rss_2.0European Journal of Language and Literature Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Journal of Language and Literature Studies Journal of Language and Literature Studies Feed Distancing v. Physical Distancing – Why is the Term Social Distancing Globally Accepted in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many measures are being taken during the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. One of the primary concepts that appeared throughout the media was “social distancing”. Over the months, this term rose to become an omnipresent catchword, used over and over in the news on TV, the radio, in newspapers and journals as well as in everyday communication. In this article the term “social distancing” will be examined in relation to the term “physical distancing”. Is it “social distancing” or “physical distancing” that is preventing us from being infected with the virus? The term “social distancing” is analysed from a linguistic, socio-historical and psychological point of view and its use is questioned in the context of the dominant imperative. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to uncover when and in which context the term “social distance” was established and why it has been adopted worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas the term “physical distancing”, which the author considers to be more appropriate within the context of the recommended measures, was neglected, even though this is the term the WHO is using in their instructions and guidelines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Semantics and Syntax of Prepositional Constructions with the Lexical Verb in Written and Spoken Discourse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A prepositional construction consists of a lexical verb followed by a preposition with which it is semantically and/ or syntactically linked. The main focus of this analysis is the lexical verb go occurring within prepositional constructions. The aim of this paper is to present the frequency and distribution of prepositional verbs in written and spoken discourse. We will also determine all prepositional constructions with the lexical verb go, and present their practical use and distribution in different registers. Given that when distinguishing prepositional verbs, the semantic criteria of idiomaticity must be supplemented by syntactic criteria, we will also show all possible meanings of each prepositional construction found in the analyzed material, and determine the type of transitivity of each meaning. Furthermore, we will compare the distribution and syntactic features of each prepositional construction with the lexical verb go in different registers, and show similarities, disimilarities and all characteristics of their practical use in written and spoken discourse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Teacher and Students in Pre-Intermediate English Class<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research will examine the classroom discourse and interactions between a teacher and students in an ESL class. It will analyze how discourse occurs and how it can facilitate language learning. The participants were adult university students or employees. Via live classroom observation and audio recording of classes, the data were collected. The findings suggest that the teacher controlled all students, and led all class activities and the teaching process. The teacher frequently used pronouns ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘I’ while teaching as well as words such as “perfect,” “correct,” and “very good” to motivate students in-class participation. Students mostly used the pronoun ‘I’ to answer the questions. Most of the questions were closed-ended, so students did not have a chance to elaborate or share their ideas. The discourse occurred in an “IRF” - Initial, Response, and Follow up. Lack of coherence and cohesion were widely visible in classroom interaction and most of the sentences uttered were ungrammatical.<sup>1</sup></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Scope of Alexandre Dumas’s : Problems, Considerations, and Debates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alexandre Dumas’s interment in the Panthéon in 2002 prompted a steady reevaluation of his literary reputation, resulting in his increased prominence among his nineteenth-century peers. Several studies have resurrected Dumas’s 1857 argument that his works comprise a vast series entitled <italic>La Drame de la France</italic>. This argument has become so ubiquitous that it has become an uncontested fact. However, there are certain challenges in studying Dumas’s <italic>La Drame de la France</italic>. Dumas did not repeatedly make this assertion, which was announced toward the latter portion of his life, and whether it was something that consciously and continuously drove his plans when developing future ideas and concepts for his historical fiction novels is debatable. Therefore, while not disputing the existence of <italic>La Drame de la France</italic>, its nature (and the nature of its creation) nevertheless makes it so that which novels specifically comprise it has never been definitively established. Coming to some degree of consensus on this point is needed as a first step to advance studies of Dumas in this area. This article seeks to initiate this literary discussion by presenting Dumas’s 36 major historical fiction novels set in France, briefly examining the problems, considerations, and debates that exist in whether each could be accepted as part of the series.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Cliché Image of Oriental Woman in Mohsin Hamid’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper attempts to hold a mirror to the existential struggle of an immigrant Muslim woman who is trying to survive on her journey to the west. Mohsin Hamid presents Nadia as one of the main characters in his 2017 novel Exit West. The paradox concerning Nadia is that while her preference for wearing a long black robe confirms the western misconstrued image of Muslim women, her actions, her view of the world, of life and of herself definitely refute the ingrained eastern notion of the suppressed, submissive, silenced Muslim woman. According to the dominant western view, oriental women are still under the strict control of the mechanisms of patriarchy. Among the control mechanisms of patriarchal order are traditions, norms, values and religion. However, Nadia does not fall into this western miscategorization of Muslim woman with her strong, rebellious character, and with her freethinking and insight. Indeed, it is Nadia, who safeguards, directs and in a sense, matures Saeed’s-the other main character-rather timid and naïve personality. What is unexpected in the journey of these two characters is that the one who is need of identity reconstruction is not the female but the male character, for Nadia does already have a firmly constructed identity and she has no intention to transform either her outfit or her world view for the sake of integrating herself into the western culture. In brief, through the character of Nadia, Mohsin Hamid reconstructs the cliché image of oriental woman. In Exit West, Hamid reverses stereotyped gender roles by attributing his female character all the dominant personality traits attached to the male sex.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue at Home and the Development of the Linguistic Skills of Written Expression and Reading Comprehension in Foreign Language Teaching<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The emergence of COVID19 on the world scene has become a major challenge for the entire society and, in this particular case for the methods used in teaching and learning foreign languages in Higher Education Institutions. Not only teachers but also students have had to suddenly face the need to achieve their linguistic and intercultural academic goals in a totally new environment, characterized by the massive presence of digital and online teaching tools and by a very big lack of motivation in both teachers and students. In this study, we will analyze the relevance of virtual exchange and collaborative learning with foreign students who remain in their home universities and their contribution to improve the skills included in the CEFR. Starting with a case study of foreign language tuition in German and based on qualitative data, we will show the usefulness of internationalization at home as an effective tool for the development not only of linguistic skills, such as the written expression and reading comprehension, but also of the necessary intercultural competence. Furthermore, we will also examine how internationalization at home can be an equally useful tool or teaching practice to foster motivation in foreign language learning and teaching. We will highlight the relevance of teaching practices and resources at a time when teachers and students have had to get used to new teaching practices overnight. Based on the provided data, and due to its pedagogical relevance, we will be ready to conclude that internationalization at home is a practice that has offered an answer to a problem arising after the imposition of the lockdown and consequently should continue to be used at HEIs in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the Contemporary Environment and in Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The role and the importance of images in the contemporary environment has been studied by many researchers. Their presence at an economic, political, social and cultural level has been deemed to be both vital and essential, due to the influence which they exert on each of these fields. Education has not been an exception to this rule. The development of technology and of new technological media has aided, boosted and established their presence in all the activities of human life, with all the positive and negative aspects that this entails.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Language of Bilingual Children and Its Characteristics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Our contribution focuses on the issue of reading children in a bilingual setting, and the control of two languages is natural to them. In spoken language, children express themselves almost flawlessly, but the problem arises when they begin to read. One language is better, easier to understand, more natural. Our contribution is of a research character. Through an interview with a selected sample of children, we try to uncover the phenomena and patterns that occur when reading bilingual children. The article also deals with the reading habits of pupils from the bilingual environment, pupils’ reading and book relations. We find out which language learners prefer more when reading books, and how their parents have influenced their language preferences and what reader’s interests children have in their early childhood. Children of disease in research are deliberately chosen to meet the requirements of the research goal. We chose four children attending the first grade of elementary school. Each of these children has a second language (English, Norwegian, Belgian and French) besides the Slovak language. Research data was collected through individual interviews with these children. Through this research, we have also sought to identify the importance of reading in the lives of contemporary children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of Gender Role Expectations in George Gissing’s the Odd Women<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>George Gissing’s <italic>The Odd Women</italic> is an engrossing study of gender role expectations in the Victorian society on the cusp of the twentieth century. It is an examination of Nineteenth century discourses on Victorian gender ideology. The novel charts and explores the life trajectories of the female protagonists within the novel. This research paper has attempted to explicate the dynamics of gender role expectations through the application of a modern theoretical framework of Foucauldian Discourse Analysis to assess how the discourses of the period inform Gissing’s narrative. The research findings suggest that the perceptions of gender in a period are directly proportionate to the norms championed through the dominant discourses. The discourses are intricately woven within the episteme of the period under analysis and a conscious review of the constitutive elements of these discursive practices reveals possibilities of change for the future through arming research investigators with insights that account for gender construction in a given period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Grammatical Knowledge for Communication Activities for Foreign Language Acquisition in Online Classroom for Preparatory Year of Romanian Language at the University of Pitești<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper focuses on developing grammatical knowledge for communication activities, through interactive sample activities in the online classroom, in the process of Romanian language acquisition as a foreign language of study for young adults, between 18 – 21 years of age, who apply for the Preparatory year of Romanian language at the University of Pitești, Romania. Teaching grammar has always been a challenge in every teaching-learning process of a foreign language. Grammar grounded knowledge is the key for communication in terms of accuracy and fluency, because it is important for learners to have a set of rules and constructions to make use of, in order to develop interactive and communicative abilities. Each set of activities focusing on accuracy or on fluency used to create correct examples of language use, requires adaptation to the communicative needs, depending on the level of the learners and their needs. Recent national and international events make it clear that there is an imperative need to adjust the entire process of delivering communicative grammatical content in order to make grammar become functional at the level of online communication the learners have to achieve. The goal during online classes is to use targeted communicative practice activities and performative tasks that best facilitate communicative grammar comprehension and learning, in order to help young adult learners gain confidence to start speaking and communicate online.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Some Borrowed Terms from Romance Languages in Legal Terminology in Albanian<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Looking at the lexicon of today’s Albanian, in the terminologies of different fields of knowledge, we have all the lexical wealth, consisting of two main layers: the local lexicon and the foreign lexicon, introduced through borrowings and different calques from various languages, where modern developed languages occupy an important place, especially Italian and French. One of the Albanian terminologies where this influence stands out is the legal terminology, which really has a late development, which explains the fact of its influence from developed languages, reaching to the words of general use in the field of culture and various spheres of law. It is known that foreign words spoil the language, when accepted and used unnecessarily. Foreign words should be used in those cases when they bring a new meaning, a new meaning nuance, etc., which we cannot express with the tools of Albanian language itself. Only for more concrete borrowings, such as names of newly imported tools, equipment and facilities can be spoken of as an addition to an existing vocabulary. Many borrowed words, which seemed unavoidable, have been adopted as calques, a large number of Romance borrowings today have either been replaced, or have become substituted by Albanian words. Realistically, in legal terminology there is not only a relatively large number of borrowings, but also a range of lexical overlaps with Romance languages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Act Contributing to the Linguistic Formulation from Word to Sentence: Albanian Children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this argument, based in concrete observation for toddlers 2-4 years old, will be treated the case of lexical input of this age, used in the act of speech from the communication through special words- accompanied with extra-linguistic means,- from holophrases, to generating simple sentences, as special constructs of syntax. Primal phases of owning the language have already slowly started in the first years of their lives. The child follows the unstoppable road to understanding and enriching knowledge. As helping to our material will be included, except for their group and family life, didactic materials as well, in which part of our study were “Open and Find out” books, which are made of secret windows and puzzle books, which contain plenty of material that serves to the children’s speech-gaining act. The theory treating of the problem above will be mostly supported by Albanian language data, or by Albanian children – as native speakers of that mother language. The principal phases of owning the language have slowly started during the first years of his life. Now the child follows the unstoppable way to gaining and enriching his knowledge. The methodology followed in this material includes preschool children. During this phase the child articulates more lexical words than grammatical words. We noticed the phenomena when observing 14 children, who were selected from two age groups. The conversations of the different aged and gendered subjects were analyzed, as well as the vocabularies they owned. During this treatment will be shown linguistic features that children are prone to change from one phase of life to another. It’s also interesting to emphasize how even in the word and sentence producing phase, children are developed and skilled by using didactic books on them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s Quest Restoring of the Poet’s Right in Yeasts’ Play the King’s Threshold<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), the prominent Irish poet and dramatist was one of the foremost figures of twentieth-century literature. He was a driving force behind the Irish Revival, and together with lady Gregory and Edward Martyn established the Abby Theatre, and served as its chief playwright during its early years. He was awarded the Noble Prize in literature for his always inspired poetry which in a highly artistic form gave expression to the spirit of a whole nation. The paper aims at analyzing the poet’s quest for social freedom and poet’s right in the state. The King’s Threshold was first performed by the Irish National Theatre Society at the Molesworth Hall, in Dublin on 7 October, 1903. It is founded upon a Midieval-Irish story of the demands of the poets at the court of King Guaire at Gort, Co. Galway; it was also influenced by Edwin Ellis’s play Sancan the bard (1905) which was published ten years earlier, by Edwin Ellis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Contrastive Analysis of Compound Nouns in German and Albanian Languages<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Language is an important mean of communication and it is constantly changing. During the language change a lot of words become out of use and many other new words become part of lexicon. The lexicon of the language is constantly enlarging and one important way to enlarge a language is by word formation. In German and Albanian Languages word formation is defined as a process of forming new words. In both, German and Albanian Languages an important contribution in word formation is given by compounding. In German Language compound words make up 2/3 of lexical language. The dominant part of compound words is the formation of compound nouns. German Language has got a lot of compound nouns so it has the ability to create new compounds between the connection of nouns or the connection of a noun with the other parts of discourse. In most cases the compounds of German Language find their equivalent in Albanian Language in simple words or phrases. In both languages a compound noun consists of two or more (lexical parts) components; they can have subordinate and coordinate relations. The majority of compounds is done by coordinate relations (determinate compositions). The composition components have a strict word order. If the word order changes in German Language, the meaning of composition will change, it will take a new meaning. (Of course there are exceptions in a few cases). If the word order changes in Albanian Language, the word becomes meaningless. In Albanian language the components of a compound noun are connected without fugues. Compound nouns with connecting vowels (o / a) are very few, while in German linking elements (fugues : e-, -s-, -es-, -n-, -en-, -er-, -ens-, -o-, ) are typical.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Poetry and Prose, as Well as the Impact of Communist Ideology in the Albanian Literature of the ’80<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Albanian literature has come a long way through the many historical events it has passed and managed to survive. One of the harshest periods for Albanian literature, has not come as a consequence of external invasion, but from within. The communist dictatorship in Albania, which started in the remains of the Second World War, and lasted up until 1991, besides controlling the politics, foreign relationships, economy and social structures, used art and in particular literature as a weapon to demolish free thought and enforce its ideology through the canonized structures and cliches, such as the martyrdom. This led the Albanian authors to find new ways hidden inside literary figures, which they mastered, to spread their message and express their true thoughts and feelings beyond the censorship, and trained the readers to read through and understand the intentions of the authors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Prizren, Language Use and Language Policy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research focuses on theoretical and practical issues of multilingualism in Prizren, the Republic of Kosovo’s most linguistically diverse city. It examines the city’s linguistic landscape, culture, and values, investigating language use at home, in public, and in institutions. It analyzes language legislation and its often uneven implementation. In the last 20 years the language situation in Prizren has changed dramatically. This research attempts to provide a clear picture of the current language situation of Prizren in the new and independent Republic of Kosovo, and is relevant for the general public, minority communities, government, non government and international organizations. The research was conducted in order to shed more light on the concept of multilingual societies. The central sources for this research are the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo, the policy on language rights and language use in the country, questionnaires, and observation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Pashtunwali and Afghaniyat in Naheed Hasnat Senzai’s Shooting Kabul<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper analyses the immigrants’ perspective on their homeland and tradition while living in a host culture as an immigrant in the novel Shooting Kabul. By focusing on Afghaniyat, the article underlines the critical aspects of Afghan culture incorporated by Senzai in this work and the re-inculturation of Pashtunwali and Afghaniyat in the immigrant communities. The argument builds on Mir Hekmatullah Sadat’s concept of Afghaniyat and regurgitates that immigrants are reluctant to surrender their cultural norms outside their homelands. Practising Afghaniyat is challenging, demanding and continuous adherence to the subverting strife between the host majority society and minority Afghans. For the mentioned purpose, the text paper focuses on text analysis, giving references to culturally significant points and provides a view on immigrant feelings portrayed by the author. The study refers to the multiple historically significant codes of Afghaniyat, which combine the entire Afghan immigrant community into an Afghan nation outside Afghanistan.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Using Social Media Platforms for Teaching English Literature Online<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the modern era of globalization, language and literature learning and comparative literary competencies are inextricably intertwined. Online learning and teaching, and telecollaboration are a great benefit to literature students who do not have face-to-face intercultural opportunities with members of diverse languages, literature, and cultures. Even, online teaching and learning make academics borderless and remove walls. The present study explores principles and new strategies for teaching English literature online. This article addresses how to adopt literary lesson plans for different types of learners, set clear expectations with students, and build rapport and community with students in teaching literature online. This research discusses the right EdTech tools and curricula support and investigates the way to use social media platforms e.g. YouTube as supplementary sources in e-teaching and e-learning for literary content. The results show that online pedagogies can develop Literature educators and students’ skills and promote their literary knowledge along with converting a Web-primarily based totally environment into a social network with social media platforms crossing teach, learn and lands, inaccessible areas, and those who have limited instructive supports and facilities for creating equal opportunities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Its Suitability in Analyzing Malay Poetry Texts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The beauty of poetry is influenced by the choice of words expressed in the style of any languages. There are influences of Arabic language and literature in the Malay world. In addition, most of studies on Malay literature text are using western theories. Therefore, this study attempts to examine the appropriateness of the use of <italic>‘Ilm al-Bayan</italic> which is a form of Arabic Rhetoric in analyzing Malay poetry texts. The library approach is used in this study. The choice of this approach is to gather information related to <italic>‘Ilm al-Bayan.</italic> Descriptive analysis approach is used to analyze the information gathered to see suitability of the Arabic style that used in assessing the Malay literature texts. The study found that there are similarities between the functions <italic>‘Ilm al-Bayan</italic> with Malay rhetoric, although the terms of each of these languages are different. It is certainly based on the expression of the original speakers of the language, whether in Arabic or Malay literatures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Dictogloss Technique in Teaching Grammar Through Writing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research paper deals with how dictogloss technique and cooperative listening can be combined to promote the development of listening, writing and speaking skills of a second language learners. Data has been collected data from students’ of the 10<sup>th</sup> grade, who study in the Pre-university School ‘Luciano Motroni’ in Prizren. This research, include 80 students from them 33 boys and 47 girls. These students were chosen because they had mixed proficiency in English and they were more compatible with joining in listening, writing, reading and grammar. The methodology I used to conduct this research paper, include the dictogloss technique and means of comparative and analytical methods. The results have shown that the use of dictogloss technique in teaching grammar through writing is an effective and useful way to improve the students’ grammar.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue