rss_2.0Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Ecological Chemistry and Engineering Shttps://sciendo.com/journal/ECEShttps://www.sciendo.comEcological Chemistry and Engineering S Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6471ba46215d2f6c89daed50/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/ECES140216Synergistic Governance of Digital Economy Development and Carbon Reduction: Evidence from Chinese Citieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As a fundamental driving factor for high-quality advancement, elucidation remains requisite regarding the potential of the digital economy (DE) in achieving conjoined governance aimed at pollution reduction and carbon reduction (PCR). This study conducts a comprehensive analysis of the nexus between digital economic development (DED) and carbon mitigation. Empirical analyses are conducted utilising panel data encompassing Chinese municipalities from 2011 to 2020, enabling a quantitative evaluation of the influence exerted by DED on the concerted governance of carbon reduction and haze mitigation. The results emphasise that: DED cultivates conducive circumstances for curtailing carbon emissions and addressing haze pollution, with subsequent robust testing reinforcing the enduring significance of DED’s impact on PCR. Heterogeneity analysis reveals the pronounced effect of DED on PCR, particularly discernible in provincial capitals, eastern municipalities, as well as first and second-tier urban centers, alongside metropolises of significant magnitude. The reciprocal impact of DED on PCR predominantly stems from industrialisation synergies, primarily attributed to the optimisation and advancement of industrial structure, concomitant with enhancements in production efficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00142024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecological Scheme: Straw - Mushrooms - Biomass - Straw, Meaning from the Field to the Mushroom Farm and Back to the Fieldhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study demonstrates that the process of mushroom production, from straw acquisition through substrate preparation to mushroom harvesting, and the utilisation of the remaining biomass as a valuable soil conditioner allows for minimising residue and reducing the use of mineral fertilisers It helps fill the gaps in the currently deficient manure in agricultural production, which has a significant positive impact on the natural environment as well as the economic aspect of production. Because of the biotransformation of organic matter in straw with the addition of nitrogen (from poultry litter) and calcium compounds (gypsum) in the mushroom cultivation process, a biomorphic mass with high fertiliser values is produced, as confirmed by research. The above fits into the framework of carbon farming, enabling maximum, fully ecological, and climate-friendly use of post-production agricultural biomass. The presented solution of “from the field to the mushroom farm and back to the field” seems decidedly more beneficial than straw fertilisation as it allows for a much broader assurance of continuity in the carbon cycle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00192024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Does the Chief Executive Officer Green Experience Contribute to the Low-Carbon Transition of the Organisation?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From the perspective of chief executive officer (CEO) green experience, this paper delves into the catalysts propelling corporate transitions toward lower carbon footprints, empirically evaluating these factors using listed company data from 2011 to 2020. The study reveals that CEO green experience contributes to diminishing corporate carbon intensity, thereby fostering the shift towards lower carbon operations. Notably, this finding persists even after subjecting the analysis to robustness tests. However, the impact of CEO green experience, while promoting corporate low-carbon transitions, is comparatively lesser than other influential factors. This discrepancy exhibits distinct variations within the ownership structure and pollution attributes of companies. Specifically, the significance of CEO green experience is more pronounced in non-state-owned enterprises and heavily polluting firms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00152024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecological and Health Risk Assessment of Soil Heavy Metal Contamination Along National Highway 107 in Chinahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates soil heavy metal contamination behind the green belts along National Highway 107 in China. Soil samples were collected from both sides of the highway to determine the concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc. The distribution patterns, ecological risks, and health hazards associated with these heavy metals were analysed. In order to provide more sample examples and data support for soil heavy metal pollution control. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to detect the concentrations and speciation of these five heavy metals in the soil samples. The Geo-Accumulation Index method, the Nemerow pollution index method, and a health risk assessment model were used to evaluate the ecological and health risks of heavy metal pollution adjacent to the highway. Results indicated that: (1) The concentrations of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the soil decreased with the increasing number of protective forest layers, highlighting the significant role of protective belts in impeding the migration of heavy metals from the highway. (2) In terms of pollution assessment, the Geo-accumulation index method revealed prominent Cd contamination, the Geo-accumulation index of Cd peaked at 1.95 indicating a moderate to mild pollution level overall. Conversely, the Nemerow index method suggested a medium to extremely high risk of soil heavy metal Cd contamination. Specifically, the peak value of Cd single-factor pollution index in the study area reached 5.78, and the mean value of its Nemerow index (<italic>P</italic>) was 4.67. (3) In health risk assessment, it was found that children are more susceptible to heavy metal threats. The non-carcinogenic risk indices of all five heavy metals were less than 1, implying minimal risk. However, the total carcinogenic risk index for Cr ranged between 10<sup>–</sup><sup>6</sup> and 10–4, posing a certain level of carcinogenic risk to humans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00112024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Photophysical Investigations of the Organic Compounds Synthesised from Waste Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the photophysical investigations of two organic compounds synthesised directly by the aminolysis depolymerisation of the waste poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET) with aromatic amines, i.e., aniline and 3-amino-N-hexyl-1,8-naphthalimide without use of a catalyst. The chemical structure was confirmed by <sup>1</sup>H-NMR and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR, as well as FT-IR. The thermal, electrochemical and optical studies of the obtained derivatives were performed. The presented compounds were thermally stable up to 360 °C, and the glass transition temperature (<italic>T</italic><sub>g</sub>) occurred for the compound with the 1,8-naphthalimide units. The electrochemical investigations of the synthesised compounds have revealed one oxidation process and two reduction processes for the compound with the 1,8-naphthalimide fragments. The tested derivatives were characterised by a low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level (below –6.09 eV) and an energy-band gap (<italic>E</italic><sub>g</sub>) below 3.10 eV. The obtained molecules were absorbed in the range of 204 nm - 445 nm and emitted light from a purple to a green spectral region deepened on the used solvent with low quantum yields. The blends with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), which is used as a donor in the bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJ), and amide derivative with 1,8-naphthalimide fragments were made, and the emission quenching of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) was recorded. The presented results of the photophysical investigations have opened new possibilities for obtaining functional materials from recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00182024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Carbon Emission Reduction Effects of Heterogeneous Environmental Regulation: Evidence from the Firm Levelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper investigates the capacity of environmental regulatory policies to effectuate carbon emission reduction (CER) at the enterprise micro-level. It delves into the intrinsic correlation between these policies through theoretical analysis and empirical assessments, scrutinising the varied effects of heterogeneous environmental regulations (ERs) such as sewage charges and environmental protection subsidies. Findings reveal that diverse ERs can bolster CER, with sewage charging ERs manifesting a more conspicuous emission reduction effect. Rigorous robustness tests validate these initial conclusions. Moreover, distinct ERs exhibit temporal lags in their impact on CER; sewage charging ERs display a diminishing trend in emission reduction efficacy, while environmental subsidies ERs exhibit dynamic superposition traits. Importantly, incentives for green innovation and enhancements in total factor productivity emerge as pivotal mechanisms by which diverse ERs propel CER within enterprises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00172024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Implementation of Decision Support System for Ecological Environment Planning of Urban Green Spacehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As a highly concentrated residential area, urban development and population concentration have caused serious environmental pollution problems that threaten the safety of the water and atmospheric resources that humans rely on for survival. To address this issue, the importance of urban green space (UGS) has become increasingly prominent. This paper collected data related to UGS (green space coverage, vegetation type, environmental quality, population distribution, etc.) for processing, used the entropy algorithm to build an ecological environment assessment model, and then used the particle swarm optimisation algorithm to optimise the model accordingly. Finally, a decision support system was proposed for UGS ecological environment planning, which comprehensively considered future environmental changes. Through comparison before and after the application of decision support system, this paper tested and verified several indicators such as green space coverage, biological diversity index, and climate adaptability. Among them, after the application of the decision support system, the green space coverage rate has increased year by year, and many indicators in the biological diversity index have improved significantly. The average climate adaptability of traditional UGS planning was 70 %, while the average climate adaptability of decision support system green space planning was 90 %, which has been significantly improved. The outcome shows that the system has a notable effect in improving the climate adaptation and ecological quality of the city.