rss_2.0European Journal of Formal Sciences and Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Journal of Formal Sciences and Engineeringhttps://sciendo.com/journal/EJFEhttps://www.sciendo.comEuropean Journal of Formal Sciences and Engineering Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6471bc70215d2f6c89daf2b5/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/EJFE140216The Flypaper Effect Phenomenon: Evidence from Indonesiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the implementations of autonomy policy is fiscal decentralization. The State gives chance to every local government for improving its fiscal ability. Original Local Government Revenue (PAD) is fiscal potency owned local government to improve local government independence to promote welfare to society. To accelerate fiscal independence of local government equally, the central government sends transfer funds in the form of General Allocation Funds (DAU) which aims to comply local government expenditure that has not fulfilled. However, problems faced is local government expenditure management still much more affected by DAU rather than PAD. It indicates that local government still depends on central government to comply expenditure called flypaper effect. This research aims to analyze the effect of PAD and DAU on local government expenditure by identifying whether occurs flypaper on provincial government in Indonesia. The method used in this research is analysis regression of panel data with Generalized Least Square (GLS). Data used is panel data from 34 provinces in Indonesia between 2008 and 2017. Based on results estimation, PAD and DAU positively and significantly affect local government expenditure. However, the DAU more affects local government expenditure compared with PAD. This exhibits that flypaper effect phenomenon occurred on provincial government in Indonesia which local government expenditure response more affected by DAU than PAD. It is happening due to the provincial government still relies on central government to comply its expenditure illustrated with high DAU transfers. This research concludes that decentralization policy in Indonesia is not effective yet. Thus, the government needs to adjust decentralization policy in order to improve regional fiscal independence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00202023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Decision Support Opportunities in the Green Supply Chain Coordinationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the 21<sup>st</sup> century, major changes have taken place in supply chain management. First of all, some new type of supply chains has appeared beside the traditional supply chains. The growing level of pollution, the decreasing level of non-renewable sources indicate changes in the business life. Companies find some alternate solutions to protect the environment – use renewable sources, integrate recycling processes, use the inverse logistics etc. So companies are getting to be eco-conscious, we are called them as ‘green companies’. If these green companies are in one supply chain, we are called as ‘green supply chain’. The coordination of supply chains – whether if traditional or green– is one of the most important research topics in this century. The number of chain members is growing; the cooperation is getting to be more difficult. That is why contracts could be a good solution for this problem, because they define a framework for the parties to manage their relationships. Contracts work well, if the right type is chosen according to the nature of the relationship. But in the case of a green supply chain, there are other influencing factors. Green companies are able to accept higher prices to get higher quality products. In the paper, we analyse how these factors influence the decision-makers to choose between the contracts; we use the AHP decision-making method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00172023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Memory of the Landscape and Ethical Dwellinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, I intend to carry out a hermeneutic study into the relationship between the workings of memory and landscape, and the consequences that such a relationship produces for living on an ethical level. In the first part, I intend to highlight the active role played by memory in the significant interpretations of the landscape. In consideration of this aspect, I will deal with the circularity between building a narrative of the landscape and exercising individual and collective memory. In the second part, I will focus on the role that the narrative, together with memory, plays with regard to the different forms of living. In the light of such activity, living is seen as ethical dwelling for the care of the landscape and of man who inhabits it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00182023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Attaining a Beam-Like Behavior with FRP Strips and CAM Ribbonshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the major concerns in the seismic retrofitting of masonry walls is that of increasing the ultimate load for out-of-plane forces. In multi-story buildings, these forces may originate from the hammering actions of floors, when the earthquake direction is orthogonal to the wall. A possibility for counteracting the out-of-plane displacements is retaining the wall by building some buttresses, that is, some beams lean against the wall and disposed vertically. Another possibility is to make the buttress in the thickness of the wall. In this second case, we must cut the wall for its entire height, realize the buttress, and restore the masonry wall around it. In both cases, the interventions are highly invasive. The first intervention also leads to increments of mass that enhance the attraction of seismic forces. The aim of this paper is to find a less invasive and lighter alternative for realizing buttresses. We proposed to use FRP strips and steel ribbons in a combined fashion, so as to realize an ideal vertical I-beam embedded into the wall, without requiring to cut the masonry. We also provided some experimental results for verifying the effectiveness of the model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00122023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Effectiveness of Active Confinement Techniques with Steel Ribbons: Masonry Buildingshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the present paper, we analyzed the main advantages of the active confinement techniques with a particular focus on the CAM system, which is an Italian reinforcement technique with pre-tensioned stainless-steel ribbons. Italian seismic codes classify the CAM system as belonging to the strengthening category of “horizontal and vertical ties”. Therefore, we compared the CAM system to the reinforcement techniques with horizontal and vertical ties in order to understand the actual similarities and possible differences between them. Moreover, we offered a deep analysis of the main critical issues of the CAM system, distinguishing between geometrical and mechanical weak-points. In particular, we analyzed the strengthening mechanism of the CAM system, still poorly understood, by performing a static analysis in the Mohr/Coulomb plane. Finally, we provided suggestions for future developments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00132023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Synchronization Possibilities and Features in Javahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper we have discussed one of the greatest features of the general-purpose computer programming language –Java. This paper represents concepts of Synchronization possibilities and features in Java. Today’s operating systems support concept of “Multitasking”. Multitasking achieved by executing more than one task at a same time. Tasks runs on threads. Multitasking runs more than one task at a same time. Multitasking which means doing many things at the same time is one of the most fundamental concepts in computer engineering and computer science because the processor execute given tasks in parallel so it makes me think that are executing simultaneously. Multitasking is related to other fundamental concepts like processes and threads. A process is a computer program that is executing in a processor, while a thread is a part of a process that has a way of execution: it is a thread of execution. Every process has at least one thread of execution. There are two types of multitasking: process – based and thread – based. Process-based multitasking, means that on a given computer there can be more than one program or process that is executing, while thread-based multitasking, which is also known as multithreading, means that within a process, there can be more than one thread of execution, each of them doing a job and so accomplishing the job of their process. When there are many processes or many threads within processes, they may have to cooperate with each other or concurrently try to get access to some shared computer resources like: processor, memory and input/output devices. They may have to, for example: print a file in a printer or write and/or read to the same file. We need a way of setting an order, where processes and/or threads could do their jobs (user jobs) without any problem, we need to synchronize them. Java has built-in support for process and thread synchronization, there are some constructs that we can use when we need to do synchronization.This paper, a first phase discussed the concept of Parall Programming, threads, how to create a thread, using a thread, working with more than one thread. Second phase is about synchronization, what is in general and in the end we disscused the synchronization possibilities and feautures in Java.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00192023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Design of a Conceptual Model for Improving Company Performance Based on Lean Management Applying the Viable System Model (VSM)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Designing, changing and adapting organizations to secure viability is challenging for companies. Researchers often fail to holistically design or transform organizations. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a holistic approach how organizations can be designed, changed or managed considering also its implications to production management following lean management principles. Hereby the Viable System Model was applied. This structure can be applied to any kind of structured organization and for its management with goals to be achieved in modern society; however focus of the research is the cluster of manufacturing and assembly companies. Goal of the developed organizational model is to be able to react to all potential company environments by taking decisions regarding organization and production management functions correctly and in the right moment based on the needed information. To ensure this, standardized communication channels were defined. In conclusion this proposed approach enables companies to have internal mechanisms to secure viability and also in production to reduce necessary stocks, lead times, manpower allocation and leads to an increase of the service level to the final customer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00112023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Europe’s Economic Crisis: Re - Clustering European Economieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>National debt and distressed banks in countries such as Greece led to an ongoing recession since the beginning of Europe’s economic crisis. At the same time, austerity measures, all over Europe, reshape economies in a trial to increase global competitiveness. Economic integration as a challenge for social prosperity seems more crucial than ever, while it is a matter of research whether the acquired economic policies lead to further divergence. The paper explores how economic crisis has affected 40 European economies, by using macroeconomic indexes. A re-clustering of these economies is attempted for detecting similarities and differences between European economies. The analysis reveals how close an economic integration is and how a multi – speed European economy would look like today. Moreover, it explores how European economies have transformed during the last five years, in terms of competitiveness’ similarities and how the Gross National Income is related with governance indicators.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00162023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Technology, Users, and Sustainable Social Housinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to contribute with results in relation to the challenges that users encounter with regard to technologies in sustainable social housing. The results are significant and show that in modern Danish sustainable social housing consideration is not taken for the users in relation to the technologies implemented in the buildings. The consequences are that the intentions of the technologies supporting economic, environmental, and social sustainability do not work for the users when the buildings are taken into use. The paper argues that developers and architectural practice should in future use simpler technologies that give residents the opportunity to individually regulate their homes’ indoor climate. At the same time, architecture and technology should reflect the consideration towards the climate in the local context and the users’ funda-mental living conditions. The paper argues for the development of a more user-oriented architecture, where the interaction between architecture and technology can work for the users and to a greater extent support the intentions with regard to sustainability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00142023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Computer Simulations of Ethics: The Applicability of Agent-Based Modeling for Ethical Theorieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>I consider the applicability of Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and computer simulations for ethical theories. Though agent-based modeling is already well established in the social sciences, it has not yet found acceptance in the field of philosophical ethics. Currently, there are only a few works explicitly connecting ethics with agent-based modeling. In this paper, I show that it is possible to build computer simulations of ethical theories and that there are also potential benefits in doing so: (1) the opportunity for virtual ethical experiments that are impossible to do in real life, and (2) an increased understanding and appreciation of an ethical theory either through the programming implementation or through the visual simulation. In the first part of the paper, I mention some social science simulations with ethical import that could encourage ethicists to work with ABM. Second, I list the few pioneering works that attempt to combine computer simulation with philosophical ethics, the most prominent being <italic>Evolving Ethics: The New Science of Good and Evil</italic> (2010) by Mascaro et al. Third, I give pointers for the computer simulation of the most prominent ethical theories: deontological ethics, utilitarianism, feminist care ethics, and virtue ethics. In the final part, I consider the potential of using an existing reference model for the simulation of human behavior, the PECS model, as the foundation for a computer simulation of virtue ethics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00152023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00The Three Dimensional Spiral of Sense: A New Paradigm Systemic Applied a Six Areas Disciplinares and Two Axis: Identity and Professionalizationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article introduces a new systemic theory called “The Three Dimensional Spiral of Sense”, applied to Identity and Professionalization. The epistemological mainstays of the theory are stressed here, a theory supported by more than 30 years of empirical research at CONICET (National Council of Scientific Research, Argentina), with individuals belonging to different populations, some of them covering periods of over 20 years (intra-generational studies), and others covering three generations in-line (inter-generational studies). This article presents the most specific theoretical frameworks, and it formulates the six disciplinary areas in which the new analysis of the social data was carried out: Education, Health, Science, Media, International Relations and Interculturality. The first area – Education – is dealt with through different levels (secondary level, tertiary level, University and PhD training. Here, we only make reference to the studies carried out, returning to some epistemological issues in this theory. The methodology used was quantitative (statistical analysis, a semi-structured survey) but mainly qualitative (hierarchical evocations, interviews). The approach was macro-micro-meso-macro, micro, not quite common yet. It consists of a kind of sui generis systemism which recovers relationships (links, back and forth) between individuals and contexts, without overlooking neither the former nor the latter, thus, avoiding any type of reductionism. Individuals, organizations and frameworks interplay and feedback themselves. The results, particularly the qualitative ones, show the rich interactions underlying the continuance or innovation processes, which favor or hinder the individuals’ development and identity in times of abrupt change; at the same time, these results reveal the need for Professionalization in emerging countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00052023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00A Research Study on Vibrating Elements and Consuming Electricity in Predictive Maintenancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mechanical looseness is one of the common failures detected on machines and mechanical systems. In this research, resonance effect that is a problem for mechanical systems has been studied within perspective of mechanical looseness failure through a bearing. A test setup has been designed, built and located in laboratory environment. A bearing in the electrical motor, that is one of the elements in the test setup construction, has been chosen for acquiring data throught acoustic, vibration and electrical consumption during the test. The purpose of this research is testing condition monitoring of mechanical looseness failure and resonance for studying comparison of different predictive maintenance perspectives. The test was implemented at the electricity frequency of 40.5 Hz that forced the electrical motor through identified rotation speed. According to the analysis results, inspecting of mechanical looseness failure and resonance problem has been detected as the most effectively by vibration analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00072023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The New Integral Transform: “NE Transform” and Its Applicationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work introduces a new integral transform for functions of exponential order called “NE integral transform”. We prove some properties of NE -transform. Also, some applications of the NE- transform to find the solution to ordinary linear equation are given. The relationships of the new transform with well-known transforms are characterized by integral identities. We study the properties of this transform. Then we compare it with few exiting integral transforms in the Laplace family such as Laplace, Sumudu, Elzaki, Aboodh and etc. As well, the NE integral transform is applied and used to find the solution of linear ordinary differential equations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00032023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Barrier Modification by Methyl Violet Organic Dye Molecules of Ag/P-Inp Structureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work includes fabrication and electrical characterization of <bold>M</bold>etal/<bold>I</bold>nterlayer/<bold>S</bold>emiconductor (MIS) structures with methyl violet organic film on <italic>p-</italic>InP wafer. Metal(Ag)/ Interlayer (methyl violet =MV)/Semiconductor(<italic>p</italic>-InP) MIS structure presents a rectifying contact behavior. The values of ideality factor (<italic>n</italic>) and barrier height (BH) for the Ag/MV/<italic>p</italic>-InP MIS diode by using the current-voltage (<italic>I</italic>-<italic>V)</italic> measurement have been extracted as 1.21 and 0.84 eV, respectively. It was seen that the BH value of 0.84 eV calculated for the Ag/MV/<italic>p</italic>-InP MIS structure was significantly higher than the value of 0.64 eV of Ag/<italic>p</italic>-InP control contact. This situation was ascribed to the fact that the MV organic interlayer increased the effective barrier height by influencing the space charge region of inorganic semiconductor. The values of diffusion potential and barrier height for the Ag/MV/<italic>p</italic>-InP MIS diode by using the capacitance-voltage (<italic>C</italic>-<italic>V)</italic> measurement have been extracted as 1.21 V and 0.84 eV, respectively. The interface-state density of the Ag/MV/<italic>p</italic>-InP structure was seen to change from 2.57×10<sup>13</sup> eV<sup>-1</sup>cm<sup>-2</sup> to 2.19×10<sup>12</sup> eV<sup>-1</sup>cm<sup>-2</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00062023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The Structural and Optical Properties of Perovskite Thin Filmshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Perovskite materials have many interesting properties such as modulation of the optical band gap and the properties of quantum wells. In addition, they have a stable structure. For these reasons, perovskites have attractive properties for optoelectronic devices. Additionally, the structural and optical properties can be changed by means of different halide atoms doped into materials. In this study, the effect of iodine on the structural, and optical properties of perovskite thin films was investigated. KCaCl2 I and KCaCl3 perovskite were prepared by chemical bath deposition on a glass substrate. The crystal structures of the films were determined by X-ray diffraction. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the films had a crystalline structure. In addition, KCaCl2 I perovskite thin film has better crystalline than KCaCl3 perovskite thin films. Linear optical parameters were determined using transmittance and absorbance measurements. And then, the optical band gap values, extinction coefficient, refractive index, and dielectric constants were determined as linear optical properties. It was understood that these properties were affected by iodine.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00022023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Implementing a Simulation Model for the Evaluation of BGP Updates Impact on Real-Time Applicationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the actual routing inter-domain protocol in the Internet. The size, heterogenity and changebility that characterize todays Internet put always increasing requirements on BGP performance. The research community has already reported the unwanted characteristics of BGP like low integrity and slow convergence through theoretichal analyzes andd empirical measurements. Simulations allow for more realistic and flexible experiments than the theoretichal approach and also lower costs than the measurements in real life environments. The first part of this work describe theoretically characteristics and problems related to BGP nd also expectations of the today Internet users to real time applications (like VoIP). The second part concentrates in identifying and implementing of the elements for creating an integrated simulation environment for evaluating dhe effects of slowconvergence of BGP in these applications. At last it is evaluated the created environement through some small scale simmulations that try to model the now days Internet Structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00092023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Generation - Analysis of the Use of ICT by Young Poleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the Europe 2020 strategy in area of smart growth one of the flagship initiatives is Digital Agenda for Europe. Implementation of this initiative will lead to wide-availability of ICT solutions to society. Young people belonging to Generation Y most often treat the computer as a natural household equipment. Regular use of the Internet is very popular among them. They increasingly use mobile solutions in the field of ICT. The intelligent use of information technology possibilities will lead to sustainable economic growth. The purpose of the study was to cheque changes in the use of ICT among young Poles, and whether related behavioural patterns are similar in other countries of the European Union. The paper concludes with main reasons differencing generations in Poland due to the using the Internet.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00042023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Transforming Radio, Changing Listenerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The new media concept, which emerged with the rapid change of technology, has also changed the perception of society to mass media. It is an absolute reality that the changing radio concept in the digitizing period has changed and transformed the listener along with it. It has also reformed the new media audience, which has been reformed with the convergence of mass media with technology, not only as an audience but also as a participant. As a result of convergence, new concepts such as interaction, synchronicity and mass unification have emerged. While interaction in the traditional media is provided at a limited level, content in the new media is often determined by the audience. From the point of view of new media and user relations, radio has become the medium of communication that can adapt to this change in the easiest way and change contents in this direction. the Internet has offered a radio technology to radio listeners that allows the radio to establish its own radio. All these technological developments and the activation of the audience have reshaped the radio and listener relationship. The main aim of this study is to reveal how the radio, a warm communication medium, is shaped its own language and the relationship established with the audience through technology. In this direction, a structured in-depth interview will be held with 24 people working at Anadolu University in February 2018. These people will be randomly determined according to their socio-economic status. According to the Socio-economic Statutes, 8 faculty members, 8 civil servants and 8 workers will be selected. The selected sampling will ask questions such as radio listening habits, why they listen to the radio and what the effect of participating in radio programs for a democratic society will be in order to define the link they establish with the radio.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00102023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Consent to Treatment and Anamnesis as Problem of Communication with Minor Patients in Healthcare Decision-Makinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lately lawyers and medical professionals pay more attention too the process of minor patient healthcare. The research shall address the issues of legal relationship between minor patients and medical professionals, consent to treatment of minor patients and communication problems including the scope of information which the doctor can provide to the minor patient’s relatives to protect themselves and patients. Legislation prescribes that the information provided by the medical professional to the minor patient must be not only easy-to-understand, but also be consistent with the patient’s age maturity. However, in Latvia, for example, there are no guidelines that specify how medical professionals can determine the patient’s maturity. In the course of provision of medical services to the minor persons legal disputes involving communiucation failures between the minor patients, their relatives, legal representatives and the doctors arise increasingly frequently. The research will look into issue of communication problems in healthcare. The aim of the research is to provide insight into challenges of legal relations betweem minor patients and medical professionals and communication problems in healthcare.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00082023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Transfer of Personal Data to Third Countries and the “Equivalent Level” of Protection According to the European Court of Justicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The focus of this study is the transfer of personal data to third countries or international organizations according to EU Regulation No. 679/2016 (GDPR) on the protection of personal data. The primary goal of this Regulation concerning data transfer to third countries is to ensure that the subject’s rights and freedoms are safeguarded at the same level as provided by GDPR. According to GDPR, before any transfer to a third country or international organization, it must first be ascertained whether the European Commission has established that a third country ensures an adequate level of protection. Regarding personal data protection in the third state, the Court of Justice of the European Union has intervened on different occasions. In the last decision, in 2020, the Court declared invalid the European Commission’s Decision No. 2016/1250 on the adequacy of the protection provided by the EU-US Privacy Shield (CJEU, Schrems II, 2020, July 16) because it does not provide effective and enforceable rights for personal data subjects in cases of interference. According to the Court of Justice of the European Union, the US does not guarantee an “essentially equivalent” level of protection to that provided by the European Union under Article 45(1) GDPR, read in conjunction with Articles 7, 8, and 47 of the European Union’s Charter of Fundamental Rights, which guarantee respect for private and family life, personal data protection, and the right to effective judicial protection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejfe-2023-00012023-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1