rss_2.0European Journal of Language and Literature Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Journal of Language and Literature Studieshttps://sciendo.com/journal/EJLShttps://www.sciendo.comEuropean Journal of Language and Literature Studies Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6471bcbc215d2f6c89daf373/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/EJLS140216Understanding Students’ Perspective and Use of Technology for Language Learning at Islamic Boarding Schoolhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Pesantren</italic> or Islamic Boarding school is one of the oldest Islamic Institutions in Indonesia, home to the the largest muslim population in the world. There are two types of <italic>pesantren</italic>, traditional (salafi) and modern (khalaf). In selected modern <italic>pesantren</italic>, students are obliged to communicate in Arabic and/or English language as a part of their bilingual program. The implementation of English in daily conversation requires students to acquire high level of English proficiency. The purpose of this study is to provide insight of ESL acquisition and practice, technology use to enhance language learning, and future enhancement of language learning through students’ lenses. The writer distributed questionnaire and conducted focus group discussion to thirty Darul Ulum Islamic Boarding School students. The findings showed that while there are restrictions on the use of technology devices in <italic>pesantren</italic>, half of students feel that they have sufficient exposure to English through traditional teaching program. However, many students acknowledge that they have limited vocabulary that addresses to their daily lives, thus they would like to find more resources that accommodate this needs. Finally, based on the findings, this paper suggests that <italic>pesantren</italic> allows for more access to technology devices and diverse resources of ESL as well as availability of librarian or experts that can help students to use technology for learning efficiently.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00152023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Between Parentheses: The Poetics of Irrelevance in Virginia Woolf’s Experimental Fictionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The understanding and appreciation of Virginia Woolf’s modernist fiction demands careful attention, not only for the obvious complexity of its experimental form but also for the apparent simplicity of certain typographical and stylistic devices. Among these is the use of parenthetical expressions, consisting of explanatory or qualifying remarks inserted into a passage and usually marked off by brackets, dashes, or commas. Generally speaking, the main functions fulfilled by parentheticals have been examined and classified by Woolf scholars. What has received less critical attention, however, is the intrinsic nature of parenthetical constructions and the subtle, multifaceted implications of their actual functioning within the overall economy of every single novel. The purpose of this paper is to address a similar question, beginning with a preliminary delimitation of the scope of the analysis. Firstly, among the different types of the so-called ‘parenthetical expressions’ only the explicit use of parentheses (in the form of round or square brackets) will be assumed as a distinctive feature in order to identify a specific category of stylistic and narrative devices. Secondly, and quite obviously, the novel under consideration will be, in particular, To the Lighthouse (1927), inasmuch as it provides the most striking examples of the disruptive potential contained in Woolf’s parenthetical writing. A good point of departure for such an analysis, however, can be found in Jacob’s Room (1922), Woolf’s first experimental novel, which shows a long and compound sentence, inserted between brackets, significantly placed in the opening page of the book.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00142023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00The (Mis) Education of Immigrant Children in Today’s Americahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In today’s America, not every child starts on a level playing field, and very few children move ahead based solely on hard work or talent. Generational poverty and a lack of cultural capital hold many students back, robbing them of the opportunity to move up professionally and socially. Children of immigrants are especially at-risk because, in addition to facing poverty, race, geographical location or economic disadvantages, they are also confronted with failure due to their limited or non-existent English proficiency. This study focuses on the degree to which teachers in a mid-sized urban school district take into consideration the individual needs of immigrant children in the process of their education. The study also examines the preparation teachers have had to equip them with knowledge of best practices in teaching immigrant children, and the relationship between teachers’ practices, beliefs, and their demographic and personal characteristics (age, gender, years of experience, level of education, etc.). Quantitative data was collected via a survey. Interviews with teachers and one central office administrator provided data for the qualitative section of the study. The findings revealed that teachers, in general, appeared to lack knowledge of specific policies for mainstreaming immigrant students into general education classrooms; their use of effective teaching practices for working with immigrant children were limited; and most of the teachers had not participated actively in professional development that focused on teaching immigrant children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00192023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00New Trends in the Teaching of the Intercultural Competence as Part of the Process of Teaching Foreign Languages in the Context of Higher Education in Spain.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Today we live in the era of globalization. We define our world by the coexistence of various different cultures. The present article seeks to clarify the concept of intercultural competence when teaching foreign languages and the new trends in the context of Higher Education in Spain. We will start with a short introduction on the various studies and research on the relationships between language and culture However, the main aim in this article will be to point out the new roles played by teacher and learners in the process, the creation of new materials to support the intercultural dimension and the new types of activities that could be done inside and outside the classroom, such as the use of tele-collaboration, social networks and others. In other words, the elements that make up and give meaning to a new methodology for language teaching and learning and that help language teaching to be an open window towards other cultures and to develop a new and open-minded attitude towards diversity. Therefore, we will try to study some of the main current methodological approaches, stereotypes and contents linked to that intercultural competence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00182023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Negotiating between the Constant and the Changing: Balancing Acts in the Training of Writing Teachershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>TA training is an important component of any rhetoric/composition program in American universities. As a faculty member in the Department of English, Comparative Literature, and Linguistics with a specialty in classical oratory and comparative rhetoric, I have been training TAs for over a decade as a significant portion of my teaching assignment. In my presentation, I would like to discuss the major factors that affect the quality of the TA training program and ways to balance these factors to maximize the learning experience for the TAs. TAs, short for “teaching assistants” or “teaching associates,” are graduate students in English who are assigned to teach a writing class or two, usually of beginning college level. It is essential that these graduate students be provided with detailed hands-on training both in theory and in practice every step of the way in order for them to feel confident and comfortable in the classroom. My role as their teacher and supervising instructor is to provide them with fundamental training, laying a solid foundation for them to grow professionally. As I see it, four major factors interact in the TA training process: the available theory, the institutional and academic expectations, the class of student writers they each teach, and the TAs themselves as a team. Some of these factors are relatively constant; others are fluid and always changing. They often present fresh challenges when they interact in the writing classroom. I would like to explore how these factors act upon each other and complement each other as I try to create an environment in which the TAs feel encouraged to learn and experiment on their own with a minimal amount of guidance. I will argue that, based on my years of experience and on the reflections by the TAs themselves, it is of critical importance that the focus be placed on the balancing of the four factors in an individualized approach for TA training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00112023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Writing and Metacognition: How Italian Students Represent the School Organization and the Assessment Processeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of involving students in writing activities that encourage them to work on metacognitive processes is shared by educational experts (Albanese et al., 2003; Harris et al., 2010; De Simone et al., 2015). During the formative process, activities that require students to use judgment and critical thinking skills, as well as challenging them to reflect on themes close to their daily-life, are those reported to be more effective (Bruning &amp; Horn, 2000; Boscolo &amp; Gelati, 2007; Smith et al., 2007). The paper presents the results of a writing laboratory developed with Italian undergraduate students. The students were freshmen at the Department of Education of the Roma Tre University. The main objective was to work on the metacognitive skills of students, asking them to clarify their idea of “school organization and assessment processes in Italy”, through a written paper. In addition to argumentative texts, students were asked to identify one or more illustrations to support their own judgment. The research hypothesis was that ideas that students have about scholastic organization and about assessment processes could considerably influence the way in which they approach their academic path. The products of the laboratory were systematically shared and discussed with the students. The result of the research confirms the importance of working with students on writing skills and on metacognition. These are shown to be relevant to the students’ educational and professional future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00172023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00The Guatemalan Genocide Through Indigenous Mayan Literature Twenty Years After the Peace Accords: Rigoberta Menchú, Humberto Ak´Abal and Victor Montejohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Guatemala experienced a cruel genocide in the early eighties, in the context of a repressive Conflict. Due to the different governments´ repressive policies, this terrible social situation was little known abroad, and even in the own country. Just after the Peace Accords, several organisms worked to uncover the historical truth. In any case, we cannot forget that testimonial literature is a privileged mean to know this dark period of the contemporary history of Guatemala. This genre is particularly relevant, because the main writers are originally Mayans, and have directly suffered both repression and social exclusion due to ethnic reasons. Rigoberta Menchú, Unmberto Ak´abal and Víctor Montejo represent a new and original point of view in the measure in which they describe feelings and situations from the perspective of those who experience them personally. Testimonial literature or <italic>the Testimonio</italic> becomes an ethnographic document that allows us to know not just a period but a people who have suffered from repression and exclusion for centuries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00132023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00L2 Writing: A Comparison of Upper Intermediate and Advanced EFL Learnershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study examines differences in syntactic complexity in English writing among advanced and upper intermediate undergraduates by means of quantitative measures of syntactic complexity. Participants were 250 Spanish undergraduates enrolled in a Degree in Modern Languages. A total of 121 students had an upper intermediate level (B2 level according to the CEFR) and 129 had an advanced level (C1 level according to the CEFR). Essays were evaluated by quantitative measures gauging different aspects of L2 complexity. Results indicate that the complexity measures chosen can capture significant differences in writing proficiency when comparing different proficiency levels. The scores on the general quality of the writings and on all syntactic complexity measures increased from B2 to C12 and for all complexity measures the increase was statistically significant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00162023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Public Health Communication in France during the Spanish Flu and the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Expertshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In times of crisis, a government’s communication with the public is fundamental, as one of the government’s main tasks is to provide critical information to protect the population. In the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic, public health communication has been paramount because of the elevated risk of contagion. Moreover, in public health communication, experts play a pivotal role by providing reliable information on the basis of their technical expertise. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is often compared to that of the Spanish flu, a pandemic occurring in 1918-1919, whose global spread decimated tens of millions of people. This contribution aims to assess the role of experts in the two crises by highlighting the differences in France’s public health communication during the two events. Assuming that the objectives of public health communication during the two pandemics were more or less identical, i.e. to prevent the spread of disease and inform and protect the public, the paper inquires about the means used to achieve them, focusing on the contribution of experts. The main characteristics of public health communication during the Spanish flu will be investigated by analysing articles published in the period between 1918 and 1919 in two French newspapers <italic>Le Matin</italic> and <italic>Le Petit Parisien</italic>. In terms of the current COVID-19 pandemic, this paper will probe articles published since December 2019 in the newspaper <italic>Le Monde</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00202023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Aspect and Verbal Action in Albanian - Activity Verbshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article we introduce and analyze the morfo-syntactic behaviour of activity verbs in standard Albanian.The grouping of verbs by their lexical-semantic meaning deals with the study of the way of presentation of the action development. To the verbal action we refer when we are looking to analyze and classify the lexical meanings of different verbs, which are grouped or separated by the means of word formation. Even in the cases when for the expression of verbal action are used special syntactic constructions, these are, still, as a function of their respective lexical meaning. However, they don‘t deal with the grammatical meanings but with the lexical meanings of these constructions. In the case of aspect there are grammatical oppositions, expressed with grammatical means, therefore with different forms of the same verb. The aspect in the Albanian language is realized, above all, by the change of tenses, as amongst the imperfective and the perfective (aorist), instead of the verbal action that, generally, it is not indicated by the means of conjugation. Finally, we will study the meanings related not from individual lexical meaning, but from the general lexical meaning. It is this feature that makes the verbal action in Albanian an objective category, different and distinguishable from the subjective category of aspect<italic>1.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00122023-10-10T00:00:00.000+00:00The Handling of Adjectives as Part of the Narrative in the Work “King of Gians” by Kole Jakovehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper deals with the use of the adjective in the work “ Mbreti i divave (King of giants)” by the well-known author Kole Jakova. We will talk about the theoretical analysis about adjectives, describing them from the point of view of the grammatical category. Because the adjective belongs to studies in the field of linguistics and is researched within the discipline of morphology, some general knowledge about morphology and its object of study was initially given. It is mentioned here that the adjective, together with the noun, numeral, verb and pronoun are variable parts of the discourse, as they change their form during use in the sentence, so they are inflected (noun, adjective, pronoun, numeral) or chosen (verb). In the second chapter we will present the different grammatical features of the adjective such as number, gender, race, formation of singular and indistinguishable adjectives and other elements that are necessary for the analysis of the work. After that, the work will be analyzed in terms of its compositional construction, which will address the way the author has described the environment where the events take place, the characteristics of the characters, etc. Next, we will focus on the analysis of the form of adjectives that we have encountered in the work “King of giants” by Kole Jakova. It is mentioned from the beginning that in the work we encounter more varieties than quantities of the use of adjectives. The analysis is done by extracting paragraphs from the work and underlining and commenting on all the adjectives that have been used. In this way, it can be said that the recognition of the object of study has been achieved, after all the adjectives that the author has used in the work “King of the giants” have been identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00062023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Intergenerational Discourse: Its Essence and Featureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Generations, their values and preferences, generational gap, generational conflicts are among the most urgent topics in modern society. They are studied by marketers, sociologists, philosophers, and psychologists as generational differences affect the purchasing ability and consumer behaviour, communication in the workplace, involve the issues of ageism and appropriate and fair treatment of various age groups. However, the phenomenon of verbal interaction of representatives of different generations as represented in written texts has not deserved proper attention and, therefore, has not been studied thoroughly. The study of intergenerational discourse may serve this purpose and fill in the existing gaps determining the scope of this research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00032023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Opinions of Teachers and School Leaders on the Improvement of the Evaluation Process and the Influencing Factors in the Teacher Evaluation Process!https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this article is to analyze the opinions of teachers and principals and to bring valuable facts on the perception of teachers regarding the evaluation that is given to them from the professional side, as well as on the perceptions of school principals on how this evaluation affects the improvement of teacher performance and increasing the quality of education in schools. This study aims to reflect the way teachers and school leaders perceive the evaluation policy towards them, the quality of this process, as well as the influencing factors in the teacher evaluation process. The purpose of this study is to discover and analyze the perceptions of teachers and school leaders about the teacher evaluation process, as well as to determine how this process can be improved. In order to give a more complete overview of the perceptions that teachers and leaders have about evaluation as well as the factors that influence this process, as well as to reach the most realistic findings and conclusions that serve the achievement of the research objectives, quantitative methods were used, as well as the analysis of primary and secondary data. The survey with teachers and leaders was carried out in some of the main and largest districts of the country such as Tirana, Durres, Korçe, Elbasan, Shkoder, Lushnje, Vlore and Fier, which make up the study population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00042023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00CDA: Qatar World Cup in Newspaper Headlines in the Times and Jutarnji Listhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>World sports tournaments have diverse economic, political, social, and cultural ramifications. 2022 FIFA World Cup is the first world cup tournament organized in an Arab country, and is described by <italic>The Times</italic> as “the most controversial World Cup of all time”. Football has become more than just a sport in many countries, but an integral part of culture and society. The aim of our study is to analyze media representation of FIFA World Cup 2022 in British and Croatian respectable daily newspapers. The corpus is composed of newspaper headlines published in <italic>The Times</italic> and <italic>Jutarnji list</italic> from 01 December to 21 December, 2022. The analytical framework used for the analysis is Fairclough’s three- dimensional framework, complemented by Van Dijk’s approach to newspaper discourse. At the description level textual analysis is conducted with the focus on sentence predication (passive sentences), at the interpretation level headlines are analyzed from the perspective of modes of discourse representation, and at the explanation level they are analyzed from aspects of societal contexts. Particular prominence is given to newspaper headlines in this study since their function is to indicate the topic, attract readers’ attention and evoke particular cultural context. According to van Dijk (1989) headlines express underlying macrostructure, the topical organization of the news discourse. The aim of our study is to apply this critical perspective on selected samples of headlines and determine how news discourses are organized with reference to different social and cultural contexts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00082023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Code of Ethics in the Context of Possible Misuse and Contenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the article is to reflect on the question to what extent a situation may arise in which codes of ethics are not needed or even inappropriately applied. The possible advantages of codes of ethics are relatively well known, and there is ample literature on them. Literature on the conditions for the adoption of ethical codes is also quite common. There are far fewer articles about the uselessness of ethical codes in a certain context of reality. Even less is said about the detrimental consequences of the use of codes of ethics in their partial use. Our contribution is an attempt to show in what situations a code of ethics can act as a useless institution with no real influence, and also that certain elements of a code of ethics can lead to detrimental consequences if they are adopted and implemented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00012023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Fairy Tales and the Lingual and Intellectual Development in Preschoolershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A fairy tale as a form of a cultural code is the most important tool for cultural and ethnic socialization, the transfer of social experience, values, and worldview. Modern society is characterized by a high level of technologization, standardization, and universalization of the communication process which leads to the formation of new social practices of communication of various social groups. The article is focused on highlighting the functional and activity role of a fairy tale in the formation of the social memory of the younger generation and the features of the implementation of intergenerational communication through the fairy tale. Communication is a powerful mechanism to live a life of harmony, impact and emotional resilience. Effectively conveying your thoughts into words that build trust and influence has the ability to dramatically shift the course of your life. Think about some of the most legendary people that have lived on this planet. In modern society, the range of communication agents in the transmission of social experience between generations has significantly expanded. There appear agents of non-family communication, which take part in the transmission of cultural memory and the formation of memory places in the younger generation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00072023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Techniques and Strategies of Communication and Cooperation with Colleagues Inside and Outside the Schoolhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The communication and cooperation with colleagues, has been seen that it affects the performance of teachers at school, their desire for work and the love and quality with which they conduct lessons, as well in creating a positive school climate although it is not talked too much and is not addressed in the various reports. This paper aims to develop and understand different forms of communication with colleagues in educational institutions, in order to increase and improve cooperation between them. The paper also aims to bring techniques and strategies that will increase the communication and cooperation skills between teachers, based on the review of a wide literature, its evaluation by bringing contemporary studies as well as different viewpoints regarding the relationship between the pedagogical staff in the school and outside of it. The cooperation helps the realization of the Individual Education Plan, but also the planning of educational work at school. This cooperation aligns work objectives to develop the student’s potential and to improve student’s results. A bad and non-cooperative relationship with colleagues and managers affects quality reduction. In most of their work, teachers are seen not only as transmitters of knowledge, but also as behavior models and educators of a new generation. It is thought that cooperation has an impact on the teacher’s performance, but also on the students’ performance and results. The article combines the researcher’s point of view, and gives some recommendations as well-planned implementation to successfully influence the collaborative process and progress, teaching staff must function as a team and abandon traditional norms of isolation and individualism. The investment in time to do this kind of practical and applied work should be accompanied by redesigned guidelines that are more coherent and structurally sound.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00102023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Culture in Story-Telling: The Case of American and Pakistani Story Palshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 2016, a Colorado-based American non-profit organization working on providing free education to children living in the slum areas of Sheikhupura, Pakistan initiated a PenPal program between middle-schoolers at a Carbondale community school, a charter school in a middle to upper-class income neighborhood with middle-schoolers at the Sheikhupura non-profit school for underprivileged children. Volunteering with the organizations, the author initiated a co-construct story program between each student pair at the schools as a way to examine how children engage in meaning-making through shared symbols and narrate through their created characters and scenarios the personal experiences of their cultural environments. This paper is a content analysis of the co-constructed stories to highlight themes of sense of self, cultural capital, cultural influences, and conflict resolution in children’s narratives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00052023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00“I am afraid if my students can’t understand me.” - A Consciousness-Raising Approach to Teaching the Modal Systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Teaching the modal system through Consciousness-raising is a way of educating the learner about grammatical features using form-oriented activities. It can indirectly facilitate L2 acquisition. Through this approach, learners identify modal usage. Ellis advocates that learners transform input into intake to facilitate learner output, increasing the probability that the output will be comprehensible. As Swain points out, output facilitates acquisition by making learners aware of gaps, enabling hypothesis testing, and allowing learners to reflect on their performance and develop linguistic meta-understandings (Swain 1985). The following can elicit learner output: 1) Consciousness-raising for explicit knowledge, 2) feature focus exercises, and 3) focused identifying activities. In line with Ellis’ theory, a pedagogical design was created to allow learners to facilitate input into intake. As learners comprehend, they draw upon their general knowledge. Measuring such involves a grammatical Consciousness-raising task on the modal system with a pre and post-test. <italic>Moodle,</italic> a widely available LMS, was the learning management system used for data collection. It is hoped that this approach will highlight a student’s implicit and automatic grammatical knowledge rather than explicit and controlled knowledge. Preliminary results will be shared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00022023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Founding Elements of Enlightenment Philosophy: The Relationship Between Language, Knowledge and Societyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to examine the most important aspects of Enlightenment philosophy (and its main authors: Locke, Condillac, Diderot, Beccaria, Montesquieu) with special reference to the following topics: 1. The analysis of cognitive faculties and denial of the existence of innate ideas; 2. The criticisms of the concept of absolute authority; 3. The sovereignty and freedom of the individual; 4. Cartesian dualism between soul and body, between thought and matter. 5. The rejection of anthropocentrism led to criticism of providentialism; 6. The relationship between man and animals, and the discussions about the matter of animal language. This new formulation of ideas from the century of Enlightenment is of fundamental importance, and although not all of the hoped-for objectives were achieved – for example, those concerning human rights - their ideal was widely accepted, and those who criticise the existing order today do so in the name of Enlightenment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejls-2023-00092023-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1