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00122024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Enhanced Green Logistics: Sustainable Distribution and Warehousing with IMU Positioninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the green logistics distribution model is to minimise environmental pollution and energy usage by employing clean energy, optimising transport routes and enhancing transport efficiency. Nonetheless, current studies on green logistics distribution models and warehousing planning exhibit certain drawback, such as imprecise location accuracy and decreased distribution revenues. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a novel approach that combines inertial measurement unit (IMU) and binocular vision, leveraging multisource information positioning. Specifically, the method integrates data collection and preprocessing modules to gather crucial logistics distribution task information, encompassing IMU data, image data and vehicle data. The visual and inertial positioning module consists of two components: visual positioning based on the grey centre method and IMU positioning based on the integral essence. Finally, an adaptive Kalman filter is employed to merge the results of visual positioning and IMU positioning, thus producing the ultimate logistics vehicle positioning result. The proposed method effectively addresses existing challenges in the green logistics distribution model and warehouse planning. In particular, the experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm proposed in this study reduces the location error by 8%. Furthermore, logistics and distribution costs are reduced by 11 %, contributing to the promotion of sustainable and environmentally friendly logistics operations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00162024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Empowerment and Enterprise Carbon Risk Management: Evidence from Manufacturing Sectorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper addresses the imperative of empowering enterprises to achieve energy savings and emission reductions through digital development amidst the backdrop of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality. This study integrates digital empowerment and enterprise carbon risk management into a unified analytical framework, utilising panel data from listed companies spanning from 2011 to 2020 as research samples. The empirical investigation aims to ascertain whether there exist carbon risks impacting the operational performance of manufacturing enterprises and whether digital empowerment can mitigate these risks. The findings reveal that carbon intensity exerts an inhibitory influence on the enhancement of enterprise performance, indicating the presence of carbon risk issues faced by enterprises. Furthermore, it is observed that these carbon risk challenges escalate over time, a trend supported by robustness tests. Digital empowerment emerges as an effective mechanism in slowing down the carbon risks encountered by enterprises, albeit exhibiting characteristics of time lag. The study identifies notable heterogeneity in the role of digital empowerment in mitigating the carbon risks of enterprises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00132024-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Microstructural Characterisation of Adsorbent Ash with Potentially Toxic Elements in a Mortarhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in ecosystems and construction materials pose a significant environmental concern. Various qualitative and quantitative techniques are employed to analyse PTEs in a sample. This study explores an innovative approach that incorporates PTE (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb) adsorbent ash, specifically adsorbed paper ash (APA) and adsorbed mulch ash (AMA), into mortar composites. This approach offers several advantages, including reduced reliance on waste landfills, energy recovery during the ashing process, and immobilisation of PTEs within a cement matrix. This study evaluated the elemental and microstructural characteristics of mortar composites incorporated with adsorbed ash by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), followed by analysing the elemental maps with ImageJ software version 1.8.0. Parallel experiments were conducted to measure the leaching of mortar composites. The total elemental content of PTEs in the leachate solutions was quantified using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The differences in adsorption capacity and leaching of PTEs observed between paper and mulch can be ascribed to their distinct affinities, which are influenced by the recorded pH levels. The examined elemental mapping revealed a consistent distribution across the APA and AMA mortar matrix structures, with greater intensity than the blank mortar sample. Furthermore, there is a reverse correlation between the order of percentage area coverage of the immobilised elements and the order of leaching, indicating that the PTEs were successfully immobilised. The percentage of PTE area coverage within AMA mortar composites followed the subsequent order: Pb &gt; Cd &gt; Zn &gt; Cu, constituting 32.1 %, 28.6 %, 13.8 %, and 12.4 %, respectively. This order was also observed in the blank mortar composite, with percentages of 12.5 %, 8.6 %, 4.5 %, and 4.2 %, respectively. In the case of the APA mortar composite, the percentage of area coverage followed a different sequence: Cd &gt; Pb &gt; Zn &gt; Cu, representing 27.7 %, 26.6 %, 14.5 %, and 14.1 %, respectively. The results also demonstrated notable improvements in the microstructure of the mortar when AMA and APA are incorporated, which is attributed to the ash additives’ micro-filling capacity. The findings contribute to advancing environmentally sound construction practices, with implications for sustainable waste management and pollution mitigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00082024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Maize Root Architecture and Biomass Productivity after Application of Organic and Inorganic Additives in Contaminated Soilhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Both inorganic and organic soil amendments serve as pivotal tools for augmenting crop yield and optimising fertilisation efficacy, while enhancing soil physical and biological characteristics, bolstering carbon sequestration, and remedying soil degradation caused by pollutants and salinity. This study was carried out with the specific objective of discerning the impact of various zeolite composites and their mixtures with lignite or leonardite on maize biomass output. To achieve this aim, the following treatments were applied in a controlled pot experiment: zeolite/carbon and zeolite/vermiculite composites mixed with lignite or leonardite, and a control treatment devoid of any amendments. Subsequent analysis encompassed the root morphometric parameters and maize aboveground production. The lowest productivity was characterised for maize without any fertilisers and amendments. The highest aboveground biomass of maize straw was obtained when only mineral fertilisation was applied. Both aboveground and root biomass were at the same level, notwithstanding the soil amendments, zeolite composites or organic amendments. Root morphological parameters, including root dry matter, root length, root surface area, and volume, were influenced by the addition of zeolite/carbon and zeolite/vermiculite composites with organic component. Our research shows the beneficial effect of the applied additives on some morphological properties of the roots. Zeolite/vermiculite composite application increased root surface area and root volume.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00062024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Intelligent Analysis of Import and Export in Green Trade Barrier Based on Big Data Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0009<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the rapid development of economic globalisation, global economic and trade activities are escalating. However, environmental problems and the emergence of green economy, a response to these problems, has led to the widespread introduction of green trade barriers. These barriers implicitly limit the development of trade activities. This paper focuses on the export difficulties caused by green trade barriers and proposes a method to quantify discrete product characteristics, explore the internal characteristics of commodities and decide optimally on intended export regions. Firstly, the discrete feature of products is quantified by quantitative transformation method. Secondly, the quantitative data are used to derive the best decision for export regions through support vector regression (SVR) method. Particle swarm optimisation is used in optimising SVR parameters to achieve high-precision decision making. Comparison with historical data from the industry park shows the identification accuracy of the optimised SVR model to be better than that of the traditional regression model. This finding presents a novel perspective for developing import and export under the background of green trade barriers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00092024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Pricing of Chinese Certified Emissions Reduction Scheme in a Supply Chain Under the Cap-and-Trade Policyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Against the backdrop of carbon trading, the Chinese Certified Emissions Reduction (CCER) scheme is one of the most important measures of China to reduce carbon emissions. We study a supply chain consisting of a CCER supplier and a manufacturer that buys CCER quotas from the supplier. The supplier is a non-emissions-control enterprise engaged in clean energy projects, while the manufacturer is classified into three types: a clean, a relatively clean, and an unclean firm. We analyse the impacts of the price and offset rate of CCER quotas on firms’ emissions reductions. We find that when the price of CCER quotas is lower than the price of Chinese Emissions Allowances (CEAs): (1) for both clean and unclean manufacturers, with increasing CCER offset rate (quota price), technical emissions reduction decreases (increases). (2) The incentive for the relatively clean manufacturer to reduce emissions is not affected by other extraneous factors. When the prices of CCER quotas and CEAs are uncertain, we find that (1) the technology abatement decisions of the three types of manufacturer are consistent and the corresponding CCER suppliers price their CCER quotas in the same way. (2) When the proportion of CCER quotas purchased by the manufacturer increases, the unit technical emissions reduction increases. Confirming that introduction of the CCER scheme can reduce carbon emissions, our findings provide theoretical guidance for suppliers to make pricing decisions on CCER quotas and for manufacturers to make technical emissions reduction decisions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00032024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimising Biosynthesis of Antimicrobial Copper Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Leaf Extract-Based Mediumhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Copper oxide nanostructures have garnered significant attention in nanotechnology for their diverse applications. This study presents a green synthesis approach using an aqueous <italic>Aegle marmelos</italic> leaf extract-based medium to produce copper oxide (Cu<sub>4</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) nanoparticles. Optimisation was achieved through a simplified Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, investigating critical parameters such as temperature, surfactants (AOT and Tween 80), and additives (ascorbic acid and chitosan). Under optimised conditions (AOT: 0.0012 mM, ascorbic acid: 10 mM, chitosan: 1 %, temperature: 80 °C), near-spherical nanoparticles of ~200 nm were obtained. Comprehensive characterisation through UV-Vis, DLS, electron microscopy, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the nanoparticles’ properties, while antibacterial assays showed promising results against <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> bacteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00012024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Utilisation of Shrimp Shell as a Low-Cost Biosorbent for the Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dyeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dye water contamination was the main challenge that pressured textile industries tremendously. The present investigation aims to employ solid waste from fisheries industries to remove toxic dye contaminants in an aqueous solution. Shrimp shell waste (SSW) was fishery waste with good potential for adsorbing dyes, one of which is methylene blue. This research studied methylene blue’s adsorption capacity using shrimp shell waste as a biosorbent. By studying several parameters, it was found that the adsorption capacity was 48.834 mg g<sup>−1</sup> at pH = 10, with an optimum concentration of 550 mg L<sup>−1</sup>, a contact time of 105 min, and a heating temperature of the biosorbent 120 °C - the results of XRF characterisation shown the differences in the chemical composition percentage before and after adsorption process. The results suggested that SSW can be employed as and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye from water effectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00052024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Dynamic Coupling Analysis Between Scale of Network Retail Market and Green Circulation Efficiencyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0010<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A sound circulation system is an important carrier for the development of the retail industry, and the promotion of green circulation efficiency (GCE) plays an important role in driving the market scale expansion of network retail (NR). This study uses the development status of China’s NR and circulation industries as basis to estimate the total carbon emissions (CE) of the circulation industry by using the system dynamics method. Moreover, this research measures China’s GCE by combining data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist index to construct a coupling analysis model to empirically investigate the dynamic coupling relationship between the NR scale and green circulation efficiency. Results indicate that China’s GCE is generally increasing, but growth rate fluctuates significantly. Additionally, the improvement of the quality and efficiency of China’s circulation industry has not yet formed a steady green path. China’s NR market scale continues to expand, but NR at this stage is still mainly concentrated in the eastern region. The efficiency of green circulation and scale of the NR market show a good coupling trend, but there is still a significant gap between the central and western regions. Accordingly, this study proposes that the construction of a green circulation system should be strengthened, and that the development of a green and efficient circulation industry should be taken as the engine of the NR scale expansion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00102024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling and Simulation Studies on the Characteristic Behaviour of Macroalgae Derived Bio-Oilhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the expanding need for renewable and sustainable energy resources, the demand for biomass derived bio-oil particularly microalgae or macroalgae based bio-oil is growing. In this regard, understanding the characteristics of bio-oil as a function of several influencing operational parameters is essential. In this study modelling and simulation technique based on Aspen HYSYS was applied to investigate the characteristics of macroalgae <italic>Ulva prolifera</italic> derived bio-oil from Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) process as a function of the influencing parameters like temperature, kinematic viscosity, and weight percent of the bio-oil assay, cut yield behaviour, and standard liquid density. Modelling and simulation help to optimise the process parameters and design the process layout for large-scale production. According to the simulation results the cut yield of off gases, light naphtha, heavy naphtha, light distillate, heavy distillate, gas oil and residues are shown at specific final boiling point (FBP) temperatures of 70 °C, 70 °C - 110 °C, 110 °C - 221.1 °C, 221.1 °C - 304.4 °C, 304.4 °C - 371.1 °C, 371.1 °C - 537.8 °C and 537.7 °C respectively. Whereas, above a temperature of 300 °C, the weight percentage of aromatic components increased steadily. The increase in percentage composition of the aromatic components is due to the reduction of the paraffinic components. The density of the liquid bio-oil was steadily increasing until a temperature of 200 °C.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00022024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Temperature Fluctuation on the Anaerobic Digestion Characteristics and Evolution of Microorganisms of Kitchen Wastehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Water accounts for 70 % - 90 % of the total mass of food waste, and the contents of organic matter, oil, and salt in the waste are high. These conditions are highly suitable for the growth and reproduction of bacteria and other microorganisms. Therefore, anaerobic digestion is a common approach to treat food waste. Despite its long history, the research on anaerobic digestion has gradually developed with the progress in science and technology. This study aimed to explore the influence of temperature fluctuation on the anaerobic digestion characteristics of food waste by performing batch experiments; also, the characteristics were analysed from a microscopic perspective. The anaerobic digestion process was subjected to the interactions between various microorganisms and enzymes. The experimental results indicated that the activity of bacteria belonging to the phyla such as Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi was relatively high at a constant temperature. In contrast, the activity of the bacteria belonging to the phyla such as Bacteroidota and Acidobacteriota was relatively high at regulated temperatures. The activity of cellulase and lipase increased whereas that of protease decreased at a constant temperature. Regardless of the fluctuation mode of temperature, the activity of amylase did not obviously alter. These microorganisms with different responses to temperature fluctuation had unique functions in the anaerobic digestion process, and they participated in different anaerobic digestion stages. Therefore, based on the attribute of kitchen waste, an appropriate temperature mode can be selected to make anaerobic digestion more efficient.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00072024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Removal of Textile Dyes From Water Using Cellulose Aerogelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, removal of textile dyes from artificially contaminated water was investigated using sorbent synthesised from cardboard waste. Aerogel - lightweight adsorbent - a material with a low density and large surface area. Aerogels obtained from cellulose, chitosan, lignin or pectin have good adsorption properties for removing organic pollutants from wastewater. The aim of this study was to determine the adsorption efficiency of naphthol green B, congo red, methylene blue and rhodamine B from artificially contaminated water using sorbent synthesised from cardboard waste. The mass of the cellulose aerogel (5 mas. %) adsorbents, that were used in the experiments varied from 1.6 g to 2.74 g. The optimal adsorption conditions were determined as pH = 6.0, concentration of dyes - 10 mg L<sup>−1</sup> and 18.0 °C −19.0 °C temperature. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum removal efficiency of naphthol green B using aerogel was 16.45 %; congo red - 98.44 %; methylene blue −79.28 %; and rhodamine B - 52.44 %.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2024-00042024-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00One-Year-Long, Comprehensive Analysis of PM Number and Mass Size Distributions in Warszawa (Poland)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2023-0047<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The properties of particulate matter PM, including its impact on the environment and human health, depend mainly on the size (more precisely: size distribution) of the particles since the size is usually dependent on the processes/sources of the PM. This work presents the results of a one-year-long measurement campaign of PM. PALAS Fidas 200 from Airpointer air quality station was used. The PM was measured in Warsaw, Poland continuously from 1st May 2022 to 30th April 2023; size distribution was recorded with 120 s intervals and averaged in 3600 s periods. It was found, that the number and the mass size distribution varied depending on the averaging period (different hours of the day, different days of the week, and different months of the year). Additionally, the authors determined the periods of impact on selected sources (traffic emission, municipal emission, and industrial emission) on the number and mass size distributions of PM at the sampling site. Monitoring of number and mass size distributions of PM is a relatively easy and more cost-effective method than analysing the chemical composition of PM. Therefore, is crucial to develop a method of identifying sources of PM based on size distributions. It was found that such a method can be in the future as successful in source apportionment as in the analysis of chemical compositions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/eces-2023-00472024-01-16T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1