rss_2.0The EuroBiotech Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for The EuroBiotech Journal EuroBiotech Journal Feed strategy for covalent anchoring of self-assembling β oligoamide nanorods to gold surfaces<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Oligopeptides stand out for their remarkable structural variability, ease of synthesis, and amenability to functionalization, making them exceedingly appealing for crafting functional nanostructured materials. The low metabolic stability of natural peptides can be overcome by replacing α-amino acids with β<sup>3</sup>- amino acids, to yield artificial peptides best described as substituted β<sup>3</sup>-oligoamides. Controlling the morphology of such structures by varying the amino acid residues and altering the oligoamide termini makes it possible to adapt the core design to a range of hierarchical structures and function. Conductivity is a desired property in such nanomaterials; preferably conductive materials should be chemically anchored to a highly conductive metal, such as gold surface to connect to macroscopic electronics. It is preferable to use thiol functionality, however β3 cysteine is not synthetically achieveable. In this study β3 [SLIA] oligoamide has been synthesized and functionalized at the N terminus with a thiol moiety. After successful synthesis and purification, the thiolated oligoamide was physically characterized to confirm binding to gold, self-assembly and hetero assembly on these anchor points. It was demonstrated with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) that self-assembling monolayers can be formed on a gold surface and the formation of a S-Au bond was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Growth of Ac-β<sup>3</sup>[WKLWEL] fibres on these anchor points was confirmed by using atomic force microscopy and QCM. Hence, a viable metal anchor has been established that lays the foundations for the future development of molecular electronics based on β<sup>3</sup> oligoamides.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue International Scientific Cooperation: the Role of Scientific Societies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Scientific collaboration yields many advantages, especially in fields that require interdisciplinary approaches, as it fosters the sharing of knowledge and resources and is essential for the implementation of complex projects. The concept of scientific internationalism emerged around the 1900s, emphasizing that science surpasses national boundaries and promotes global peace and collaboration. International scientific cooperation is halted by geopolitical tensions and conflicts, such as World War II and the Cold War. Nevertheless, many examples show that scientific collaboration can surpass conflicts and bring scientific and society development, such as in the cases of the Tick-borne Encephalitis vaccine, the Apollo-Soyuz test project and more recently the international endeavour for COVID-19 vaccine development. In this contest, UN and WHO have an imporant role to promote peace and scientific cooperation, examplified by the 16th Sustainable Development Goal, to “Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies”.</p> <p>This review aims to assess the available literature regarding international scientific collaboration and the role of scientific societies in promoting scientific cooperation.</p> <p>Scientific societies have proved to be pivotal in bridging cultures and promoting international cooperation. Apart from the historical example of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which showed an important cooperation between Western and Eastern countries during the Cold War, the scientific society European Biotechnology thematic network Association (EBTNA) has international scientific cooperation as one of its critical goals.</p> <p>Scientific societies such as EBTNA will be pivotal in promoting international scientific cooperation and fostering international activities and scientific research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of valproic acid on transcript levels in neurotrophin signaling pathway in mice hippocampus according to the implementation period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background/Aim</title> <p>Valproic acid (VPA), is an antiepileptic drug and it has been known for a long time that exposure to VPA in the fetal period causes many behavioral, cognitive, and structural disorders. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the implementation period of VPA during pregnancy on both behavioral tests and the expression of 45 key genes belonging to the neurotrophin signaling pathway.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The study was designed to form four different groups of five female mice in each group. The experimental and control groups were divided into mature (n = 5) and immature (n = 5) subgroups, respectively. VPA (500 mg/kg dose) was subcutaneously administered to the experimental groups. All mice were first tested for behavioral changes, and then the hippo-campal tissues were used for RNA isolation. The expression levels of 45 transcripts associated with the neurotrophin signaling pathway were determined by real-time RT-PCR in the hippocampus.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>No differences were found between the groups in any of the behavioral tests. When gene expression was examined, there was a difference between the groups in the transcript levels of <italic>Ngf</italic>(neurotrophic growth factor), <italic>Ntrk2</italic> (neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2), <italic>Shc1</italic> (SHC adaptor protein 1), <italic>Chka</italic> (choline kinase alpha), and <italic>Mapk1</italic> (mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) genes.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>This study demonstrated the effects of VPA on transcript levels at different maturation stages. We believe that it is important to explain the structural and cognitive teratogenic side effects caused by VPA in human fetuses using genes whose expression changes.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the potential of phenolic and antioxidant compounds identified and quantified of fruits and their impacts on lambs’ performance and health<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to assess the impact of the identified phenolic, flavonoid, and fat-soluble vitamin compounds found in <italic>Caesalpinia coriaria</italic> fruits (EC) aqueous extract on growth performance, helminth parasitic load, feeding behavior, and physiological variables in lambs. The fruits were extracted using water, and three doses of the extract as no extract (EC0 mL/lamb/day), 30 mL of aqueous extract of <italic>Caesalpinia coriaria</italic> fruits (EC30 mL/lamb/day), or 60 mL of aqueous extract of <italic>Caesalpinia coriaria</italic> fruits (EC60 mL/lamb/day) were orally administered to 24 growing crossbred lambs weighing 18-20 kg for 60 days. The HPLC analysis revealed that ferulic acid, ellagic acid, syringic acid, quercetin, and hesperidin were the predominant compounds in <italic>Caesalpinia coriaria</italic> fruits. Additionally, water-soluble vitamin compounds such as thiamine, pantothenic acid, and niacin were detected in the <italic>Caesalpinia coriaria</italic> fruit extract. The dietary administration of EC improved (P &lt; 0.05) average daily gain and feed and water intake. EC30 lambs spent more time (P &lt; 0.03) eating and less time ruminating. The aqueous extract also showed a dose-dependent reduction (P = 0.048) in fecal parasite egg count, with a steady decrease (P = 0.0001) as the extract was applied. EC0 lambs exhibited the highest (P &lt; 0.0001) respiratory frequency and EC30 the lowest. A strong positive correlation was identified between rectal and abdomen temperature in the morning and afternoon measurements. The presence of phenolic and antioxidants in the aqueous extract of C. coriaria, up to 60 mL, demonstrated beneficial effects, including improved productivity, anti-parasitic activity, and mitigation of body temperature. Thus, farmers without access to synthetic drugs can use this plant extract to treat their animals during fattening to reduce gastrointestinal parasites, improve growth rate, and reduce drug residue in animal products. Further studies need to be carried out on the individual components of <italic>Caesalpinia coriaria</italic> fruits to ascertain their effect on body temperature/physiology and to know if the effects are individualistic or synergistic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Stress in Vitiligo: Association of the rs6318 Variant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vitiligo is a chronic, progressive autoimmune dermatological disease, and stress is known to have an impact on the development of vitiligo. However, the effect of the serotonin pathway and its impact have not been clearly explained for disease progression. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the stress induced serotonin receptor <italic>5-HTR2C</italic> rs6318 variant and its association with vitiligo pathogenesis.</p> <p>Case-control study was conducted with 108 vitiligo patients and 107 age-sex matched, unrelated healthy control group. Real Time-PCR analysis was used for genotyping the <italic>5-HTR2C</italic> variation. Genotype and allele frequencies, genotype distributions, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) and vitiligo-related risk measurements were examined. Genotype correlations of the variant were also analyzed based on gender difference, age onset, Koebner phenomenon history, triggered with stress, clinical subgroups, treatment types, the presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitiligo presence in family members and other auto-immune diseases in relatives.</p> <p>Statistical differences in 5HT-R2C receptor genotypes and allele frequencies between patients and controls were not detected. Genotype frequencies were not in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the patients’ group (p&lt;0.00001). The frequency of the risk allele (allele C) was not significantly different between the patient and control groups (p=0.1392). However, in the clinical subgroup analysis, the risk allele presence was detected to be significantly higher for early age onset (&lt;40 years) vitiligo development (p=0.035, OR=Infinity, RR=1.391) and lower in Koebner phenomenon history (p=0.0276, OR= 0.219, RR=0.325).</p> <p>In conclusion, although there was no association between the <italic>5-HTR2C</italic> variant rs6318 and vitiligo, current results indicate that there is an association between the <italic>5HTR2C</italic> rs6318 variant C allele and early onset vitiligo development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and early seedling growth in four species in response to Zn, Cu and Fe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Heavy metal contamination is an increasingly pressing global ecological concern adversely affecting plant growth. Phytoremediation is an eco-friendly and low-cost approach to help solve this problem by using plants to remove metals. This study aimed to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of four <italic>Plantago</italic> species, exposing them to different concentrations (0, 150, 300, 600 and 900 ppm) of zinc, copper, and iron during germination and early seedling growth. These are generally the phases of the plant life cycle most sensitive to stress. The germination percentage (GP), mean germination time (MGT), radicle, hypocotyl and cotyledons length, biomass, water content and tolerance index (TI) were recorded under controlled conditions. The results indicated that metal-induced stress significantly reduced GP, increased MGT, and inhibited seedling growth with increased metal concentration. The relative toxicity of the tested metals could be ranked as Fe &gt; Cu &gt; Zn. Regarding the <italic>Plantago</italic> species, <italic>P. tunetana</italic> and <italic>P. lanceolata</italic> could be considered highly tolerant, <italic>P. albicans</italic> moderately tolerant, and <italic>P. afra</italic> low-tolerant to metal toxicity during germination. Therefore, <italic>P. tunetana</italic> and <italic>P. lanceolata</italic> present an excellent potential for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated zones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue cells: A potentially groundbreaking field of research and therapy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Artificial cells are synthetic constructs that mimic the architecture and functions of biological cells. Artificial cells are designed to replicate the fundamental principles of biological systems while also have the ability to exhibit novel features and functionalities that have not been achieved before. Mainly, Artificial cells are made up of a basic structure like a cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm and cellular organelles. Nanotechnology has been used to make substances that possess accurate performance in these structures. There are many roles that artificial cells can play such as drug delivery, bio-sensors, medical applications and energy storage. An additional prominent facet of this technology is interaction with biological systems. The possibility of synthetic cells being compatible with living organisms opens up the potential for interfering with specific biological activities. This element is one of the key areas of research in medicine, aimed at developing novel therapies and comprehending life processes. Nevertheless, artificial cell technology is not exempt from ethical and safety concerns. The interplay between these structures and biological systems may give rise to questions regarding their controllability and safety. Hence, the pursuit of artificial cell research seeks to reconcile ethical and safety concerns with the potential advantages of this technology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of and against wheat aphid<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the recent study, the entomopathogenic fungus, <italic>Beauveria bassiana</italic> and <italic>Metarhizium anisopliae</italic> against wheat aphid species in field conditions to check the insecticidal effect of entomophathogenic fungi were used to evaluate their pathogenecity against adults of different aphid species i.e., <italic>Schizaphis graminum, Rhopalosiphum padi, Brevicoryne brassicae</italic> and <italic>Lipaphis erysimi</italic>, and their natural enemies of crops. <italic>Beauveria bassiana</italic> and <italic>Metarhizium anisopliae</italic> were found effective at all concentrations i.e., 1×10<sup>6</sup>, 1×10<sup>7</sup> and 1×10<sup>8</sup> cfu/ml on all aphid species, but the uppermost concentration (1×10<sup>8</sup> cfu/ml) provided maximum control within a short period of time. <italic>B. bassiana</italic> concentration (1×10<sup>8</sup> cfu/ml) proved to be lethal to wheat aphid species after the 3<sup>rd</sup> day. Mortality of wheat aphids were observed at maximum highest concentration of 1×10<sup>8</sup> cfu/ml were in range of 100% at 8<sup>th</sup> day of treatment for different aphid species treated at various concentrations. <italic>M. anisopliae</italic> (1×10<sup>8</sup> cfu/ml) showed excellent mortality 85% and 84% at 5<sup>th</sup> and 6<sup>th</sup> day respectively, against wheat aphid species. In conclusion, the use of <italic>Beauveria bassiana</italic> and <italic>Metarhizium anisopliae</italic> as biopesticides in agriculture is a sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to control insects’ pests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds in . red peppers following drying in a polycarbonate greenhouse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study aims to provide insights into the drying of agro products, with a specific focus on <italic>Capsicum annum L.</italic> (red pepper). Among open sun drying (OSD), polyethylene bag drying (PBD), and polycarbonate sheet drying (PCSD), PCSD was efficient requiring around 24 hours with a maximum yield of 350 g of dried product per 1000 g of supplied fresh peppers. The PCSD dried chili also showed greater retention of antioxidant markers (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) than OSD and PBD as evidenced by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Additionally, the PCSD dried chili demonstrated highest antioxidant potential via ABTS (2, 2′-Azinobis-3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid). Interestingly, the presence of various aromatic compounds and other chemical groups, indicated the occurrence of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in each drying method used. The study suggests that PCSD sheet drying is an efficient and cost-effective approach that can conserve the antioxidant potential of agro products such as red pepper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Level of Tolerance to Herbicides is Displayed by L. Cultivars Depending on Herbicide Category and Mode of Application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Herbicides (HBs) are an integral part of modern agricultural practice globally as one of the most suitable methods for chemical weed control. Hence, they may inadvertently damage crops through similar mechanisms well-functioning at weeds. Tolerance to three categories of treatments (tribenuron-methyl, 2,4 D and their combination), and the impact of the mode of application (pre-treatment of seeds or spraying on plants) was assessed through morphometric analysis (total plant length, root length, stem length, lengths of the first three leaves, relative water content-RWC), and pigment content analysis for some wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in use in Albania. Results speak of a cultivar specific tolerance to each HB category, discriminating “Dajti” as the most resistant cultivar, and suggesting that the stress imposed to plants by the combination of HBs can produce significant differences in pigment content. The mode of treatment, on the other side showed that glyphosate pre-treatment of seeds led to inhibition of germination, and plants germinated from seed pre-treatment with in 2,4-D displayed significant modification of plant morphology, and germination rate, and had limited impact on RWC. On contrary, few statistically significant changes in morphometric traits and pigments content were evidenced when plants were treated with 2,4-D or glyphosate after the germination. In conclusion, the combination of HBs produced significant changes in plant pigments content compared to the impact of each HB alone, and the pre-treatment of seeds lead either to inhibition or delayed germination. Based on the above we recommend avoiding these practices, and suggest further exploration of alternative HB combinations and modes of treatment before large scale applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effect of probiotic and antibiotic on honey bees colony functional traits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of probiotic on colony functional traits, honey quantitative and qualitative parameters and gut microbial flora in honey bees. A total of 56 hives were randomly allocated to 8 treatments with 7 replicates in the city of Firouzkoh (Iran) for about 60 days. Experimental treatments that were included: control, 2 g antibiotic, 1 g probiotic, 2 g probiotic, 3 g probiotic, 1 g antibiotic + 1 g probiotic, all per liter of syrup for each hive. The results showed that hives fed with treatments 2 g or 3 g probiotic per liter of syrup had higher hive population and honey production than the other treatments (p&lt;0.05). Adding 2 g or 3 g probiotic per liter of syrup increased <italic>lactobacillus</italic> counts in bees’ intestines compared to the other treatments (p&lt;0.05). Also, supplementation of 1 g or 2 g probiotic and 2 g antibiotic per liter of syrup for each hive decreased <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> counts in the intestine compared to the other treatments (p&lt;0.05). The adding 1 g or 2 g probiotic per liter of syrup for each hive increased the levels of fructose and glucose in honey compared to the other treatments (p&lt;0.05). The supplementation of 1 g or 2 g probiotic per liter of syrup decreased sucrose in honey compared to the other treatments (p&lt;0.05). The results of the present study suggest that probiotic might be used as a feed additive for increased honey quality and gut microbial flora improvement in honey bees.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biotechnology Congress 2023 4.6 October 2023. Presentation Abstracts Speaker Abstracts Presentation Abstracts a real-time quantifiable liquid biopsy achievable using a microfluidic lab-on-chip ?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An increasingly relevant functional measurement is a liquid biopsy to assist in the diagnosis of cancers. The existing approach for liquid biopsy is to utilize microfluidic chips for the isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or exosomes or extracellular vesicles (EV) from patient samples, and then for the analysis of the cargo contained inside the CTCs, exosomes or EVs. However, such an analysis does not provide a real-time liquid biopsy, since there is a long delay between the time of sample collection and the results from the analysis. Microfluidic chip-formats also provide the capability to mimic tissue functions from the analysis of small numbers of cells cultured in the chip. Analysis of the secreted molecules from such cells could provide a measurement of the secretome, which could be analogous to a liquid biopsy. A 3D structural organization of cells in microfluidic chips is usually in the form of organoids or spheroids. The analysis of organoids or spheroids is well-adapted for immunohistochemistry or ELISA-type identification of surface markers, but not for real-time analysis of secreted molecules since the fluid and molecules in the interior volume of the organoid or spheroid is not accessible in real-time. We have recently proposed an alternative novel design for a microfluidic chip format comprising 3D micro-niches that provide a real-time analysis of secretions produced directly from small numbers of cells. The microfluidic chip with 3D micro-niches then analyses the secretions from these monolayers in real-time (“secretome”). The microfluidic chip includes electronic biosensors that provide real-time measurement of secreted molecules. This short review concludes with a proposition for the means to utilize this novel microfluidic chip to function as a real-time and quantifiable diagnostic screening device to differentiate cancerous cells from healthy cells.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Learning Approaches for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Detection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric illness that produces significant psychological distress in patients. Individuals with OCD have recurring unwanted thoughts or sensations which make them obsessed with something and feel to do something repetitively as a compulsion. In general detection of OCD is performed by symptoms analysis. However, the symptoms are significantly visible at a later stage. Even individuals with OCD have less faith in the analysis of the symptoms as long as it is not affecting their life negatively. As a result, they start their treatment at a later stage and the treatment process becomes longer. However, it is observed that if the detection is performed through laboratory analysis through some biomarkers then the patients have more faith in the detection process and can start their treatment well in advance. Therefore laboratory detection of OCD can play a vital role in OCD treatment effectiveness. Most of the laboratory detection process proposed in the literature uses Machine Learning on related biomarkers. However, the prediction accuracy rate is not enough. This research aims to analyze the approaches to pediatric OCD based on machine learning using neuroimaging biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers. The challenges in OCD detection and prediction using neuroimaging biomarkers, oxidative stress biomarkers, and Machine Learning models have been described. Further, it analyzes the performance of different machine learning models that were used for OCD detection and highlights the research gap to improve prediction accuracy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue peptides: a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bioactive peptides are protein components which are inactive within the protein structure, and upon release by enzymatic hydrolysis, they exhibit special physiological functions. In the last years, the characteristics of bioactive peptides obtained from various plant, animal and microbial sources have received much attention. Bioactive peptides are produced using hydrolysis by enzymes extracted from plants or microorganisms, or digestive enzymes and fermentation by proteolytic starter cultures. The composition and sequence of the amino acids determines their different functions, including relaxing effects, solute binding properties, strengthening of the immune system, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering and anti-hypertensive effects. Bioactive peptides are identified by different methods including membrane separation techniques and chromatography from protein hydrolysis products and using spectrometric techniques. The possibility of using bioactive peptides as health or therapeutic components depends on ensuring their bio stability, bioavailability and safety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Biotechnologically Developed Microorganisms on Ecosystems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change has imposed a significant struggle for survival most of the Earth’s species, highlighting the urgent need for a healthy and secure environment. Recent scientific investigations have primarily concentrated on the development and use of microorganisms as powerful biotechnological tools to address the escalating pollution that poses a severe threat to life. But this microorganisims long-term effects on biodiversity and ecosystems remain a subject of inquiry. In this comprehensive review, we aim to thoroughly evaluate the effects of microorganisms on the general ecosystem and critically assess the use of existing biotechnological tools developed to combat climate-related challenges. By shedding light on the potential implications, this review strives to contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay between microorganisms, ecosystems, and climate change mitigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cell-Based Double Reporter Gene Splicing Assay for Therapeutic Screening in Myotonic Dystrophy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study has developed a model splicing construct assay system based on splicing misregulation, one of the major molecular features associated with myotonic dystrophy. The splicing construct assay has double reporters for intron 2 splicing in chloride channel (CLCN1). The CLCN1 transgene splicing construct assay was used to transfect wild type and DM fibroblast cell lines and the clones generated showed that it enabled quantification of splicing efficiency in transgene construct. Validation of the DM fibroblasts containing transgene splicing construct was performed by differentiating the DM fibroblasts into myoblasts which exhibited a switch in CLCN1 splicing construct which was consistent with that associated with myotonic dystrophy (DM) condition. The myoblast derived from fibroblasts cell-based gene-splicing assay was subsequently applied in therapeutic screening in small throughput screens of 113 compounds which identified Protein Kinase C inhibitors- hypericin and Ro-31-8220 as potential therapeutic agents. The CLCN1 gene-splicing assay is a good model system for application in therapeutic screening in myotonic dystrophy because its double reporters facilitated quantification of effect putative drug on correction of misregulated splicing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue