA) as a processible material are some examples of products derived from Industrial Biotechnology.</p> <p><bold>Purpose and Scope:</bold> Industrial Biotechnology is the sector of biotechnology that holds the most promise in reducing our dependence on fossil fuels and mitigating environmental degradation caused by pollution, since all products that are made today from fossil carbon feedstocks could be manufactured using Industrial Biotechnology – renewable carbon feedstocks and biocatalysts. To match the economics of fossil-based bulk products, Industrial Biotechnology-based processes must be sufficiently robust. This aspect continues to evolve with increased technological capabilities to engineer biocatalysts (including microorganisms) and the decreasing relative price difference between renewable and fossil carbon feedstocks. While there have been major successes in manufacturing products from Industrial Biotechnology, challenges exist, although its promise is real. Here, PHA biopolymers are a class of product that is fulfilling this promise.</p> <p><bold>Summary and Conclusion:</bold> The authors illustrate the benefits and challenges of Industrial Biotechnology, the circularity and sustainability of such processes, its role in reducing supply chain issues, and alleviating societal problems like poverty and hunger. With increasing awareness among the general public and policy makers of the dangers posed by climate change, pollution and persistent societal issues, Industrial Biotechnology holds the promise of solving these major problems and is poised for a transformative upswing in the manufacture of bulk chemicals and materials from renewable feedstocks and biocatalysts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue contractile force measured using a deformable hollow capsule<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are several possible ways to measure the contraction of cells <italic>in vitro</italic>. Here, we report measurements of the contractile properties of 3T3-L1 cells grown to confluence on 3D hollow capsules. The capsules were fabricated using the layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition technique on a polymer core. After the polyelectrolyte film was completed, the core was dissolved to leave the hollow capsule. The contractile force of the cells was determined from the deformation in the capsule size induced by interruption of the actin cytoskeleton of the cells that adhered to the outer surface of the hollow capsules, using prior measurements of the elastic modulus of the capsule. From the measurements of the compressive modulus for the capsules (of 6.52 μN), those capsule deformations indicate that the forskolin relaxed the layer of cells by 19.6 μN and the cytochalasin-D relaxed the layer of cells by 45.6 μN. The density of cells in the layer indicated that the force associated with the forskolin-induced relaxation of a single cell is 3.2 nN and the force associated with the cytochalasin-D-induced relaxation of a single cell is 7.5 nN. The mechanism of action of forskolin through second messenger pathways to disrupt the assembly of actin stress fibres also explains its reduced effect on cell contraction compared to that for cytochalasin-D, which is a compound that directly inhibits the polymerization of F-actin filaments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue