rss_2.0Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering, Control and Communication Engineering Feed Application for Non-Rigid Road Pavement Condition Assessment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of the article is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of ground penetrating radars to assess various objects using the example of assessing the current state of highways. The article uses the software developed by the authors and the corresponding mathematical models. The analysis of the results obtained is based on mathematical models that have proven their effectiveness and is time-tested. It should be emphasised that the main problem in assessing roads with non-rigid pavement is associated with a change in the main parameters of the layers – thickness and dielectric constant. Previously, we proposed a scheme for the layer-by-layer determination of the values of the relative permittivity and then - the subsequent determination of the thickness of each layer, starting from the top layer and ending with the base. The paper presents the results of experiments actually carried out by the authors with various GPRs, which not only have different values of the central frequency, but also have significant design differences. In addition, the results of processing real data using the software developed by the authors are presented. As a result, an improved method of signal calibration has been proposed, which makes it possible to increase the reliability of assessing the thickness of road surfaces, as well as other objects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Development of Long-Range Water Quality Monitoring System for Outdoor Aquaculture Objects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is dedicated to the development of hardware and software components for the autonomous water quality monitoring system (WQMS) for fishing farms. The system can measure main water quality parameters, storing and processing data on the remote server. The LoRaWAN technological solutions and infrastructure are utilized, providing the optimal tradeoff between data transmission range and adaptive power consumption. The main implementation and exploitation issues are described, and the proposed solutions are provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, EBG-DGS Wearable Antenna for Emergency Services and Responses in WBAN<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper introduces a compact, thin flexible textile antenna integrated with an Electromagnetic Bandgap (EBG) and Defected Ground Structure (DGS) covering the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) bands (2.4-2.485 GHz and 5.1-5.9 GHz) for emergency services and responses. The geometry and configuration of the proposed antenna are made from common clothing jeans fabric, which makes the antenna more flexible, thin, and conformal. A new configuration of EBG structure is developed using Minkowski fractal geometry as base geometry and a DGS with the complementary dumbbell-shaped slot to operate in WLAN standards. The EBG structure is used to isolate the antenna from the human body, whereas the DGS is used to improve the bandwidth and polarization purity. The prototype covers the WLAN bands with gains of 3.37 dBi and 6.47 dBi, a bandwidth of 115.9 MHz, and 398.06 MHz for the specified wireless bands. The integrated antenna demonstrates a Front to Back Ratio (FBR) of 16.77 dB and 32.72 dB, the radiation efficiency of 36.9 % and 73.8 %, and a better cross-polarization level at 2.45 GHz, 5.85 GHz, respectively. The antenna shows a high gain and an efficiency of about 70 % under the various bending scenario. Thus, the anticipated antenna is the most appropriate and potential candidate for wearable applications in various domains.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Iterated Interval Half-Cutting for Finding All Local Minima of Unknown Single-Variable Function<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A numerical method is suggested to find all local minima and the global minimum of an unknown single-variable function bounded on a given interval regardless of the interval length. The method has six inputs: three inputs defined straightforwardly and three inputs, which are adjustable. The endpoints of the initial interval and a formula for evaluating the single-variable function at any point of this interval are the straightforward inputs. The three adjustable inputs are a tolerance with the minimal and maximal numbers of subintervals. The tolerance is the secondary adjustable input. Having broken the initial interval into a set of subintervals, the three-point iterated half-cutting “gropes” around every local minimum by successively cutting off a half of the subinterval or dividing the subinterval in two. A range of subinterval sets defined by the minimal and maximal numbers of subintervals is covered by running the threepoint half-cutting on every set of subintervals. As a set of values of currently found local minima points changes less than by the tolerance, the set of local minimum points and the respective set of function values at these points are returned. The presented approach is applicable to whichever task of finding local extrema is. If primarily the purpose is to find all local maxima or the global maximum of the function, the presented approach is applied to the function taken with the negative sign. The presented approach is a significant and important contribution to the field of numerical estimation and approximate analysis. Although the method does not assure obtaining all local minima (or maxima) for any function, setting appropriate minimal and maximal numbers of subintervals makes missing some minima (or maxima) very unlikely.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Condition Monitoring for Telecommunication and Radioelectronic Systems with Redundancy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The telecommunication and radioelectronic systems with redundancy are widely used in different branches of human activity. To provide the necessary reliability level of equipment, the operation system is utilized. That system contains intended use, maintenance, repair, technical condition monitoring, and others. The damages, faults and failures are usually observed during the lifecycle of telecommunication and radioelectronic systems. They can lead to deterioration of equipment technical condition. The deterioration of technical condition can be detected during observation of diagnostic variable and reliability parameter. This article concentrates on the synthesis and analysis of statistical data processing procedure for deterioration detection while operating telecommunication and radioelectronic systems with redundancy. For the purpose of reliability estimation based on different redundancy methods, statistical data processing procedure synthesis was carried out using multiple hypothesis testing and detection criterion. The analysis problem was solved using Monte- Carlo simulation method, which allowed constructing operating characteristics. The obtained results can be used in the process of design and improvement of operation systems for telecommunication and radioelectronic equipment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Vessel Steering in a Storm<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The issues of automatic vessel control in a storm are considered in the paper. Vessel control in a storm is the most difficult stage in the vessel’s wiring, as it requires quick decisions to be made in difficult conditions. Practical experience shows that the deterioration of the working conditions of the crew is usually associated with an increase in the number of control errors, which is completely unacceptable in stormy conditions. To assess the safe speed and course in a storm, Yu. V. Remez has proposed a universal storm diagram, which allows identifying unfavourable combinations of vessel speed and course angles of the waves – the resonant zones, and avoid them. The universal Remez diagram provides for graphical calculations, which, in combination with the visual determination of the wave parameters, gives a very low accuracy. The article examines the possibility of automatic control of a vessel in a storm by automatic measurement of motion parameters and wave parameters, automatic calculation in the onboard controller of the vessel optimal safe speed and course during a storm, automatic maintenance of the optimal safe speed and course of the vessel. The automatic control significantly increases the accuracy of calculations, excludes the human factor, reduces the depletion of the crew, and increases the reliability of the vessel control in a storm. The efficiency and effectiveness of the method, algorithmic and software were tested on Imitation Modelling Stand in a closed loop with mathematical vessel models of the navigation simulator Navi Trainer 5000.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Application Purpose of a Randomized Secret Key with Quantum Key Distribution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a well-researched secure communication method for exchanging cryptographic keys only known by the shared participants. The vulnerable problem of a secret key distribution is the negotiation and the transfer over an insecure or untrusted channel. Novel further developments of the QKD communication method are part of in-field technologies and applications in communication devices, such as satellites. However, expensive physical test setups are necessary to improve new application possibilities of cryptographic protocol involving components of quantum mechanics and quantum laws of physics. Therefore, optical simulation software can play a part in essential QKD simulating and further developing quantum-based cryptosystems. In the paper, the authors consider a feasible QKD setup based on the BB84 protocol to create a symmetric key material based on achieving a linear key rate via optical simulation software. The paper still provides two experimental architecture designs to use the QKD for a cryptosystem.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue State of the Art in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) for Unmanned Ariel Vehicle (UAV): A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For the past decade, the main problem that has attracted researchers’ attention in aerial robotics is the position estimation or Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) where the GPS signal is poor or denied. This article reviews the strengths and weaknesses of existing methods in the field of aerial robotics. There are many different techniques and algorithms that are used to overcome the localization and mapping problem of these UAVs. These techniques and algorithms use different sensors, such as Red Green Blue-Depth (RGB_D), Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR), and Ultra-wideband (UWB). The most common technique is used, i.e., probability-based SLAM, which uses two algorithms: Linear Kalman Filter (LKF) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). LKF consists of five phases and this algorithm is just used for linear system problems. However, the EKF algorithm is used for non-linear systems. Aerial robots are used to perform many tasks, such as rescue, transportation, search, control, monitoring, and different military operations because of their vast top view. These properties are increasing their demand as compared to human service. In this paper, different techniques for the localization of aerial vehicles are discussed in terms of advantages and disadvantages, practicality and efficiency. This paper enables future researchers to find the suitable SLAM solution based on their problems; either the researcher is dealing with a linear problem or a non-linear problem.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Analysis of PV Array based on Particle Swarm Optimization of Solar Plant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The major shortcoming in the extraction of electrical energy occurs due to partial shading over a limited area of vast spread solar panels underpinning reduction of efficiency. A number of panels are interconnected in series and parallel to form a photovoltaic (PV) array for large power plants and a shadow over a single cell deteriorates overall performance. As a consequence, several peaks are added to the P-V curve causing hotspots in PV panels, degradation of the PV system, and collapse of tracking algorithms. In order to minimize such issues in PV panels, an effective optimization technique is developed by reconfiguring the panels which are capable of reaching the full global power point in a PV system under partial shading conditions. The study proposes particle swarm optimization (PSO) using PV characteristics of Quaid-e-Azam Solar Plant (QASP) in Punjab, Pakistan<sup>1</sup>. In PSO, electrical connections of PV modules are changed keeping their physical locations unaltered aiming to improve the performance of the PV system. After reconfiguration, the algorithm finds the best combination of PV modules by equalizing the row currents followed by the comparison of row current, voltages, and power of panels. The proposed PSO is proved to be an efficient method for reconfiguring PV modules in very less computational time by increasing the output power of shaded modules.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue New Quasi Open Loop Synchronization Technique for Grid-Connected Applications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents an effective quasi open-loop (QOLS) synchronization technique for grid -connected power converters that is organized in two different blocks. The first block is a new flexible technique for extracting the positive and negative sequence voltage under unbalanced and distorted conditions. It is a decoupled double self-tuning filter (DD-STF) or multiple self-tuning filters (M-STF) according to the conditions. The main advantages of this technique are its simple structure and the fact of being able to work under highly distorted conditions. Each harmonic is separately treated and this allows for selective compensation in active filter applications. The second block is the frequency detector; we propose a neural approach based on an ADALINE for online adaptation of the cut-off frequency of the DD-STF and M-STF considering a possible variation in the main frequency. The main advantage of this method is its immunity to the voltage signal amplitude and phase. In order to improve the performance of the frequency estimation under distorted source voltage, a pre-filtering stage is introduced. Experimental tests validate the proposed method and illustrate all its interesting features. Results show high performance and robustness of the method under low voltage ride through.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Simulation of SCADA and PLC System for Power System Protection Laboratory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The protection of power system is an essential trait in a huge network to efficiently detect and isolate the sections undergoing faults or abnormal behaviour. The key components of a protection scheme include circuit breakers, relays, switchgears and fuses which employ communication from one station to another to achieve high-speed tripping. The automation of these components at the laboratory level using programmable logic controller (PLC) along with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system owns paramount importance for intelligent decision making, sensing, actuating, monitoring and maintaining the record in the host server. This paper discusses such a technique for conventional power system protection laboratory at a new level of development to promote a control system through PLC and SCADA. The control system has indication of over and under values of voltage, load and frequency, which can trigger malfunctioning of equipment and must be rectified. Furthermore, ground fault and inverse current indication are added to the system for monitoring and controlling purposes. The proposed system enhances the efficiency and safety of the expensive equipment and the personnel to the next level and also introduces new standards of automated protection schemes for modern technical institutes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Slot Antenna for Wide Circularly Polarized Bandwidth and Axial Ratio Beamwidth<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article proposes design investigation and experimental results of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed square slot antenna that gives wideband circular polarization. This circular polarization characteristic is achieved by embedding a square shape stub to left bottom corner and an L-shaped strip to the right upper corner of the slot. A high impedance bandwidth of 87.8 % (3.6–9.0 GHz), a wide axial ratio bandwidth of 73.05 % (4.2–9.0 GHz) and wide 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth of 90° in the entire frequency range of interest are achieved with this antenna structure. To improve the 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth, three slots (two horizontal and one vertical) are scratched at the exterior periphery of the ground plane. These perturbation assemblies are accountable to excite orthogonal modes and help increase an axial ratio bandwidth. The designed antenna displays the constant and steady radiation patterns in the complete frequency range of concern. The overall dimension of the presented compact antenna is 0.24λ × 0.24λ × 0.01λ.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Algorithm for Vehicle Detection and Traffic Intensity Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To effectively manage the traffic flow in order to reduce traffic congestion, it is necessary to know the volumes and quantitative indicators of this flow. Various detection methods are known for detecting a vehicle in a lane, which, in turn, have their own advantages and disadvantages. To detect vehicles and analyse traffic intensity, the authors use a pulse coherent radar (PCR) sensor module. Testing of various modes of operation of the radar sensor was carried out to select the optimal mode for detecting vehicles. The paper describes a method for fixing vehicles of different sizes, filtering and separating the vehicle from the traffic flow. The developed vehicle detection device works in conjunction with signal traffic lights, through which traffic control takes place. The signal traffic lights, which have their own sensors and control units, communicate with each other via a radio channel; there is no need for cable laying. The system is designed to work on road maintenance sites. The paper describes the experimental data when testing on a separate section of the road. The experiment showed the advantage of traffic lights (cars passed the regulated traffic light faster) from the point of view of calculating the traffic flow over the normal traffic light operation. Reducing downtime in traffic jams, in turn, has a beneficial effect on the environmental situation, since at the moment internal combustion engines prevail in vehicles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Mutual Coupling in UWB/MIMO Antenna Using Stub Loading Technique<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research presents mutual coupling reduction between UWB-MIMO antenna elements using stub loading technique. The proposed 2 × 2 UWB antenna geometry consists of two circular-shaped monopole radiators with a partial ground for perfect impedance matching. Stubs of 20 mm × 0.2 mm are inserted between the two antenna elements in the ground plane to improve the isolation. The decoupling stub leads to a mutual coupling reduction of less than 20 dB. The farfield measurement at a selected frequency of 10 GHz confirms an omnidirectional radiation pattern. Different MIMO antenna metric such as channel capacity loss (CCL), mean effective gain (MEG), total active reflection coefficient (TARC), envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), and surface current are presented. Details of the design considerations and the simulation and measurement results are presented and discussed. The proposed MIMO antenna array can be well suited for UWB applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Piezoactivity of Manufactured Composite Piezoceramic Transformers by Combining the Processes of Soldering and Polarization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is devoted to solving the problem of ensuring high piezoactivity of composite piezoceramic transformers, in which the component parts are connected by soldering. The existing connection features have been analysed for the elements of composite piezoceramic transformers and the results have shown that during soldering the piezoceramic elements are exposed to thermal shock leading to depolarization of piezoceramics and deterioration of its piezoelectric properties. Diminution of temperature depolarizing effect is possible using low-temperature solders with a high tin content. However, in this case, the diffusion process of the electrode material of the piezoelectric element into the solder increases and the mechanical connection strength decreases. To eliminate these negative phenomena and solve the problem, a new method has been developed for connecting elements of composite piezoceramic transformers by soldering, where a polarizing voltage is applied to the composite piezoceramic transformer when heating and cooling, which prevents depolarization of the domain structure of piezoceramic elements. At the same time, high temperature ensures that polarization is carried out at lower values of the electric tension, and a more mobile domain structure after polarization has a lower level of coercive forces and, accordingly, a greater stability of parameters ov er time. Experimental verification has shown that the relative resonance gap increases by 6 % with a decrease in the dispersion of this value by 12 %, which indicates an increase in piezoactivity and stability of the characteristics of composite piezoceramic transformers manufactured using the solution above.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Pilot Symbol Orthogonal Sequences in 2×2 to 4×4 MIMO Wireless Communication Systems with Channel State Estimation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>MIMO wireless communication systems with channel state estimation, in which 2 to 4 transmit-receive antenna pairs are employed, are simulated. The channel estimation is fulfilled by the orthogonal pilot signal approach, where the Walsh Hadamard-ordered sequences are commonly used for piloting. The signal is modulated by applying the quaternary phase shift keying method. Maximum 250 000 packets are transmitted through flat-fading Rayleigh channels, to which white Gaussian noise is added. Based on simulating 10 subcases of the frame length and number of pilot symbols per frame, it is ascertained that pilot symbol orthogonal sequences in 2×2 to 4×4 MIMO systems can be improved by substituting Walsh functions with partially unsymmetrical binary functions constituting the eight known orthogonal bases. The benefit is that the bit-error rate is substantially decreased, especially for 2×2 MIMO systems. Considering three cases of the pilot signal de-orthogonalization caused by two indefinite and definite pilot sequence symbol errors, the relative decrement varies from 0.123 % to 14.7 %. However, the decrement becomes less significant as the number of transmit-receive antenna pairs is increased.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dispatch with Transmission Losses in a Distributed Generation Network of Bahawalpur<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In an electrical power system, the ultimate aim is to generate and deliver electrical energy to consumer side with minimum cost involved. Thus, least fuel cost, effective unit commitment and minimum transmission losses are desirous to achieve economic dispatch in a distributed generation network. In this research, economic dispatch considering transmission losses in a distributed generation network of Bahawalpur is reported. A MATLAB algorithm is designed which gives optimum division of power between two power plants and their transmission losses. Power plants considered here are thermal power plant Muzafargarh and Kot Addu Power Company (KAPCO), the former being located at smaller distance from Bahawalpur district. Finally, load trend of Bahawalpur district, optimum generation verses power demand, associated transmission losses, penalty factor and fuel cost economy are shown in the Results Section through graphs and tables. It is concluded that thermal power plant shares higher contribution of load power due to smaller distance from load and, thus, smaller transmission losses ensuring minimum cost operation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hybrid Routing Approach Using Two Searching Layers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper considers SUB_GOALs by using basic A* algorithm and Subgoal Graphs in a hybrid approach to execute optimal route. SUB_GOALs identified with pre-searching from basic A* at break points and Subgoal Graphs at corners of obstacles are added to SUB_TABLE to expedite the final searching in the hybrid approach. Map to work on is divided to subregions with decision-making process by using line-of-sight to avoid redundant searching. In the final searching layer, all feasible SUB_GOALs gained from decision-making process in the same subregion are connected to find final solutions of routes. Solutions achieved in the divided subregions are evaluated and combined to discover the final optimal route. The proposed hybrid approach is applied to three different scenarios in various dimensions of maps. In these three scenarios, the shortest route without hitting obstacles is calculated as 46.67, 57.76 and 124.7 units, respectively, and compared with other search algorithms. Simulation results of route planning are demonstrated to exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Processing in the Pilot Training Process on the Integrated Aircraft Simulator<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Flight safety is an integral part of air transportation. Flight accidents are highly unlikely to appear but most of them are caused by the human factor. The aircrew training system for abnormal operations relies on integrated aircraft simulator-based exercises. Crew needs to be trained not to degrade piloting technique quality when facing increased psychophysiological tension. Therefore, methods evaluating the characteristics of ergatic aircraft control systems, warning systems for deterioration due to failures in avionics systems, piloting technique quality, and abnormal operation algorithms are necessary. An analysis of the bank angle has revealed that there are hidden increased tension manifestations in the human operator expressed in the transition of the flight parameter variation from a stationary random process to deterministic fluctuations in the form of a sinusoid. The goal of the research is to increase the efficiency of pilots’ training using integrated aircraft simulators based on the design and implementation of statistical data processing algorithms. To achieve the goal of the research, two algorithms for detecting deterministic fluctuations based on the Neyman-Pearson criterion and the optimal Bayesian criterion are developed. The presented algorithms can be used in the integrated simulator software to automate the decision-making process on piloting quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Acoustic Signals for a Seal Deterrent Device<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>During the past decade, attacks by grey seals on fishing nets in the Baltic Sea have caused considerable loss of fish catch and damage to fishing gears. One of the approaches to reduce the number of seal attacks on fishing nets is to use acoustic deterrent devices (ADDs). Unfortunately, most of the commercially available ADDs are not well suited to the deployment in the sea and require considerable additional investments. The objective of the present research is to develop a compact and cost-efficient ADD for deployment in the sea environment. This paper is devoted to the design of acoustic signals for a prototype ADD. Signals from other experimental and commercially available ADDs are studied and compared. Moreover, limitations imposed by the underwater environment, transducers, battery power, and fish hearing are analysed and considered during the development of signal patterns. The results of tests conducted in an artificial reservoir and in the sea are presented.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue