rss_2.0European Journal of Marketing and Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Journal of Marketing and Economics Journal of Marketing and Economics Feed Resilience and Vulnerable Groups in Times of Crisis: A Comparative Study in Eleven European Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The financial crisis which hit the world economies in 2008 has had a negative effect across the spectrum of European economies. These impacts have been felt through the fall in economic activity and also by the deterioration of the labour market indicators. However, not all European markets have been hit with the same severity and intensity, causing territorial differences. But, beyond this, the crisis has had a clear impact on the labour force by exacerbating work inequality. Consequently, the concept of labour emerges through the adaptation of labour markets and the different results obtained amongst the collectives who make up the labour force. The present research has the dual goal of both describing and comparing the labour shock caused by the economic crisis in eleven European countries, establishing differences in employment outcomes of youth (15-24yrs of age), older (55-64yrs of age) and migrants workers by comparing key labour market indicators obtained from official statistical sources. Moreover, it reveals a documented analysis of various national reports describing the employment position of these groups. The results show similarities in the labour vulnerability patterns among countries in each of the groups studied. The analysis highlights the existence of certain factors linked to labour resilience of each group including economic, social, occupational, demographic and political factors. The results of this research are under the INSPIRES project, which has been funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Management Succession: Specificities of the Portuguese Family Business<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Family firms are considered the world’s most predominant form of business organisation. Notwithstanding the fact that there is a lack of consensus with regards to their definition, on recognise that family firms are different from non-family businesses due to their specific relations at three levels, namely ownership, business and family. It would appear that the family influences, shapes and conditions both the firm and its continuity, mainly through the intergenerational management succession, its planning and effectiveness. According to a recent research focused on the entrepreneurial succession in Portugal (AEP, 2011), 50% of family businesses are not passed on to the second generation, and only 20% reach the third generation. Also, taking into account the main results from the project “Roadmap for Portuguese Family Businesses” (NORTE2020/FEDER), the empirical findings have proved that the business succession planning has been identified as one of the most challenging steps in the life of the family firm, which demands for appropriate analysis. In fact, resistance to succession, relationship founder/successor, planning of succession, type of organisational culture, among others, explain how executive succession is one of the most important and hardest tasks in organisational life. In this article, we aim to discuss the main management challenges of a family business, particularly the importance of succession preparation and the role of the family in the socialisation of the second (third or subsequent) generation. Based on an online survey (N 1148) and on in-depth interviews conducted to founder/manager/owner (N 23), we will seek to point out major challenges faced by the Portuguese family business, as far as this matter is concerned.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Family Smes: Specificities from the Portuguese Socio-Business Context<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The composition of the corporate structure constitutes a relevant indicator of the entrepreneurial and economic dynamism of a certain country or territory. In contrast to past estimates over the past 45 years, the importance of small or very small scale entreprises has been steadily decreasing in the Portuguese business universe. The Portuguese socio-entrepreneurial fabric is predominantly constituted by small and very small scale businesses (micro companies): in 2015, 99,9% of the non financial Portuguese sector were SME [Small and Medium-size companies], and the micro scale companies represented around 96% of the total number of SME. In this context, family businesses acquire greater relevance due to/for the estimated weight they have on the economy (between 70% to 80% of the SME, also including great companies quoted on the stock exchange markets), on the creation of jopbs and on the role they play in the local development. Notwithstanding, there still is a significant unawareness of the business layouts of the family companies. In effect, these tend to be heterogeneousin terms of size, activity sector and degree of professionalization of the respective government models and human resources..The ongoing project, “Roadmap for the Portuguese family businesses” (2016-2018), financed by the NORTE 2020/ FEDER has as a central goal to contribute to a better acknowledgement and assessment of the impact of family companies in the northern region, as far as the local, national and international economy is concerned. For this purpose, it will build a database of the Portuguese northern region, mapping all the companies that present the layout of a family business and apply an online survey, combined with in-depth interviews to the various types and segments of family businesses, reinforcing their economic and social roles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Evaluation of Indonesia Conditional Cash Transfer Program (BSM) on Student Achievement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the Indonesia’s Government efforts to improve the quality of education, particularly at the primary and secondary level, is the provision of BSM. This program launched under TNP2K due to the lack of significant BOS program in overcoming the number of drop out students due to parenting difficulties in meeting other educational needs such as uniforms, shoes, transportation costs and other education expenses not covered by BOS funds. However, the implementation of BSM has drawn a lot of criticism, especially regarding budget management and in terms of targeting, thus potentially hampering the achievement of BSM policy objectives. At the same time, there are inclusive errors and depending on the level of education, 50 to 70 percent of beneficiaries are ineligible. Whereas the budget for BSM program is proportional and in 2017 reaches Rp. 416.1 trillion or 27.4 percent of total APBN expenditure. Using the data from the 5th Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) wave 5th, this study analyses the impact of BSM delivery on student achievement as measured by the final school exam scores. The method of analysis used is Propensity Score Matching, so the average treatment effect of BSM policy can be obtained. Despite the low targeting performance, the analysis shows that the program has a positive effect. Analysis shows Students who receive BSM program assistance get a higher test score of 5.6 percent than students who do not receive the program. Based on the analysis, the paper concludes that the program should be maintained and targeting efficiency needs to be improved as the program has a meaningful effect for low-income households in terms of increasing student achievement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Options and Entrepreneurial Potential among Female Graduates: Motivations, Obstacles and Realities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this paper is to contribute for a better understanding of the perceived motivations, obstacles and self-employment realities in the advanced technology sectors and knowledge intensive-business. In terms of public policies in economic and business, promoting female entrepreneurship emerges as a factor of mobilization of women for active economic life, as well as a strategy to support business initiatives, particularly as factor conducive to the promotion of equality between men and women. However, according to a recent study on the promotion of innovative women and entrepreneurship, one of the main obstacles that explains the lower participation of women in entrepreneurial activities of an innovative nature are related to educational choices pursued in formal education systems and the persistence of traditional stereotypes about women, science and innovation. Also, in comparison to men, women not only possess a lack positive attitudes about their own personal capacities or inclinations for starting businesses, but also have less personal contact with entrepreneurs. Empirical results are based on a case study project centred on a Portuguese University and the potential of entrepreneurship among graduates who have completed their course between 2002 and 2008. Drawing upon information-rich evidence from in-depth interviews, insights are presented in order to highlight an important relationship between the entrepreneurial intention and the social origin, field of education and gender of the graduates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Conflict Management Challenges<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is no organization without conflict situations. It is known that 80% of conflict situations occur independently of human will. Its causes are people’s individual characteristics, as well as structure of the organization, conditioned by the culture established in the organization. How correctly organizational management analyzes the causes of conflicts, managing stress, diagnostic of the conflict and its management are reflected on the psychological climate of the organization. The psychological climate is directly related to the labor productivity of each member of the organization and the whole organization itself. On the background of strenuous labor relations, the potential of the organization members is spent on the settlement of the conflict environment and it takes a large part of their time budget. Proper use of time resources affects labor productivity. The Human Resources Management Laboratory which is functioning at Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University has already conducted a research in this regard. Due to the actuality of the issue, the laboratory aimed to conduct a further research about conflict situations in the organization. The research was focused on the Faculty of Economics and Business of Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. 458 respondents were interviewed including Bachelor’s and Master’s Degree Students, Professors and Administration Representatives. The questionnaire included 36 questions and 133 options of response. As a result of the research,frequency of conflict situations in the organization was established, the active link of conflict situations. The reasons for the involvement of the collective team members into the conflict have been identified. The attitude of respondents of different categories was interesting in terms of resolving conflict situations. Conflict situations combined with the rest of the stages include the analysis of the causes. Different categories of respondents differently understand the importance of analyzing the causes of conflicts. The study finally made many interesting problems clear. The results obtained were processed by the SPSS program. We have formulated the hypothesis, studied the influence of the status and the gender of a respondent (bachelor, master, professor, and representative of the administration) on up to 15 variables. Trends were revealed through the tables developed on dispersion analysis. The conclusions made on the basis of the analysis of the survey results gave us the opportunity to make recommendations for the recovering and systemic improvement of the established values in the organization. The planned events will help the collective to undergo 3 stages of self-organization, meet the needs of the members, which will improve the psychological situation in the collective. It will facilitate each member’s involvement in order to protect the organization’s prestige and traditions. It is interesting to note that the majority of respondents are loyal to the university, which confirms the true fact that Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University is number one university in the country as well as in the region, is being developed and is constantly maintaining the championship and is trying to improve the conditions of the collective members.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the New Demand for Justice in the Big Data Ecosystem<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many studies have focused on the possibilities that organizations have to mine and analyze, through computational analytics, the huge amount of structured and unstructured data that is now available, to determine correlations and thus reveal patterns, trends, and associations to predict human behaviour; and to transform this information into knowledge for companies and governments. That is, just from the point of view of the suppliers of good and services. In this paper we contribute to the Law and Economics literature by showing that the logic of Big Data, the access to the cloud, and the use of Artificial Intelligence are drastically changing the ordinary citizen’s way of making decisions in the field of justice; and that this new paradigm in the Demand for Justice will mean improvements in terms of both equity and efficiency, and ultimately an improvement in social welfare.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Resilient and Non-Resilient Labour Conditions in Europe Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the concept of labour market resilience, this paper is aimed to determine the combination of initial conditions behind resilient and non-resilient labour markets after the financial crisis in 2008 in Europe. We start from the assumption that some initial conditions in 2007 are crucial to achieve a specific labour result when a shock appears. In this sense, the effect of temporary employment in cyclical sectors, labour market flexibility, the level of education among the workforce, and the expenditure on Labour Market Policies (LMP) have been tested using crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (csQCA) in 25 European countries. Whilst our results do not explain labour market resilience in its entirety, we have found a model explaining 85% of the non-resilient cases. These findings suggest that the different levels of initial conditions may have prompted dissimilar labour adjustments with varying success rates in dealing with the job losses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a Systemic Innovation Management Model for Facilitating Process Innovation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Within health care projects for change and innovation, professionals should ambitiously cooperate in order to yield a creative multidisciplinary mindset for guaranteed innovative output. Failure of innovation projects is amongst others due to deterioration and insufficient focus on relational aspects. Aim; an innovative management tool for facilitating process innovation is launched. Methods; Systemic innovation (SI) is a social network management model, subsidiary to actual management models for quality improvement and innovation. The SI management model yields essential tools for stimulation of communication in multidisciplinary teams in order to shape alternative mindsets. Results; The key domains of SI representing socio-dynamics, value of arguments and flexibility for change concern topics for assessment of behavior with regard to psychosocial and organizational characteristics. The key domains yield a format enabling a critical appraisal concerning improvement of socio-technologic aspects in case of process innovation. Conclusion; SI yields a format for stimulation of social awareness with regard to self-assessment, interoperability and mindset generation in multidisciplinary teams of professionals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Public Expenditures and Economic Growth: DSGE model for Bosnia and Herzegovina<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The DSGE (Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium) methodology attempts to explain the behavior of aggregate economic phenomena, such as economic growth, business cycle, and the effects of monetary and fiscal policy, using macroeconomic models derived from microeconomic foundations. DSGE models study the economy evolution (dynamics) over time. They take into consideration the fact that economy may be affected with random (stochastic) shocks. Still, they include all markets in the economy and assume that those markets balance out rapidly (general equilibrium). DSGE models have become the main tool of macroeconomic analysis, and until now, a huge number of different DSGE models have been developed. They are used for forecasting, different economic policies analysis and giving policy advices. Due to data scarcity and lack of knowledge, indevelopment and many other reasnos, until now there was no application of DSGE models to Bosnia and Herzegovina case. That is why we were motivated to calibrate a small size DSGE model for Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this research we will calibrate a small open economy DSGE model for Bosnia and Herzegovina and use its results to give some advices for economic growth of Bosnia and Herzegovina improvement. The special attention will be given to Public expenditures and TFP influence on Bosnian macroeconomic variables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for the Bulgarian Companies in the Implementation of Sustainability Practices<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The topic of sustainability, and in particular the sustainability practices of companies, is especially relevant nowadays. The introduction of such practices is very important for Eastern European countries, including Bulgaria. This study is part of a large-scale university project (UNWE, Sofia) that focuses precisely on sustainability practices in international business. The aim is to find out if Bulgarian companies are familiar with sustainable practices and whether they apply them correctly in their daily operations. This is achieved via analysis and synthesis of results from a survey. The summarized data of the aforementioned survey is part of the whole project and represents the policies for sustainable development in specially selected Bulgarian private companies. Each of the companies included in the survey is ISO 14000 certified (the international standards for environmental management) and this condition determines the scope of the study. The research could serve as a basis for better understanding of the integration process of sustainability practices in Bulgarian companies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of Standardization of Livestock Products on the Economy of Farmers and the Local Economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a strong link between agriculture and the economy. Smallholder farmers are the foundation of the livestock sector and an essential element in building and developing the local dairy value chain, critical to the development of its local economy. Economic growth is necessary for poverty reduction. The main objective of the study is to know the impact of livestock production on the regional economy of Gjirokastra. The result of the study identifies employment generation and income generation as the major benefit of standardized livestock production. The study hereby recommends that the government should take standardized livestock production as one of the major factors contributing to the economy and also put some policies in place in order to encourage farmers to collaborate in this regard. In Gjirokastra, and despite the efforts made since the transition from the communist regime until now, farmers still face many problems that prevent them from participating effectively in the development of the milk value chain. This research study refers to the views of small farmers in the Gjirokastra region about the milk production sector and the problems faced by these farmers. This study also investigates the effect of several factors (ethical factors, tradition, animal welfare, cultural factors, etc.) on the milk value chain. Convergence model was used in mixed method triangular design as a methodology for this research study. As part of the social data, 34 farmers who produce and sell milk and cheese in the Gjirokastra District were interviewed. The results showed the influence of ethical, cultural and traditional factors on the development of the value chain. The results also showed the problems and difficulties faced by small farmers in rural areas, on the one hand, and the gap between these farmers and government and private organizations on the other.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Sustainability on the Strategic Direction of Luxury Companies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Today’s society is undergoing a paradigm shift driven by the megatrend of sustainability. This undeniably affects all areas of Western life. This paper aims to find out how the luxury industry is dealing with this change and what adjustments are made by the companies. For this purpose, interviews were conducted with managers from the luxury industry, in which they were asked about specific measures taken by their companies as well as trends in the industry. In a subsequent evaluation, the trends in the luxury industry were summarized for the areas of ecological, social, and economic sustainability. It was found that the area of environmental sustainability is significantly more focused than the other sub-areas. Furthermore, the need for a customer survey to validate the industry-based measures was identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dominant Logic Centered Brand Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Word of Mouth (WOM) become more significant nowadays with the raise of social media platforms, and internet. Therefore, we experience a shift of communication power from company towards masses. Customers share their own experiences on internet and that makes obvious the need to reconsider many practices. Information which exists and is uploaded on internet stands among the catalyzers of the power shifting that occurred. It is then obvious the shift of power from companies towards customers. Marketing experienced a major shift in its mindset. Brand choice, and value do not withstand apart, and critical elements such as relationships, and the cost of jumping in another relationship must be taken in consideration too. In this context, the need to consider brand management from a Service Dominant Perspective emerges. Not only brand value co-creation but also brand value co-evaluation has become concerning for firms in today‘s dynamic context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact on Foreign Direct Investment: State Institutions on Diaspora Engagement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In a globalized and interdependent world, every country needs cooperation and partnership. In the framework of this mission, every state undertakes policies and reforms that impose radical internal changes. Supporting these changes requires financial and human resources that states are trying to secure through various sources. Diaspora is in fact the first catalyst that provides incentives to the economy to meet national needs with financial and human resources and that helps overcome relative isolation from global trade flows. Through the engagement of the diaspora, states are extending their political and administrative functions beyond national borders and through agreements are improving relationships with other countries. This stimulates the interest of foreign investors who are always looking for new markets, less expensive, rich in natural sources. FDI through financial capital and foreign currency it brings, technological innovation, human capital development, trade opening contributes to the economic growth of the country. In other words, the state with the power given by law can create a bridge of communication between these two fundamentally different phenomena. So, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the institutions created to support the diaspora, with the level of FDI flows. Then we go beyond this analysis to study if the type of institution engaged in this issue matters. We use data collected through different public data sources and panel econometric models are estimated for a sample of 20 countries over a 30-year period (1990-2020). Panel data analysis was conducted, implementing three different models (Pooled Model, Fixed Effect, Random Effect) Our results initially show that diaspora institution is a variable positively correlated with the volume of FDI and statistically significant. Second, based on the results, we conclude that, regardless of the type of institution engaged in the issue of diaspora, there is a statistically significant positive effect on the attraction of FDI.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Retirement: Some Considerations on Existing Literature<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The final phases of the information systems lifecycle are no less important than the initial ones. However, previous research indicated a lack of studies on information systems discontinuance. This paper aims to verify whether this gap still exists by analysing the literature on enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, a type of software widely used in many organisations. To identify the relevant literature, the paper involved searching in Scopus and Web of Science databases. Despite several ERP literature reviews suggesting more studies on the retirement phase and no time limits in the search, very few studies have been identified. To sketch the current state of knowledge on the selected topic, the paper developed a scoping review and, based on the results, comments on possible critical issues. The work supports researchers and practitioners interested in information systems discontinuance, as it provides some considerations to develop future research. In addition, it has practical implications because the advancement of the knowledge frontier will help organizations cope with this kind of change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study of Customer Loyalty in Georgia and Its Impact on Hospitality Business: Case of Imereti Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Businesses, including the hospitality sector discovered the importance of customer maintenance as a key success factor. This study aims to investigate the impact of customer satisfaction, experience, and loyalty in Georgia, particularity in Imereti Region. Results indicate that a significant relationship exist between service quality attributes and customer satisfaction. Results conjointly revealed that service quality results in satisfying customers and customers’ satisfaction results in customer loyalty. Hotel managers should offer better services to their customers for gaining competitive advantage, and it will facilitate them to guide the market with efficiency. Market orientation produces a positive effect on customer loyalty, which in turn has a positive effect on business performance, showing that market orientation has a significant and positive indirect effect on business performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Implementation of Accounting Information Systems for its Role in Marketing and Management Processes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowdays the technological innovations evolve faster and in this conditions it is necessary to examine how this technology affects the accounting profession in the same way as it has affected everyday aspects. Accounting is transformed into something more than simple recording, summarizing and reporting of transactions exceeding these routines and practical functions and extending throughout the organization including, delegated functions, processing methodologies, controls and expected outputs, which considered all together as “the system “. It includes all dimensions of business operations, including the flow of financial data across the organization and beyond. Consequently, this paper aims to address issues such as how knowledge about IT deal from accounting professionals and how they further develop their professional development during the subsequent training. This paper shows the importance of the IT knowledge in accounting, marketing, management and decision making. We conclude the paper by giving a short overview relying on the analysis of data collected from a survey.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Social Responsibility - Business Opportunity or Obligation for Georgian Companies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>CSR is a relatively new concept for Georgia. Its history is not even two decades old, and the development process is taking place at a slow pace. In recent years, the concept of social responsibility has been more or less accepted by large businesses. From unsystematic CSR measures companies are slowly moving to a strategic approach, although their social initiatives are mainly focused on increasing the well-being of vulnerable groups of society. On the one hand, this is due to the insufficient level of awareness of CSR in the business sector, and on the other hand, the limited expectations of society because the public’s perception of CSR is mainly related to charity. The paper presents an analysis of the modern trends in the development of CSR in Georgia using qualitative and quantitative secondary data. It is based on the works and studies of various scientists. Qualitative analysis, namely statistical and thematic analysis methods are used as the method of analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study on Key Retailing Strategies of Carrefour and Its Intervention Plan During the Pandemic (Covid-19): UAE<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An economy is governed by its markets and for a growing economy retailing is a blooming industry. The secret of successful retailing is to give the customers what they want. Keeping this in mind a French Retailer, ‘CARREFOUR’ is progressing high across various nations of the world keeping in mind the cross national and demographic styles of various countries. It adapts itself with the form and culture of every nation and penetrates deep though its roots. The pandemic of COVID-19, gave carrefour an immense exposure of the new marketing plans which rescued it and gave it a new strategic insight. The scope of this paper is to study key strategies of this retail giant in Dubai (UAE). This paper also focuses on the various strategies adopted by this retail joint keeping in mind the complete marketing mix and adoption of the new era of online shopping post the pandemic time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue