rss_2.0The EuroBiotech Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for The EuroBiotech Journal EuroBiotech Journal Feed a real-time quantifiable liquid biopsy achievable using a microfluidic lab-on-chip ?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An increasingly relevant functional measurement is a liquid biopsy to assist in the diagnosis of cancers. The existing approach for liquid biopsy is to utilize microfluidic chips for the isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or exosomes or extracellular vesicles (EV) from patient samples, and then for the analysis of the cargo contained inside the CTCs, exosomes or EVs. However, such an analysis does not provide a real-time liquid biopsy, since there is a long delay between the time of sample collection and the results from the analysis. Microfluidic chip-formats also provide the capability to mimic tissue functions from the analysis of small numbers of cells cultured in the chip. Analysis of the secreted molecules from such cells could provide a measurement of the secretome, which could be analogous to a liquid biopsy. A 3D structural organization of cells in microfluidic chips is usually in the form of organoids or spheroids. The analysis of organoids or spheroids is well-adapted for immunohistochemistry or ELISA-type identification of surface markers, but not for real-time analysis of secreted molecules since the fluid and molecules in the interior volume of the organoid or spheroid is not accessible in real-time. We have recently proposed an alternative novel design for a microfluidic chip format comprising 3D micro-niches that provide a real-time analysis of secretions produced directly from small numbers of cells. The microfluidic chip with 3D micro-niches then analyses the secretions from these monolayers in real-time (“secretome”). The microfluidic chip includes electronic biosensors that provide real-time measurement of secreted molecules. This short review concludes with a proposition for the means to utilize this novel microfluidic chip to function as a real-time and quantifiable diagnostic screening device to differentiate cancerous cells from healthy cells.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Learning Approaches for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Detection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric illness that produces significant psychological distress in patients. Individuals with OCD have recurring unwanted thoughts or sensations which make them obsessed with something and feel to do something repetitively as a compulsion. In general detection of OCD is performed by symptoms analysis. However, the symptoms are significantly visible at a later stage. Even individuals with OCD have less faith in the analysis of the symptoms as long as it is not affecting their life negatively. As a result, they start their treatment at a later stage and the treatment process becomes longer. However, it is observed that if the detection is performed through laboratory analysis through some biomarkers then the patients have more faith in the detection process and can start their treatment well in advance. Therefore laboratory detection of OCD can play a vital role in OCD treatment effectiveness. Most of the laboratory detection process proposed in the literature uses Machine Learning on related biomarkers. However, the prediction accuracy rate is not enough. This research aims to analyze the approaches to pediatric OCD based on machine learning using neuroimaging biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers. The challenges in OCD detection and prediction using neuroimaging biomarkers, oxidative stress biomarkers, and Machine Learning models have been described. Further, it analyzes the performance of different machine learning models that were used for OCD detection and highlights the research gap to improve prediction accuracy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue peptides: a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bioactive peptides are protein components which are inactive within the protein structure, and upon release by enzymatic hydrolysis, they exhibit special physiological functions. In the last years, the characteristics of bioactive peptides obtained from various plant, animal and microbial sources have received much attention. Bioactive peptides are produced using hydrolysis by enzymes extracted from plants or microorganisms, or digestive enzymes and fermentation by proteolytic starter cultures. The composition and sequence of the amino acids determines their different functions, including relaxing effects, solute binding properties, strengthening of the immune system, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering and anti-hypertensive effects. Bioactive peptides are identified by different methods including membrane separation techniques and chromatography from protein hydrolysis products and using spectrometric techniques. The possibility of using bioactive peptides as health or therapeutic components depends on ensuring their bio stability, bioavailability and safety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Biotechnologically Developed Microorganisms on Ecosystems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climate change has imposed a significant struggle for survival most of the Earth’s species, highlighting the urgent need for a healthy and secure environment. Recent scientific investigations have primarily concentrated on the development and use of microorganisms as powerful biotechnological tools to address the escalating pollution that poses a severe threat to life. But this microorganisims long-term effects on biodiversity and ecosystems remain a subject of inquiry. In this comprehensive review, we aim to thoroughly evaluate the effects of microorganisms on the general ecosystem and critically assess the use of existing biotechnological tools developed to combat climate-related challenges. By shedding light on the potential implications, this review strives to contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay between microorganisms, ecosystems, and climate change mitigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cell-Based Double Reporter Gene Splicing Assay for Therapeutic Screening in Myotonic Dystrophy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study has developed a model splicing construct assay system based on splicing misregulation, one of the major molecular features associated with myotonic dystrophy. The splicing construct assay has double reporters for intron 2 splicing in chloride channel (CLCN1). The CLCN1 transgene splicing construct assay was used to transfect wild type and DM fibroblast cell lines and the clones generated showed that it enabled quantification of splicing efficiency in transgene construct. Validation of the DM fibroblasts containing transgene splicing construct was performed by differentiating the DM fibroblasts into myoblasts which exhibited a switch in CLCN1 splicing construct which was consistent with that associated with myotonic dystrophy (DM) condition. The myoblast derived from fibroblasts cell-based gene-splicing assay was subsequently applied in therapeutic screening in small throughput screens of 113 compounds which identified Protein Kinase C inhibitors- hypericin and Ro-31-8220 as potential therapeutic agents. The CLCN1 gene-splicing assay is a good model system for application in therapeutic screening in myotonic dystrophy because its double reporters facilitated quantification of effect putative drug on correction of misregulated splicing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue surfaces based on multiwall carbon nanotubes-chitosan composites validated in the detection of homocysteine biomarkers for cardiovascular disease risk monitoring<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to modify screen-printed carbon micro-electrode surfaces by coating them with multiwall carbon-based nanotubes conjugated with chitosan and then validated the formed multiwall carbon-based nanotubes-chitosan coated screen printed carbon micro-electrode for the detection of homocysteine, a biomarker analyte known as a risk indicator in cardiovascular disease. The microstructure surface and crystallographic structure stability of the formed multiwall carbon-based nanotubes-chitosan obtained at formed multiwall carbon-based nanotubes per chitosan ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 were examined via field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray radiation, Raman spectroscopy, surface area and pore size, and thermogravimetric analyses. Homocysteine solutions at 30–100 µM were measured by cyclic voltammetry using the different formed multiwall carbon-based nanotubes-chitosan compositions as sensor electrodes. That with an optimal formed multiwall carbon-based nanotubes per chitosan ratio of 4:1 showed the highest crystallinity and electrical conductivity and gave a high coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9036) between the homocysteine concentration and the oxidation current detection over an operating range of 30–100 µM. This new composite microelectrode for detecting homocysteine concentration makes it a promising candidate for clinical applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue metabolic mechanism of growth inhibition by co-culture of Y-11 and y37<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Bacteroides xylanisolvens</italic> Y-11 and <italic>Bifidobacterium longum</italic> y37 isolated from human gut were found to inhibit each other's growth after co-culturing in previous studies. To further reveal the potential mechanism of mutual inhibition between them, ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to investigate the metabolic changes of the strains after monoculture and co-culture, and the key differential metabolites were subject to the validation. The results showed that the types and amounts of metabolites were significantly changed during co-culture, with hydrocarbons and their derivatives, organic acids and esters being the main differential metabolites, which posed a greater influence on the metabolism of <italic>B. xylanisolvens</italic> Y-11 than on <italic>B. longum</italic>y y37. Further studies suggest that cycloserine and succinic acid may be the main metabolites that inhibit the growth of both strains, and the decrease of pH may be the main reason for succinic acid to inhibit the growth of the two strains. Moreover, <italic>B. longum</italic> y37 played a dominant role in the co-culture and its metabolites influenced the growth of <italic>B. xylanisolvens</italic> Y-11 to a greater extent. This study provides a new perspective for further understanding of the interaction between intestinal microbes and the influence of intestinal microecology on the occurrence and development of diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Approaches to Generate Biogenic Solvents and Energy Carriers from Renewable Resources<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: Current threats connected to the ongoing depletion of fossil resources and elevated levels of greenhouse gases accelerating climate change and global warming provoke a renaissance of biotechnological production of various organic bulk chemicals, which, particularly during the second half of the 20th century, were almost exclusively produced from fossil resources via chemosynthetic processes.</p> <p><bold>Scope</bold>: Besides the manufacture of bioethanol, a product obtained by microbial fermentation, biogenic production of solvents and energy carriers like acetone, isopropanol, 2,3-butanediol, or 1-butanol, hence, processes known since the beginning of the last century, experiences now a substantial revival.</p> <p><bold>Summary of new synthesis and conclusions reached in the review</bold>: The review illustrates how to produce these products by resorting to fossil raw materials instead of petrochemical production processes, and how this can be accomplished by the cultivation of anaerobic organisms, namely facultatively anaerobic yeasts and bacteria (production of ethanol or 2,3-butanediol), and strictly anaerobic Clostridia (1-butanol, acetone, or isopropanol) on renewable resources. Moreover, novel methods for producing biodiesel-like methyl-esters of aerobically produced bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolyester building blocks combine the synthesis of microbial biopolyesters from wastewater with the progress of innovative renewable energy carriers. The biochemical background, the current state of research and development, and the status of industrialization of these processes are reviewed.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Challenges to make these bioprocesses, based on inexpensive renewable resources, competitive with or even superior to petrochemical production routes in terms of sustainability, scalability, and economic feasibility still exist: however, they can be overcome by the concerted action of various scientific disciplines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Screening for Identification of Hits against SARS-Cov-2 Variant of Concern B.1.617 and NSP12 Mutants by Molecular Docking and Simulation Studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as SARS-CoV-2, have caused global epidemics with high morbidity and mortality. Active research on finding effective drugs against 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 is going on. <italic>In silico</italic> screening represents the best approach for hits identification and could shorten the time and reduce cost compared to <italic>de novo</italic> drug discovery. Recently, CoV2 mutations have been a big concern in India, particularly on non-structural proteins (NSPs) and Spike Protein (B.1.617) which are the key targets that play a pivotal role in mediating viral replication and transcription. Herein, this study analyzed the NSPs and spike’s structural aspects of mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2. The three-dimensional structures of NSPs and S Spike proteins were retrieved from the protein data bank or modeled. And a dataset of an antiviral compound library containing 490,000 drug-like ligands and structurally diverse biologically active scaffolds was used for our studies. Initially, the molecular alignment was performed for library compounds with the reference drug molecule to find targets that match the field points. Antiviral compounds having a similarity score &gt;0.6; were selected for further docking studies with wild and mutant NSPs and S Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.617. The docking studies identified a potent analog MA-11, which exhibited the highest binding affinity towards wild and mutant proteins. Further, molecular dynamics simulation studies of selected compounds confirmed their perfect fitting into NSP12 and spike active sites and offer direction for further lead optimization and rational drug design.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of PAP-IgM FcK fusion protein with J-chain expressed in transgenic plant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Transgenic plants expressing immunoglobulin (Ig) M Fc-fused Prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) antigenic proteins (PAP-IgM FcK) and J-chain proteins were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Fc region was tagged with the ER retention motif (KDEL) to make PAP-IgM FcK. Two transgenic plants were crossed together to generate F<sub>1</sub> expressing both PAP-IgM FcK and J-chain proteins (PAP-IgM FcK × J-chain). PCR and RT-PCR analyses confirmed the transgene insertion and mRNA transcription of PAP-IgM FcK and J-chain in leaf tissue of PAP-IgM FcK × J-chain F<sub>1</sub> plant. Western blot confirmed the expression of PAP-IgM FcK × J-chain protein. Size exclusion (SEC)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Bio-transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses were performed to show the size and shape of the PAP- IgM FcK × J-chain fusion proteins. These results suggest that PAP-IgM FcK with J-chain can be produced in plant expression system with plant crossing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biotechnology Congress 2022 - Oral Presentation Abstracts Biotechnology Congress 2022 Biotechnology Congress 2022 - Poster Presentation Abstracts Fibroin Hybrids for Biological Scaffolds with Adhesive Surface and Adaptability to the Target Tissue Change<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold> Regenerative Medicine (RM) is a branch of medicine that aims to regenerate tissues and organs to overcome the problems transplants entail (poor availability, risk of rejection and intense immunosuppression). To do this, RM makes use of tissue engineering (TE). This fundamental branch deals with creating biological scaffolds capable of performing the role that physiologically belongs to the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we report how specific characteristics of the scaffolds (bio-compatibility, biodegradability and mechanical and conformal properties) can be obtained using 3D printing, which facilitates the emulation of physiological tissues and organs.</p> <p><bold>Purpose and scope</bold> This review reports recent advances in the fabrication method of bioactive scaffolds that can be used clinically, providing support for cell seeding and proliferation. To this end, silk fibroin, tannin and graphene were used to improve the scaffold’s electro-bio-mechanical properties. These materials in different compositions are studied to demonstrate their potential use as bio-ink in bioadhesives and cellularized and implantable 3D-printed scaffolds.</p> <p><bold>Summary of new synthesis and conclusions reached in the review</bold> Silk fibroin is a natural biopolymer; tannin, on the other hand, is a biological polyphenol, highly reactive with other molecules by nature and with promising antioxidant capabilities. Finally, graphene is nothing more than a monolayer of graphite that has been shown to implement the mechanics and electrical conductivity of the compounds in which it is inserted; it also has excellent biocompatibility and surface area, qualities that promote cell adhesion and growth.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold> Polyphenols and graphene have been shown to work in synergy in improving the electro-mechanical properties of silk fibroin scaffolds. We reported optimal and potentially market-competitive bioadhesives, but above all, the proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in vitro was successfully demonstrated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biotechnology Congress 2022 - Invited Speaker Abstracts Aspects and Test Characteristics of Eponymously Named Psychometric Tests by Women: The Period up to 1970<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: Prior to 1970, women authored or co-authored a variety of eponymously named psychometric tests predominately in children and young adults with developmental and behavioral disorders. Gaps remain in understanding and appreciating the extent of their contributions to these psychometric tests.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: Two authors adjudicated psychometric tests in the text, Tests in Print, to identify those eponymously named after women. To be eligible for this study, the psychometric test title must contain the name of a woman and be published prior to 1970. If a woman published more than one eponymously named test, the earliest one, if available, was chosen to be included in this study. A search for individual and a combination of related Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords of the “name of the women author” and “name of the test” was performed using the Google web browser, PubMed, APA PsycNet, and APA PsycInfo from inception to August 1, 2021. Further papers were identified using bibliographic search from source papers and reference books.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Three hundred eighty-six eponymously named psychometric tests were identified, with 124 (32%) of them named in whole or in part by or for a woman. Of these 124 psychometric tests, 93 represent unique women’s names. Before 1970, there were twenty-three (19%) eponymously named psychometric tests with women, with twenty-one (17%) representing unique women’s names.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: These tests were published by women whereby they served either as a single author or in collaboration with others or their spouse. In the latter case, the woman’s name universally appeared after their husband’s name. In only a few cases, are these women’s names well-referenced in biographical source materials. These women made essential contributions to the development and revision of psychometric tests and the field of psychology in general.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Biocompatibility of a Nitinol Capsular Tension Ring (CTR)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: The biocompatibility of nitinol in the human body has extensively been demonstrated. Although nitinol is already being used for intraocular surgeries such as lens fragmentation and foreign body extraction, little is known about its intracapsular, long-term behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term uveal and capsular biocompatibility of a nitinol CTR placed in the capsular bag after cataract surgery in an animal model.</p> <p><bold>Method</bold>: After approval of the study by the Institutional Animal Care and the Ethics Committee, bilateral phacoemulsification was performed in 6 rabbits; 1 eye received a nitinol CTR and the other a control polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) open-ended ring. Ophthalmic evaluation for the presence of infections in all 12 eyes was performed after 7 days, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months follow-up period. After a follow-up period of 6 months, the eyes were enucleated, and a histopathologic evaluation was performed.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Neither of the groups showed any clinical signs of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or inflammation. The nitinol group showed slightly less inflammation during histopathologic examination compared to the PMMA group.</p> <p>No biocompatibility issues have been observed in this animal study.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: There were no histological differences between eyes implanted with nitinol and eyes implanted with PMMA rings. Nitinol has proven to show high biocompatibility when implanted in the capsular bag of the rabbit eye.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Microbially Extended Phenotype of Plants, a Keystone against Abiotic Stress<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: Climate change affects every region across the globe with heterogeneous effects on local temperatures and precipitation patterns. In plants, sessile organisms, climate change imposes more drastic effects leading to loss of yield or even death. However, plants establish mutualistic interactions with microorganisms that boost plant tolerance against abiotic stresses or strengthen the plant immune system against pathogens, thus, enhancing their survival and fitness. Moreover, in the wild, microbial endophytes provide important ecosystem services.</p> <p><bold>Purpose and scope</bold>: Little we know about the mechanisms of response against the adverse effects of climate change on natural populations of wild plants and even less about the potential role played by microbial biostimulants. In this article, we review the effects of biostimulants on plant responses against abiotic stresses, with a particular focus on the role of mycorrhizas and leaf endophytes.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: We have reviewed the effects of the main abiotic stresses in plants, the mechanisms that plants use to face these abiotic challenges, and the interaction plant-biostimulant-abiotic stress, highlighting the primary responses and parameters to evaluate different plant responses.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Abiotic stresses can check the phenotypic plasticity of plants and also trigger a complex and heterogeneous array of responses to face different abiotic stresses, and beneficial microorganisms do play an essential role in enhancing such responses. Our laboratory has initiated a project to characterise microbial populations associated with plants from wild areas and analyse their potential role in aiding the plants to cope with abiotic stresses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comprehensive Assessment of The Eight Vital Signs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The term “vital sign” has been assigned to various phenomena with the presumptive intent to emphasize their importance in health care resulting in the emergence of eight vital signs with multiple designations and overlapping terms. This review developed a case definition for vital signs and identified and described the fifth through eighth vital signs. PubMed/Medline, Google and biographical databases were searched using the individual Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, vital sign and fifth, vital sign and sixth, vital sign and seventh, and vital sign eighth. The search was limited to human clinical studies written in English literature from 1957 up until November 30, 2021. Excluded were articles containing the term vital sign if used alone without the qualifier fifth, sixth, seventh, or eighth or about temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate. One hundred ninety-six articles (122 for the fifth vital sign, 71 for the sixth vital sign, two for the seventh vital sign, and one for the eighth vital sign) constituted the final dataset. The vital signs consisted of 35 terms, classified into 17 categories compromising 186 unique papers for each primary authored article with redundant numbered vital signs for glucose, weight, body mass index, and medication compliance. Eleven terms have been named the fifth vital sign, 25 the sixth vital sign, three the seventh, and one as the eighth vital sign. There are four time-honored vital signs based on the case definition, and they represent an objective bedside measurement obtained noninvasively that is essential for life. Based on this case definition, pulse oximetry qualifies as the fifth while end-tidal CO<sub>2</sub> and cardiac output as the sixth. Thus, these terms have been misappropriated 31 times. Although important to emphasize in patient care, the remainder are not vital signs and should not be construed in this manner.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue L. (Jute) leaf and seed extracts exerted high antibacterial activity against food and plant pathogenic bacteria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH), acetone (Ace), petroleum ether (PE) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R), and seed (S) extracts of <italic>Corchorus olitorius</italic> L. on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA), and quantitative and qualitative constituent analysis. Leaf PE has the highest strain susceptibility on both food- and plant-borne pathogens. <italic>Clavibacter michiganensis</italic>, <italic>Pseudomonas tomato</italic>, and Erwinia caratovora were susceptible to nearly all the leaf and seed extracts. Very low minimum inhibitory concentration (8-128 μg mL<sup>−1</sup>) and minimum bactericidal concentration (32-2048 μg mL<sup>−1</sup>) were determined for both leaf and seed extracts against <italic>C. michiganensis</italic>. Total phenolic contents were correlated to DRSA. The phenolic compounds tested were higher in the leaf MetOH, cholorogenic acid being the most abundant one. Palmitic acid was determined in leaf PE and seed PE extracts. Results presented here demonstrate high antibacterial activity of <italic>C. olitorius</italic> leaf seed extracts against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be important in plant disease control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue