rss_2.0Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering, Control and Communication Engineering Feed New RMF Stirrer Using AISI4140 Mild Steel: Energy Optimization Application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines the development of a novel FPGA-based RMF stirrer system. The system has been designed as a 3-phase system, with each phase being fed by PWM voltage with a phase difference of 120°. In case the system is driven at a 100 % duty cycle, the force acting on the magnetic fish remains continuous and constant until the subsequent phase changes. In such a case, at speeds under 400 rpm, the speed of the magnetic fish fails to be synchronized with the phase change speed. The magnetic fish, therefore, rotates more than 120° and the force is observed to cause a braking effect. Both fluid logic control (FLC) and virtual model control (VMC) were utilised to enable the system to be driven at a different duty cycle. The energy efficiency of the system for fluids with different viscosities has been attempted to be thereby improved with a lower current and shorter excitation time. With FLC and VMC control, the energy consumed by the system is reduced and the efficiency is increased, and approximately 95 % energy gain is obtained for liquids with viscosity up to 1.03 Pa·s. It has been experimentally proven that a lower limit value of the duty cycle of the PWM signal applied to the drive circuit of the system depends on the viscosity of the mixed liquid and a lower limit value increases with increasing viscosity. It has also been found that controlling the system with FLC and VMC does not have a great effect on the energy gain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of DGs on Power Quality of Distribution System: An Analytical Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article offers an overview of distributed generation (DG) in distribution systems (DS). The primary goal of this study is to assess the performance of DGs in DS. Due to the rise in electrical energy consumption, it is anticipated that DG sources would be essential to DS. Future power generating networks have a bright outlook on consideration of DG’s potential for utilising alternative energy sources. The quality of power systems is a crucial concern for energy providers and consumers. In order to decrease reliance on fossil fuels for the production of electricity, distributed generations are gaining importance in the energy supply networks in many countries. Distributed generators are small units that generate electricity close to customer sites. These DGs use renewable energy methods such as wind energy, solar energy and geothermal energy. The incorporation of DGs into a conventional power supply system evolves in a number of side effects, including an increase in the number of short circuits, higher power losses, a decrease in the quality of the energy produced, voltage transients, problems with voltage stability, coordination issues regarding voltage regulation and protection, the possibility that system protection will not function correctly, and the fact that there is less residual current input as a result of the DG bidirectional power flows. This review paper discusses the impacts of the penetration of DG into DS and provides various strategies to mitigate these effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Centroid-Based Clustering of Dense Nearly-square Point Clouds by the Hexagonal Pattern<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An approach to optimize centroid-based clustering of flat objects is suggested, which is practically important for efficiently solving metric facility location problems. In such problems, the task is to find the best warehouse locations to optimally service a given set of consumers. An example is assigning mobiles to base stations of a wireless communication network. We suggest a hexagonal-pattern-based approach to partition flat nodes into clusters quicker than the <italic>k</italic>-means algorithm and its modifications do. First, a hexagonal cell lattice is applied to nodes to approximately determine centroids of the clusters. Then the centroids are used as initial centroids to start the <italic>k</italic>-means algorithm. The suggested method is efficient for centroid-based clustering of dense nearly-square point clouds of 0.1 million points and greater by using no fewer than 6 lattice cells along an axis. Compared to <italic>k</italic>-means, our method is at least 10 % faster and it is about 0.01 to 0.07 % more accurate in regular Euclidean distances. In squared Euclidean distances, the accuracy gain is 0.14 to 0.21 %. Applying a hexagonal cell lattice determines an upper bound of the clustering quality gap.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Controller Based Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC) Using Capacitor Bank<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Power factor plays an important role in electrical industries. Low power factor results in loss of power and poor handling capacity. This factor can be overcome by using capacitors in parallel to the load. Since capacitor draws a leading while inductor draws a lagging current, hence by adjusting capacitor banks parallel to the load, it will level the power factor in the line. Earlier, the process of power factor improvement was done through manual connection of capacitor bank. Later a power factor corrector named the automated power factor corrector (APFC) was proposed. It uses a switched capacitor circuit to improve power factor. In this research, the power factor value from the load is measured and it also includes the installation of APFC unit using a PI controller. The design of this auto-adjustable power factor correction scheme is to ensure that the grid power system always operates under the specified power factor. Actual work of APFC is that it selects the capacitor bank for power factor improvement. The capacitor bank block will choose automatically to further improve the power factor. This process goes on until the required power factor is obtained. Later on, this will automatically turn off the connection between the capacitor bank and the circuit. Furthermore, power saving with power factor after improvement is also discussed in the paper. Here APFC plays a key role in order to decrease the time taken to correct the power factor, which is ultimately beneficial to increase the efficiency of the motors and all inductive loads.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue IoT Technology for Improved Distribution Transformer Monitoring and Protection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research study focuses on developing and implementing an IoT-based distribution transformer monitoring and protection system. The traditional methods of transformer protection and monitoring have proven to be inefficient and time-consuming, leading to the need for a more modern and effective solution. In this study, a low-cost prototype system is proposed to handle and control the main functions and problems of the distribution transformer through the internet. The proposed system allows for easy monitoring and protection of the transformer, enabling electric companies to improve efficiency and reduce labour and tool costs. The system is validated using Proteus software to simulate and obtain results from the hardware. The system results are displayed in multiple ways, including LCD, system bar, and internet, making it easier for electric companies and consumers in developing countries like Pakistan to monitor and control distribution transformers efficiently. This research study aims to provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of IoT-based distribution transformer monitoring and protection systems and their potential benefits in enhancing transformer performance and efficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of EVs through RES with Controlled Interfacing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Electric cars have a lot of promise in future energy markets as a manageable load. A popular vehicle-to-grid control interface, which enables the aggregation of the charging mechanism for energy management in the distribution grid, is one of the most significant road blocks to realize this opportunity. Understanding the ecology of electric transportation and integrating it in local communities to alleviate the energy shortage at peak hours is very complicated. In this research paper, recent standardization initiatives aimed at overcoming obstacles such as the integration of electric cars into smart grids are discussed. A charge control scheme focused on vehicle-to-grid connectivity is implemented. It is observed that the rise of environmentally sustainable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy, is straining the power network and their infrequent power generation is causing problems in power system operation, regulation and planning. The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the electricity grid has been proposed to overcome grid load variations. Finally, the article discusses the incorporation of renewable energy sources and latest potential solutions involving electric vehicles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Nonlinear Control of ECP-730 Magnetic Levitation System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the idea of implementing various techniques related to sampled-data control for magnetic levitation systems. The control laws are designed to track time-varying signals and employ the feedback linearization technique based on the approximate discrete-time model. State feedback control is introduced with the gains adjusted via the pole placement method. A positional form proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control uses the trapezoidal summation for the integral term and the backward difference method for the derivative term. An input-output linearization feedback control is the most promising one, which incorporates the integrator in addition to the position error and velocity error. The integral action involves the manipulation of regulation error and reduces it with time to improve performance. Finally, controllers were tested in real time for practical demonstration along with a comparison for comprehensive analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Measurement and Data Logger with High-Resolution for Industrial DC-Grid Application<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Power and energy measurement and monitoring is a key factor for many industries in terms of energy and cost efficiency evaluation. Due to trends of Smart Grid concept application in industrial environment, including decentralized DC-Grid implementation, for precise evaluation – faster and low-cost measurement equipment is needed. Manufacturing industry widely uses industrial robots that have dynamic load characteristics for which faster measurement equipment is needed.</p><p>This paper gives a brief description of the developed power measurement equipment, its structure and interconnection with industrial Profinet network. Further as a testing method steady state and dynamic loads are selected and analyzed. For testing, specially created industrial DC-Grid testing environment and equipment was used. Testing results show that the selected method and idea is working and is able to measure dynamic loads with high resolution. For other industrial load types there is a discussion going on about the issue of how detailed the resolution is needed in industrial SmartGrids, as energy forecast is a new trend in robotic industry and manufacturing planning.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Pressure Control in Multi-Pump Applications<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper is devoted to the centrifugal pumps represented the most popular type of pumping equipment used in different areas. The pressure control approach for variable speed driven (VSD) parallel connected centrifugal pumps is reported. The goal of the study is optimization of some quality indices, such as efficiency, consumed power, productivity, energy carrier temperature, heat irradiation, etc. One of them – efficiency – has been studied in the paper more carefully. The mathematical model of pumping process is discussed and a vector-matrix description of the multi-pump application is given. The program-based pressure control system is developed which productivity is changed by regulating the number of working pumps. The paper introduces new pressure control algorithms based on the working point estimation intended for programmable logical controllers (PLC). Experiments prove correctness of the offered methodology.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Crane Modelling and Control Using Euler-Lagrange State-Space Approach and Anti-Swing Fuzzy Logic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The mathematical model of the three-dimensional crane using the Euler-Lagrange approach is derived. A state-space representation of the derived model is proposed and explored in the Simulink<sup>®</sup> environment and on the laboratory stand. The obtained control design was simulated, analyzed and compared with existing encoder-based system provided by the three-dimensional (3D) Crane manufacturer Inteco<sup>®</sup>. As well, an anti-swing fuzzy logic control has been developed, simulated, and analyzed. Obtained control algorithm is compared with the existing anti-swing proportional-integral controller designed by the 3D crane manufacturer Inteco<sup>®</sup>. 5-degree of freedom (5DOF) control schemes are designed, examined and compared with the various load masses. The topicality of the problem is due to the wide usage of gantry cranes in industry. The solution is proposed for the future research in sensorless and intelligent control of complex motor driven application.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Kramers-Kronig Relations for Verification of Quality of Ferrite Magnetic Spectra<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The complex initial permeability (CIP) as a function of frequency is one of the main properties of ferrites. This characteristic (CIP) is measured experimentally, therefore there can be found noisy, doubtful or incomplete parts of the spectrum. Thus there is a need for a method of evaluation of quality of CIP. In this article for evaluation of the quality of experimental CIP spectra of polycrystalline ferrite materials the KKR (Kramers-Kronig relations) are used. In order to apply KKR to experimentally measured data (i.e. data with finite limits) the method of transforming these integral relations into summation relations with finite limits is developed and described. This method can be used only for CIP given over the wide frequency rage, so that the imaginary part of CIP is fully presented. Using KKR with the help of CIP spectra model (based on the effects coming from polycrystal grain sizes and defects distribution) partly removes aforementioned limit. Thus with the help of the model we can also make CIP spectra reconstruction (in cases when CIP is noisy or incomplete) and CIP spectra decomposition.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Semiconductor Power Losses of Galvanically Isolated Quasi-Z-Source and Full-Bridge Boost DC-DC Converters<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper compares semiconductor losses of the galvanically isolated quasi-Z-source converter and full-bridge boost DC-DC converter with active clamping circuit. Operation principle of both converters is described. Short design guidelines are provided as well. Results of steady state analysis are used to calculate semiconductor power losses for both converters. Analytical expressions are derived for all types of semiconductor power losses present in these converters. The theoretical results were verified by means of numerical simulation performed in the PSIM simulation software. Its add-on module “Thermal module” was used to estimate semiconductor power losses using the datasheet parameters of the selected semiconductor devices. Results of calculations and simulation study were obtained for four operating points with different input voltage and constant input current to compare performance of the converters in renewable applications, like photovoltaic, where input voltage and power can vary significantly. Power loss breakdown is detailed and its dependence on the converter output power is analyzed. Recommendations are given for the use of the converter topologies in applications with low input voltage and relatively high input current.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Instruments and Software Used in Biotribology Research Laboratory<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Precision measurements of friction processes have a key role in a variety of industrial processes. The emergence of fine electronic circuit techniques greatly expands capabilities of control. There are some difficulties for their full implementation today, especially when it regards the accuracy and frequency of measurements. The motion-measuring method in real-time system is considered in this article, paying special attention to increased accuracy. This method is based on rapid analog digital converter (ADC), transmission program and digital signal processor (DSP) algorithms. Description of laboratory devices is included: Tribal-T and universal friction machine (MTU-01) designed for “Pin on disc” tests. Great emphasis is placed on the usability of accelerometers. The present study examined the collected data via laboratory system for data acquisition and control, and processing it in the laboratory of Biotribology. Laboratory supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) algorithms is described below. Task of regulation is not considered. This paper describes only methods of automatic control theory to analyze the frictional quality.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Spectral Structure as a Parameter of System Technical Diagnostics of Ship Diesel Engine-Synchronous Generators<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A method of technical diagnostics of ship diesel engine – generator installation – is proposed. Spectral-power diagnostic parameters of the synchronous generator voltage and currents are used. The electric machine in this case is the multipurpose sensor of diagnostic parameters. A judgment on the quality of the operational processes in diesel engine cylinders and its technical condition is possible on the basis of these parameters. This method is applicable to piston compressor installations with electric drive. On the basis of such parameters as rotating torque, angular speed and angular acceleration it is possible to estimate the quality of the operating process in the cylinders of a diesel engine, the condition of its cylinder-piston group and the crank gear mechanism. The investigation was realized on the basis of a diesel-generator with linear load. The generator operation was considered for the case of constant RL load. Together with the above mentioned, the condition of bearings of synchronous machines, uniformity of the air gap, windings of the electric machine were estimated during the experiments as well. The frequency spectrum of the stator current of the generator was researched and analyzed. In this case the synchronous machine is becoming a rather exact multipurpose diagnostic sensor. The signal of non-uniformity in the operation process of diesel engine cylinders and its technical condition is the increasing of the amplitudes of typical frequencies.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sampling of the Infinite Noncooperative Game on Unit Hypercube and Reshaping Ultimately Multidimensional Matrices of Player’s Payoff Values<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper suggests a method of obtaining an approximate solution of the infinite noncooperative game on the unit hypercube. The method is based on sampling uniformly the players’ payoff functions with the constant step along each of the hypercube dimensions. The author states the conditions for a sufficiently accurate sampling and suggests the method of reshaping the multidimensional matrix of the player’s payoff values, being the former player’s payoff function before its sampling, into a matrix with minimally possible number of dimensions, where also maintenance of one-to-one indexing has been provided. Requirements for finite NE-strategy from NE (Nash equilibrium) solution of the finite game as the initial infinite game approximation are given as definitions of the approximate solution consistency. The approximate solution consistency ensures its relative independence upon the sampling step within its minimal neighborhood or the minimally decreased sampling step. The ultimate reshaping of multidimensional matrices of players’ payoff values to the minimal number of dimensions, being equal to the number of players, stimulates shortened computations.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Adaptronic Automatic Control System and Biosensor System Modelling<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper describes the research on adaptronic systems made by the author and offers to use biosensors that can be later inserted into the adaptronic systems. Adaptronic systems are based, on the one hand, on the adaptronic approach when the system is designed not to always meet the worst condition, but to change the structure of the system according to the external conditions. On the other hand, it is an extension of common automatic control ad adaptive systems. So, in the introduction firstly the adaptronic approach and biosensor as a term is explained. Adaptive systems, upon which adaptronic ones are based, are also mentioned. Then the construction of biosensor is described, as well as some information is given about the classification of biosensors and their main groups. Also it is suggested to use lichen indicators in industry to control concentration of chemical substances in the air. After that mathematical models and computer experiments for adaptronic system and biosensor analysis are given.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Route Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The development of signal transmitting environment for multimodal traffic control will enhance the integration of emergency and specialized transport routing tools in usual traffic control paradigms - it is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The improvement of effective electric power use in public transport system is an advantage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The research is connected with the improvement of on-line traffic control and adaptation of special traffic lighting alternatives by ITS. The assignment of the nearest appropriate transport will be done by passenger request, but unlike information system, the transport planning is done on demand. The task can be solved with the help of modern technical methods and equipment, as well as by applying control paradigms of the distributed systems. The problem is solved with the help of calculations hyper-graph and scheduling theory. The goal of the research is to develop methods, which support scheduling of the emergency transport, using high performance computing.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Battery EMB Mass Minimization taking into Account its Electrical Machines Rotor Energy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In this paper the electromechanical battery (EMB) with synchronous machine is described. Theoretically, if electrical machines rotor stored energy is known, it is possible to reduce the flywheel mass of electromechanical battery. For example, the efficiency of energy recovery (kilowatt-hours out versus kilowatthours in) in nowadays appliances exceeds 95 % which is considerably better than of any electrochemical battery, such as lead-acid battery. For the rotor stored energy amount calculation, it is necessary to find all geometrical dimensions of the electrical machine. To achieve this goal the iterative calculation method was used. Electromechanical battery mass was analyzed as a discharge process rotation speed function. Taking into account the rotor stored energy, we can increase the minimum rotation speed thus reducing the electrical machine mass and increasing the flywheel mass, which provides EMB cost reduction. Additionally, the possibilities of using numerical approximation calculations of magnetization curves are discussed. Each iteration of numerical application necessary for the method for rapid calculation is essential when calculating the field problems. Nowadays there are a lot of computer added design programs for electromagnetic field calculation in different types of applications, electrical machines and apparatus. For the electromagnetic field calculation process some more commonly used magnetization curve approximation methods are described, and the machine calculation time is tested for different numbers of calculations.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Equalization Control Based on the Shunt Transistor Method<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Electric Vehicle (EV) researches are currently becoming of special importance and the EV battery system is particularly relevant in the EV design. In these applications, series connected batteries are necessary since a single battery cannot achieve the voltage requirements. Internal and external sources lead the batteries string to become unbalanced, which is an important factor to be taken into account, as premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and reduced capacity will occur for unbalanced systems. The different balancing methods are presented and compared in this paper, and finally the switch capacitor and the double-tiered switching capacitor are considered the best option. However, their speed depends on the voltage difference between the batteries in the string, and when their voltage difference is low, the equalization speed decreases significantly, leading the battery pack to be unbalanced for longer. A novel equalization method is presented, that improves the aforementioned methods performance by applying a new control to a shunt transistor method. Low cost, size, and complexity, together with higher speed and efficiency are obtained. A prototype has been built, and experimental results are presented.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue