rss_2.0European Journal of Natural Sciences and Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Journal of Natural Sciences and Medicine Journal of Natural Sciences and Medicine Feed and Environmental Factors Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Prisoners in Northeastern Brazil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to assess clinical and environmental factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in prisoners. We carried out a documentary, retrospective, epidemiological study of records of tuberculosis cases in a prison hospital in Northeastern Brazil. The sample consisted of data from medical records of prisoners diagnosed with TB from January 2015 to January 2016. Information such as age, race, marital status, education level, weight, height, harmful habits, and clinical data on mucous membrane, cough, sputum, breathing pattern, bacilloscopy, initiation and type of treatment, treatment duration, prison of origin and time spent in prison were assessed. A total of 109 medical records of prisoners were analyzed. Mean age was 28.5 (± 7.9) years, and most prisoners (n=87; 79.8%) were single. In all, 78.0% (n=85) of the prisoners had primary education and 73.4% (n=80) were self-declared <italic>Pardos</italic> (mixed-race Brazilians). Statistically significant associations were found between level of education and prevalence of cough (p=.042), time in prison and presence of cough (p=.014), and BMI and mucous membrane coloration (p=.001). The habits of most prisoners are different from those expected for a good quality of life. In addition, the health conditions of prisoners also contribute to the infection. These findings emphasize the need for actions targeted at eliminating tuberculosis in prisoners and actions to raise awareness about hygiene and life habits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Value Chains for Farmer Livelihood in Kerinci, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cinnamon is the most common baking spice in the world. It comes from a small evergreen tree that’s part of the <italic>Lauraceae</italic> family. Genus <italic>Cinnamomum</italic> regroups some species whose stem bark is harvested, conditioned and traded as cinnamon in the international market. Over the centuries, the species have been domesticated so that now at least six different ones are grown in Southeast Asia. One of the species is <italic>burmannii</italic>, also known as Koerintji Cinnamon, which generates income for numerous smallholder farmers in Kerinci district, Jambi, Indonesia. Koerintji cinnamon is known for its unparalleled quality that comes with its sharp and sweet flavour, with a slightly bitter edge. However, international market requirements for product certification and quality standards make it difficult for a farmer to comply. Our research will address issues related to (improvement of) productivity, sustainability and value chains faced by cinnamon producers in Kerinci, to strengthen their product’s value chains. Smallholder farmers are very vulnerable to a well-functioning market, and thus empowering the value chains of agricultural products will increase farmers resilience to have access to the market. The research will analyse the development of agricultural value chains, certification &amp; standards on trade mechanism to help farmers earn a better income and prospects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Tourism and Alternative Medicine: A Study on the Offer and Profile of Establishments nearby Two Hospitals in the City of Porto Alegre-Brazil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alternative medicine is a term that describes medical treatments that are used instead of traditional therapies. About 40% of adults in the United States say they use some form of alternative medicine. We analyze establishments that offer alternative treatments and are located in the vicinity of hospitals that receive health tourists. We found 10 establishments (through Google search) but only 04 responded to the survey. The reason for not performing in the other 06 was: 01 was not in attendance, in 03 it was not possible to contact, 01 was not found and 01 refused to respond. Among those who answered, 03 were not aware of health tourism. All attend patients from outside Porto Alegre and 03 from other states and countries. The percentage of out-of-town patient visits ranged from 0 to 10% in two establishments and 31 to 40% in two others. Chiropractic and Reike were the most commonly offered therapies, followed by Bach Flowers and others such as Orthomolecular Medicine, Chromotherapy and Aromatherapy. All the establishments have pages in the internet but only in 01 it is possible to obtain information in another language (in English, in the page of the parent company). We conclude that health tourism is still unknown by alternative medicine establishments and that even among those who receive patients from other sources, the movement can be considered small in half of them. Lack of sites in other languages may be a barrier to foreign tourists.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Defeat, Social Status and Oral Health among Forensic Psychiatric Patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aims</title> <p>The aim was to examine how sense of defeat and social status are related to perceived oral health, tooth brushing, and oral health-related quality of life among Dutch male forensic psychiatric patients.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The sample consisted of 40 hospitalized forensic psychiatric patients participated. The questionnaire included five questions about moments of tooth brushing, scales for sense of defeat and subjective social status, a scale from 1 to 10 for perceived oral health and a Dutch version of the Oral Health Impact Profile- 14 (OHIP-14).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results showed that on the basis of a factor analysis of the OHIP-14, three meaningful scales could be constructed, i.e., functional limitations, social discomfort, and psychological inhibitions. The major results revealed that sense of defeat correlated negatively with tooth brushing after breakfast and before going to sleep, positively with social discomfort because of one’s teeth, mouth, or dentures, not with functional limitations, and negatively with self-perceived oral health. Social status correlated positively with tooth brushing before going to sleep, with psychological inhibitions, but not with social discomfort, and neither with functional limitations.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions and implications</title> <p>The major conclusion is that sense of defeat and social status have theoretically meaningful relations with oral self-care and oral health. Oral health professionals working with male forensic psychiatric patients should be sensitive to the sense of defeat these patients may experience, and to the fact that this may be associated with problems with their oral health and with a lack of oral self-care.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Mind Genomics Cartography of Shopping Behavior for Food Products during the Covid -19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presents a new approach to understand the mind of the persons in order to drive desired action in crisis situation, specifically the COVID-19 pandemic. Understand the mind of the shopper in a pandemic situation, with massive uncertainty, should provide direction for governments and the retail trade to adopt practices and communications which will reassure their customers. This study investigates the nature of what people will do to reassure themselves in the pandemic, and has been executed during the period of the pandemic, making the study relevant to the actual events taking place. The focus of the study is on the likelihood of buying ordinary food, given certain descriptions. The study revealed three mind-sets, clusters of individuals who respond to the pandemic in one of three ways. These are: Mind-Set 1: Focus on sanitation &amp; supply; Mind-Set 2: Focus on budget for lifestyle; Mind-Set 3: Focus on shopping, personal needs, consumption. These mind-sets are distributed through the population, and are not limited to specific age or gender. The paper closes with the PVI, personal viewpoint identifier, to assign a new person to one of the three mind-sets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Assessment of An Economic Evaluation of a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention for Chronic Low Back Pain (LBP)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Globally, chronic low back pain (LBP) contributes significantly to the overall burden of disease, placing a heavy load on society through absenteeism and associated healthcare costs. Finding cost-effective measures to treat and prevent low back pain is therefore of utmost importance. Methods: A critical assessment of the study by Williams et al 2018 was performed by using a variation of the well-known Drummond’s checklist for the critical appraisal of economic evaluations. Results: The authors performed appropriate statistical analyses using the available data. Means and proportions of baseline characteristics of the intervention group were compared to those of the control group to evaluate their comparability. Conclusion: Upon thorough assessment of the appropriateness of the economic evaluation methods used by Williams et al., it is conclusive that the validity of their results is valuable and trusted to a degree, soundly achieving many of the listed Drummond et al requirements, yet failing to take into account a few aspects that grant some weaknesses to the study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue health strategies to combat opioid crisis in the United States<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: The opioid epidemic in the United States is a national public health crisis. Driven by an increase in availability of pharmaceutical opioids and by an increase in their consumption, specifically, for pain treatment, more so in the past twenty years, it has led to an economic cost of prescription opioid abuse, overdose, and dependence in the United States estimated to be 78.5 billion USD. Methods: A thorough evaluation of the relevant extracted literature has been used to answer the question of the most effective ways to regulate health markets to decrease the opioid crisis in the United States, using keywords and phrases such as opioid epidemic in the US, prescription drug abuse, prescription medication abuse in US, medication misuse, cost-effective ways to health market regulation, drug monitoring programs, prescriber continuing education, provider continuing education, and pain management optimization. Results: Overcoming this epidemic nationwide requires improvement in patient utilization of and access to safe and effective treatment options for opioid abuse and overdose, addressing the stigma correlated with opioid use, considering appropriate use of abuse deterrent formulations (ADF) along with patient education, and improving prescribing practices via utilization of drug monitoring programs, CDC opioid prescribing guidelines and provider continuing education. Conclusion: Utilizing and implementing the aforementioned steps has shown to be a challenge. Further and repeated attempts are needed, while at the same time considering possible new steps that could help reinforce their utilization further.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Environmental Issues: Nuances and Shifts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although subsidiarity is dipolar, preference has been for the “lower” pole at the early stages of its development as a principle in <italic>Quadragesimo Anno</italic>: the “higher” administrative unit should act only if the “lower” unit could not deal with the issue. But in a generation, <italic>Pacem in Terris</italic> posited a nuance that put the preference on the “higher” unit. The capabilities of “higher” units could supersede the rights of “lower” units because the “on reserve” aid from “higher” units leads to more effectivity. Then, applying integral ecology, <italic>Laudato Si’</italic> put the preference on the “higher” pole when issues are environmental in character. This stems from an understanding of complex and interconnected mechanisms in the interaction between populations and the environment. Because Nature has predetermined ways of acting and reacting to events like those caused by populations, Nature relays the impact of actions, such as environmental backlash, to other locations, sections, or later generations; it can also “slap back” at the local agents of events. Thus, the default option should be for the “higher” units to act when it comes to researching the complex interconnections of actions at the ecological level. But this option can lead to gaming the deliberations on public policy with questions of uncertainty or risk because valid understanding is needed to guide actions or policies. Perspectives broader than the local in terms of understanding and of values to be shared are needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Narrative as an Unconscious Scaffold for Human Autobiography<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Over the past years, a multi-disciplinary literature on the significance of personal narratives in autobiography and identity has emerged. This subject has been of interest to authors in the fields of humanities, psychology, and medicine alike. In this paper, we are proposing the term Identity Narrative (IdN) to define a cognitive and emotional framework that serves as an implicit (unconscious) scaffolding of memory on which to build human autobiography. The authors first classify narratives into external (universal history, the humanities, culture) and internal (autobiography, based on personal experiences, both directly and indirectly, through identification and education). All philosophy and social commentary has utilized history for the purposes of prediction and meaning-making. Personalities including Aristotle, St. Augustine, Rousseau, Freud, Marx, Spengler, and Benjamin Franklin have reread history to gain insight about human nature. History has inspired the enlightenment and renaissance of a new reality for humanity. It is widely known that history can also be misused to justify aggression and human suffering. The use of history to create deep convictions that annihilate moral imperatives is only possible because of unconsciously consolidated internal narratives, the IdN. IdN is reshaped through life, both by “bottom-up” acquisition of information, as well as a “top-down” learning model, which includes the following circumstances: (a) sudden insight and awareness; (b) experiences with high emotional valence; (c) high frequency of repetition; and (d) prolonged duration of exposure. In this way, IdN, a form of relatively stable unconscious, anoetic memory, provides a “first-person” experience to autobiography. Autobiography then, becomes part of auto-noetic consciousness, the human ability to mentally time travel and have self-knowledge. IdN parallels lifelong growth and development, language acquisition, and maturing of attachment. The extensive brain activation during communication and speech, revealed by neuroimaging studies, will be referred to as the “communication beltway.” We hypothesize that the alternation in activation between the default mode (midline structures) of the brain (previously associated with the Self) and the language brain creates a platform that encodes crucial components of IdN throughout life. In this way, IdN, autobiographical memory, and the language brain are parts of a larger biological substrate of social affiliations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Adverse Drug Reactions and Adverse Drug Events in Hospital Admission Rates and Re-Hospitalization of Patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: ADRs and ADEs have a great potential to hospitalize and/or re-hospitalize patients. According to McDonnell and Jacobs, one ADR or ADE could lead a patient to a hospital length of stay of an average of 6.1 days. This can lead to lost days of work, a longer recovery time and even economic implications.</p> <p>Methods: A thorough evaluation of the relevant extracted literature has been analyzed thoroughly in order to find out how ADRs and ADEs impact the levels of hospitalization and re-hospitalization of patients and whether strategies, such as reporting systems, can aide in decreasing their overall occurrence.</p> <p>Results: As the level of hospital admissions/re-hospitalizations due to ADRs and ADEs depends on different factors, such as age and location, the data is separated in the following categories: pediatric population, general adult populations and geriatric population. Where data were available, location has been specified within each category as well. Conclusion: ADR and ADE-related hospital admission and readmission rates are age-group related, elderly being at the highest risk. However, these rates are not dependent on whether a country is developed or developing. Also, there are strategies that can be utilized by healthcare providers in order to decrease these rates in the future, such as to provide medication reviews and follow-ups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Gait in Albanian β-thalassemia Patients<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most prevalent genetic diseases in the world is beta thalassemia. Hemoglobin synthesis is decreased by the blood condition beta thalassemia. Patients with thalassemia exhibit a range of bone problems, including as spinal deformities, osteopenia and osteoporosis, as well as growth failure. This study’s main goal was to evaluate gait and balance in Albanian β-thalassemia patients. In this study, 18 participants aged 17 to 29 years old <italic>(5 males and 13 females)</italic> from three distinct epidemiological cities in Albania took part. Gait analysis was performed using “<italic>T&amp;T medilogic medizintechnik gmbh</italic>” wi-fi insoles. “General Gait Parameters”, results of the “Effective Foot Length, left [%]” parameter mean results [67.59%], reveals approx a 2% difference compared with the relative normative mean [69.7%]. Also, “Effective Foot Length, left [%]” mean results [65.49%], reveals approximately a 3.5% difference compared with the relative normative mean [69.7%]. “General Gait Parameters”, data comparisons revealed statistically significant differences between “is” and “nom.” measurements for the following variables: “Rel Double Step Length”, “Double Step Duration”, “Effective Foot Length Right” and “Width Of Gait Right” (p&lt;0.005). Results for the rest of the variables shwed a not statistically significant difference. The aim of the study was to assess the gait parameter in Albanian individuals with thalassemia. Based on the result of the “General Gait Parameters”, data reveal a difference in the % of the average gait line which is related to effective distribution in the insole length showing a specific indication of insecure gait. According to the findings, gait issues are a significant health issue for beta thalassemia patients which are most likely caused by disease-related side-effects such high calcium levels after blood transfusions, inactivity caused by insufficient muscle mass, and all other health-related disease conditions. It is advised that the gait analysis exam to be included in their regular health check-ups. Future studies should be conducted involving larger ß-thalassemia patients take into account the unique state of this category to better evaluate the gait problems related with general static and dynamic posture problems. Clinicians’ health specialists and rehabilitation experts when planning B-Thal rehabilitation programs sholud use gait analysis exam as a regular health check-up.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Pollution in Albania: Survey on Citizen’s Perceptions and Attitudes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plastics are polymers synthesized from petrochemicals or from biomass raw materials. In recent decades, worldwide plastics production has increased exponentially. An estimated 8.3 billion tons of plastic have been produced worldwide resulting in an estimated 6.3 billion tons of plastic waste disposed in landfill or discarded into the natural environment. Plastic is widely used: is inexpensive, durable, resource efficient and easily attainable. The article makes some preliminary observations based on questionnaire data distributed through probability stratified random sampling method between November 2021 and July 2022. The data provides some useful insights into citizens perceptions and attitudes about plastic pollution. Majority of respondents agree on the fact that plastic pollution is harmful to the environment (94%). Additionally, 77.1% of respondents agree both on the fact that nature conservation activities are necessary and successful if community or citizens are involved. Strategies which can be used to reduce plastic pollution need to provide further incentives for public participation. An example is using citizen science, to address and mitigate plastic pollution both at local and national level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a Spectrophotometric Method of Some Antidepressant Drugs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although the causes of depression include a wide range of conditions, from neurodegenerative to thyroid, they all have one common denominator, changes in the brain. Depression can be located in multiple brain regions simultaneously, which may be derived from a common molecular abnormality found in neurons in many brain regions. Abnormalities of receptors or impulse transmission could be the answer. In this work, a simple and accurate spectrophotometric method was developed for the analysis of escitalopram oxalate in various pharmaceutical formulations. In this method, absorbance was measured at 238 nm for escitalopram oxalate. Method validation parameters were studied. The method can be used for quality control of pharmaceutical forms containing escitalopram. Also, by the same method, the actual active substance concentrations compared to those listed on the package, the standard deviations and the relative standard deviations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Leiomyofibroma in the Gynecological Pathology of the Emergency County Clinical Hospital Saint Andrew the Apostle Constanta<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Benign pelvic-abdominal tumor formations are an important part of female pelvic pathology. Uterine fibroids occupy an important place in gynecological benign pathology, among pelvic-abdominal tumors, A retrospective study was performed for a period of 5 years (2015-2019) on a number of 1505 patients admitted to the Clinical Emergency Hospital St. Andrew the Apostle Constanta, on the two departments of Obstetrics-Gynecology OG I and OG II. The patients were followed according to the following criteria: age, origin, symptoms, and the type of surgery performed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Properties of Bioactive Compounds Extracted from Species on Acute and Chronic Diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ganoderma lucidum or Reishi is a medicinal mushroom of significant importance that is being used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, due to its numerous pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The Ganodermataceae family is diverse, but the focus is on the lucidum species because of its specific biologically active macromolecules such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, steroids, phenolic compounds, lactones, and fatty acids that were isolated from the mycelia and fruiting bodies. Ganoderma lucidum species have many benefits over the immune system (promoting health) and properties such as: anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and antioxidant. Based on the literature, triterpenoids and polysaccharides are the most abundant active compounds that possess anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic and anti-hypertensive effects. A review of the literature showed that there are very few papers that studied semisolid dosage forms preparations based of Ganoderma lucidum extract to have been used on damaged skin and skin diseases, neither have there been enough studies on its anti-aging properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Seaweeds from Black Sea Coast as an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds of Interest for Human Health<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For human nutrition, algae are important organisms that can offer essential compounds and new bioactive substances with pharmaceutical and medicinal value. Macroalgae contain nutritional elements such as lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals and they are used as food supplements because they are known to be high in mineral content. There are a lot of nutritionally compunds that can be identified in algae such as polysaccharides, polyphenols, diterpenes, sterols, carbohydrates, peptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and dietary fibers. Nutraceuticals are confirmed to be used as medicines because they are a good protector against chronic diseases and they have physiological benefits. Algae bioactive compounds could be used as an anticoagulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral, antidiabetic, antiobesity, antihypertensive and hypercholesterolemic nutraceuticals. Although only some of the algae have been studied properly for their chemical composition and properties, they are a considerable biological resource with ability for use as a raw material. In this paper the compounds from red and brown algae from the Romanian seaside are evaluated as sources of biologically active ingredients with benefits in human health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Patient Satisfaction with Health Care: A Literature Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research paper aims to explore the field of patient satisfaction in health care, by performing a literature review on existing healthcare articles that analyse determinants of patient’s satisfaction and theories on patient satisfaction assessment. Patient satisfaction is one of the most important factors to determine the success of health care providers. Determining the exact definition, determinants and characteristics of patients that influence satisfaction, as well as different theories on satisfaction, are highly discussed elements in the literature for a long period of time. The research instrument was a literature review by combining different view from many researchers. The literature was searched in databases such as Emerald, Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus. Patient satisfaction appears to play an important role in evaluation of service quality. From the literature review, it was observed that the main determinants of patient satisfaction were the demographic characteristics, expectations and experiences of the patients. Communication is also an extremely important element that affects patient satisfaction. Other research should be conducted to delve even more into this very important area of health care.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue COVID-19 Vaccination and Free Self-Determination in the Health Field in Italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic and the issues related to health emergency management have raised concerns about fundamental rights protection. One of the most complex and contentious issues in doctrine and jurisprudence is the introduction of mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for specified categories of subjects, such as healthcare workers and individuals of a specific age range, as occurred in Italy. The debate in Italy over the mandatory COVID-19 vaccination requirement focuses on whether this obligation interferes with the individual’s fundamental right to free self-determination as guaranteed by Article 32 of the Italian Constitution. In jurisprudence and doctrine, conflicting opinions are noted concerning this topic. Part of the doctrine argue that mandatory COVID-19 vaccination compromises some fundamental rights guaranteed by the Italian Constitution, such as the right to free self-determination and respect for human dignity. Other opinions find the basis of the vaccination in the community’s best interests, citing Article 32 of the Italian Constitution, which allows for the imposition of compulsory health treatment to safeguard citizens’ health. In this regard, the issue of mandatory COVID-19 vaccination requires a reflection on the balance of two fundamental rights: the individual right to free self-determination and the community’s interest in terms of protecting public health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Applications Based on Marine Collagen Obtained from the Jellyfish Species Rhizostoma Pulmo Extracted from the Black Sea<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to its unique properties, collagen is used in various emerging fields such as the pharmaceutical and biomedical device industries, as well as in related fields: nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, beverages and nutritional supplements. Marine gelatin, one of the biomaterials involved in food and medicinal research, is denatured collagen produced from acid, alkaline, or enzyme hydrolysis. Gelatin is a crucial ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical, medical, biomedical focusing on versatile applications. Jellyfish collagen is a valuable resource for bioplastics and biomaterials used in various health sectors. Recently, marine organisms have been considered viable sources of collagen because they do not harbor transmissible diseases. In particular, fish biomass, as well as the catches of other types of organisms, such as small fish, jellyfish, starfish, sea urchins, sponges, possess a significant content of collagen. The collagen extracted from the species Rhizostoma pulmo from the Black Sea basin is also part of the bioresources that can be used to obtain natural marine collagen from this type of invertebrates. The use of discarded or hither to unused biomass could contribute to the development of a sustainable collagen extraction process with a positive impact on the ecosystem. In the future it is desired to approach a world strategy that minimizes the amount of waste and that supports all three general objectives of sustainability: sustainable economic well-being, social well-being and environmental protection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Course and Treatment of Human Brucellosis in a Sample of Hospitalized Cases in Albania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Brucellosis remains a public health problem in many Mediterranean countries. In this work are presenting data of human brucellosis clinics and treatment in a sample of hospitalized patients. Methods: All patient charts at regional hospital in Gjirokastra, Albania were systematically reviewed, during the period 2016-2021. All hospitalized patients with a laboratory confirmed diagnoses of brucellosis were included in the study. Variables of interest were clinical symptoms, clinical course and treatment provided. Sub-acute brucellosis was defined as clinical persistence of 3-12 months while cases with clinical symptoms persisting for ≥12 months were defined as chronic brucellosis. Results: 79% of the 86 patients were male and residing in rural areas. Fever, profuse sweating and arthralgia were the most common clinical signs. Around 70% of the brucellosis patients showed all these three symptoms. Despite a systematic tendency for more frequent presence of high fever, increased sweating and arthralgia on younger patients we could not find statistically significant differences among demographic categories. 18.6% of cases presented persistence of clinical signs after at least 3 months from the moment of the diagnoses. Almost 7% of the cases were classified as chronic cases. 75.6% of all patients were treated with a combination of doxycycline and ceftriaxone antibiotic regime. Conclusions: The massive use of a cephalosporin in treatment of brucellosis cannot be justified and may reflect a larger problem related to population awareness and health provider attitudes concerning antibiotic use in Albania. The results of this study may assist future interventions to improve brucellosis case management at hospitals or primary health care level as well as national measures at a larger scale for control of the disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue