rss_2.0European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation Feed Memorable Tourism Experience: Long-Term Memory System and Revisit Intention<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study seeks to understand the recall of memorable tourism experience (MTE) from long-term memory. It primarily seeks to comprehend the recollection of MTEs from tourists’ or alumni tourists’ long-term memory, and to closely link MTEs to human emotions and travel destinations. A mixed-method approach, including semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey, was adopted to collect data from alumni tourists with travel experiences during their studies in the United Kingdom. The findings of qualitative research highlighted three factors – <italic>Attraction and Atmospheric Impressiveness</italic>, <italic>Activity and Event Engagement</italic> and <italic>Relationship and Friendship Development</italic> – as major emotional stimuli. Meanwhile, empirical results from the survey suggested that <italic>Relationship and Friendship Development</italic> and <italic>Recollection and Vividness of Experience</italic> significantly influenced revisit intention to their MTE destinations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of events management students in relation to environmental sustainability: case study in Portugal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tourist-oriented events have relevant impacts on the dimension of environmental sustainability. Without proper planning, those impacts could manifest as harm to the surrounding environment. An effective measure for dealing with these impacts is the appropriate education of event managers. By shaping visitors’ perceptions as they are formed, it is possible for such events to transmit values and knowledge about environmental concerns, leading to future action and the creation of sustainable events that can make a difference.</p> <p>This research examined event management students’ perceptions of environmental sustainability, their most important values, and whether they incorporated them into their event-organisation practices. With the development of a theoretical framework, an empirical investigation was implemented through a qualitative analysis based on interviews with nine groups of Portuguese students who were in their final academic year. Direct observations were also conducted at six events.</p> <p>The results revealed a positive correlation between environmental concerns and the academic training of these future event managers. Crucially, behaviours that students exhibit and their beneficial effects lead to their effectiveness in practice, which may be reflected in their future work activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue experience among beach users in Ghana: Insights for beach management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The connections between environmental quality and recreational experience outcomes at beaches are relevant data for sustainable coastal tourism management. This study, explores pollution perceptions and beach recreational experience factors among users. Data were collected from onsite beach users (N =309) in Ghana. The study used the Factor Analytic Model to explore the recreational experience factors in the study. Differences in users' recreational experiences were also analysed and established using the T-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed three recreational experience factors among beach users: Practical/escapism, Exciting and Aesthetic. Overall, Ghanaian beaches in Accra were vastly perceived as polluted. This has negatively dampened users' recreational experiences at the beaches, which has implications for revisit intentions. Respondents' age, continent of origin, gender, marital status and nationality were also found to be determinants of recreational experiences among beach users. The study recommends that the Ghana Tourism Authority, as the regulator, must closely and imminently collaborate with the local government, Environmental Protection Agency and local beach operators to develop specific requirements and standard operating procedures for managing and licensing beaches in Accra and throughout the country to help address this issue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of environmental certification in Portuguese hotel companies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are many responsible business and investment initiatives in the field of environmental performance, and among these, certification is a targeted mechanism. In this work, we intend to study the determinants of environmental certification of hotel companies, analysing the Portuguese case. The empirical study considers hotel companies established in Portugal that may operate one or more hotel units. The information retrieved from the Portuguese National Tourism Registry and Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System database was coded, and a database was built in the SAS software. Variable and data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, variable correlations, and the Tobit regression model. The results indicate that affiliation to a brand, hotel classification and hotel size are factors that explain environmental certification, but the return on sales was not statistically significant in this study. These results are important to understanding the determinants of environmental certification in hotel companies since, as a topic of research, it has had little attention prior to the study for the Portuguese case, thus reinforcing the importance of this research. The study also reveals the restricted sample of hotel companies with environmental certification in Portugal, which did not allow computing other study variables that would improve the empirical work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Paradoxical Leadership Be the Game Changer in Driving Organisations against Negative Practices?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Employees have suffered as a result of bad organisational practices, and they now perceive the workplace as unfriendly. In recent years, there has been an upsurge in the search for a remedy for this. This study looks at the impact of paradoxical leadership, which is beneficial when it takes a two-way approach to leadership. This study investigated the link that exists between paradoxical leadership styles and workers using the Theory of Social Exchange. In California, USA, 200 surveys were collected from restaurant staff. We examined the data using structural equation modeling to hypothesise linkages. It was shown that paradoxical leadership had a negative association with job insecurity, amotivation, and organisational tolerance for workplace incivility, while having a favorable relationship with employee psychological safety. Job insecurity, on the other hand, partially and fully mediates the link. The findings have implications for managers and the organisation overall. This is the first study that tries to investigate this relationship in the restaurant industry using paradoxical leadership and incivility.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the COVID-19 pandemic on travel behavior: A case study of domestic inbound travelers in Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of this study is to examine post-pandemic travel intentions and the factors affecting domestic tourism in Turkey. For this purpose, a scale adapted to the field of tourism, based on Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour, was used to collect the data forming the basis of the research. A total of 611 valid questionnaires were collected through the popular social media platform LinkedIn, with the questionnaire prepared between January 10 and April 29, 2022. SmartPLS 3 and SPSS were used for analysis. The resulting data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). It was determined that the variables of Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control had a significant effect on post-pandemic travel intention. It was determined that domestic tourism participants intend to travel, but have a desire to do preliminary research on pandemic controls in the city they plan to visit.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of reviews on cappadocia: The land of beautiful horses in the eyes of tourists<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Cappadocia region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Turkey, and its tourism sector has a significant share in the Turkish economy. In this study, we scraped TripAdvisor reviews of visitors of the Cappadocia region with the Python programming language and used them to analyse public sentiment using various supervised machine learning algorithms. The main purpose of the study is to help create competitive intelligence on both regional and global scales using social media data. For this, we applied Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, and Support Vector Machine methods to classify 4,770 reviews and get insights about the visitors’ perspectives. Results show that the majority of the tourists (90%) had a positive experience during their visit. Most of the complaints focused on the attitudes of staff members. In addition, all three supervised machine learning methods achieved high accuracy in their classification of the reviews. This study is significant in terms of providing a meaningful database for understanding visitor comments, the most important data for the development of tourism in the region, through state-of-the-art machine learning methods, and to direct improvements accordingly.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of nonlinear asymmetric effects of changes in tourism on economic growth in an autonomous small-island economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While a substantial body of empirical evidence exists supporting the tourism-led growth hypothesis, more limited evidence exists regarding the dynamics of the relationship between tourism and economic growth in the island context, with important questions remaining to be answered regarding the linearity and symmetry of the relationship. Policymakers would benefit greatly from such knowledge as they attempt to harness inbound tourism as an engine of economic growth. This study contributes to bridging this important gap in knowledge by investigating the dynamics of the relationship between tourism and GDP in Madeira, a small-island autonomous region of Portugal. The analysis employs an asymmetric nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model, using data from 1976 to 2019. The results confirm unidirectional causality between tourism and GDP, thus corroborating the tourism-led growth hypothesis. The relationship is also found to be asymmetrical, where the retarding effect of falling tourism receipts is significantly stronger than the stimulus effect associated with increasing tourism receipts. Significant non-linear effects are also found in each adjustment pathway. In terms of policymaking, while this study confirms that investing in tourism can be an effective way of promoting economic growth, efforts should also be made to diversify both the tourism sector and the wider economy to reduce exposure to downside risks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Visitor Satisfaction at Attractions: A Study of Kakum National Park, Ghana<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Attractions are crucial in contributing to the overall satisfaction of visitors in tourism, and ensuring the satisfaction of visitors is key to the sustenance of attractions at destinations. Therefore, this study sought to ascertain the extent to which visitors are satisfied with the service dimensions at Kakum National Park (KNP), and to ascertain whether service dimensions vary with visitors’ socio-demographic characteristics. The study adopted a cross-sectional field survey and sampled 367 respondents for data collection using a questionnaire. Data were analysed via the mean scores and standard deviation. Independent t-tests and ANOVA were used to explore the difference between dimensions of satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics of visitors. The study found that some satisfaction dimensions at the KNP in the Central region of Ghana vary with certain socio-demographic characteristics of visitors, namely age, continent of origin and level of education, at p-value ≤ 0.05. Visitors were found to be satisfied with all measured dimensions except the price. The study therefore recommends that the management of the attractions adopt conscious service strategies to enrich the experience of visitors in order to ensure better value for their money. This study’s findings expand knowledge about visitor satisfaction and how satisfaction dimensions vary with socio-demographic characteristics at destinations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue mediating role of work engagement on the relationship between interpersonal adaptability and dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the mediating role of work engagement in the correlation between employees’ interpersonal adaptability and their ability to cope with uncertain and unpredictable work situations. Data were collected from 502 people working in the food and beverage departments of five-star hotels in Türkiye through a questionnaire. The features of the items of the constructs in the research model were tested by applying the SPSS/AMOS 22.0 software structural equation analysis package with the maximum likelihood (ML) method of estimating with a two-step approach. The results show that interpersonal adaptability has a positive impact on dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situations, and work engagement has a substantial effect. Moreover, interpersonal adaptability has a positive impact on work engagement. In the light of the findings obtained from this research, theoretical contributions and practical suggestions are presented to practitioners and researchers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue has been said about the reinvention of post-COVID tourism: A bibliometric analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between the COVID-19 impacts on tourism and the political approaches adopted to overcome the crisis in this sector. There has been a deep reflection on a new tourism paradigm, guided by an increasing commitment to sustainability and innovation, which was triggered by the COVID-19 outbreak. This perspective reinforces the role of decentralisation and autonomy of policies at the regional level. A network governance model emerges as a strategy to overcome this crisis. A bibliometric analysis (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ejthr-2023-0007_ref_045">Rafael &amp; Pires, 2021</xref>) was carried out using the SCOPUS and Web of Science (WOS) databases, from January 2020 to April 2021. The search criteria followed the assumptions of the non-probabilistic snow-ball sampling technique (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ejthr-2023-0007_ref_055">Vinuto, 2014</xref>). The results were processed in SPSS and VosViewer software. Four main dimensions were found that mediate the relationship between tourism and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, namely: (1) policies, enabling network governance and regional autonomy; (2) research, enhancing knowledge transfer and new teaching models; (3) economic collaborative approaches that support DMO's activities; and (4) network innovation that fosters positive change. Understanding the impacts of COVID-19 in tourism politics and strategies offers important guidelines to both private and public decision-makers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Destination Selection Process: Research on Generation Y Tourists<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to reveal the smart destination selection process of Generation Y tourists. In this context, data were collected from 228 tourists in Turkey. The fact that the research focuses on millennials, who use technology the most, makes this research different from other studies. In this way, the research offered more realistic results thanks to the people with high technology literacy. This research shows that consumers’ attitudes toward smart products significantly affected their travel intentions. At the same time, another remarkable result of the research is that behaviour related to smart products significantly affects travel intentions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Strategic Performance Measurement System and Organisational Performance Through the Lenses of Contextual Factors: Empirical Evidence from the Hotel Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The unprecedented effects of COVID-19 have been problematic for hotels. Therefore, implementing a performance measurement system (PMS) has become critical for hotel organisations. This study thus examined how the balanced scorecard (BSC) as a strategic PMS has a function in revealing hotel performance. Two contextual factors of hotels—external environmental uncertainty (EEU) and decentralised decision-making—were also investigated to understand their effects on the use of the BSC, which, in turn, determines hotel performance. A survey was conducted involving 145 four- and five-star hotels in Turkey. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses. It was found that EEU is significantly related to decentralised decision-making but not to the BSC. Meanwhile, the BSC does not have an indirect effect on the relationship between EEU and hotel performance; however, it was found to act as a mediator between the decentralisation of decision-making and hotel performance. Finally, decentralised decision-making was found to act as a mediator between EEU and the BSC.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue trajectory on tourism policy: a bibliometric overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many scholars from various countries have been enthused by the term ‘tourism policy’ since it first appeared in the Scopus database in 1976. However, comprehensive scientific information on tourism policy is still limited. This article aims to explore the bibliography of tourism policy studies. This article uses a bibliometric analysis approach, and applies VOSviewer to visualise bibliographic data. This article indicates that tourism policy studies are increasing yearly, in line with how countries are implementing many tourism policies as an alternative to national economic development. Furthermore, research on tourism policy has involved many authors from various institutions and countries. From 159 articles reviewed, six dominant clusters were obtained. This clustering can help other scholars to see the position of their studies alongside previous studies. The results of this article show that economic development, competitiveness, policy, and management strategy are of interest to academics on the tourism policy topic. Moreover, the sustainability issues (ecotourism) and international tourism have become two of the major subjects that could greatly influence the course of future tourism policy research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Academic Travels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this research is to reveal the impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak on the domestic and international travel activities of Turkish academicians for academic reasons and to get insights into academicians’ opinions about how this pandemic would affect academic studies by preventing travel and socialising. An email interview technique is used. Collected data were analysed by using MAXQDA Analytics Pro 2020. As a result of content analysis, 70% of the respondents declared that their academic travel plans were cancelled due to this pandemic. The study emphasised that virtual travels seem to increase accessibility and equality for many academicians, especially those with travel restrictions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and COVID-19 effects on RevPAR: The case of Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As Europe prepares itself for a new downturn, this paper proposes to examine the determinants of hotel Revenue per Available Room (RevPAR) through literature review, and contribute to improving hotels’ performance by understanding the weight of the occupancy rate and the Average Daily Rate (ADR) on RevPAR, after the pandemic. A quantitative methodology was used, collecting data from STR Share Center and Our World in Data, such as ADR, occupancy rate, RevPAR, and COVID-19 confirmed cases. Results show the overwhelming effect of COVID-19 on hotel performance, conducing to ADR, occupancy rate, and RevPAR decline, and highlighting a co-movement of these indicators during COVID-19. After the lifting of major COVID-19 restrictions, RevPAR had a greater influence from ADR in some European countries, but the occupancy rate should not be disregarded. The findings, however, suggest the absence of the revenge travel phenomenon. The relationship between the number of COVID-19 cases and the decrease in RevPAR is not statistically significant, implying the existence of other factors that probably also had impact. The different measures adopted by governments to contain the virus, and each country's dependency on tourism, led to different impacts on hotel performance. This study helps hoteliers to know how to measure performance and the RevPAR drivers that can improve it, taking into account the situations that differ by country, as well as variables that are not controllable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and the Portuguese accommodation sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>According to organisational theories, performance can be explained by threats and opportunities generated in the external environment and the interplay between the macro and the microenvironment. This logic holds for tourism companies. This study aims to analyse the impact of a macro-environmental factor, the COVID-19 pandemic, on the accommodation sector in Portugal, studying differences across regional destinations and industries. A descriptive approach was made using secondary data from INE (the Portuguese Statistics Institute) for 2019 and 2020. Three performance indicators were analysed: number of overnight stays, number of guests, and total income. Results suggest that the impact of COVID-19 was relatively higher in the regions of Lisbon and the Azores and on the industry of short-term rentals. The region of Alentejo and the industry of rural tourism/manor houses were the least affected. Implications are both theoretical and practical. Theoretically, this study highlights the interplay between the macro and the microenvironment, translating to future crises. For managers, our research also highlights specific characteristics of regional destinations and industries, which might have been a source of competitive advantage during the pandemic, translating into less unfavourable outcomes in this context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue does the economy affect a religious phenomenon? A panel approach to international pilgrimages to the Shrine of Fátima<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates the economic determinants of Catholic pilgrimages to the Shrine of Fatima using a panel data set with annual observations from 2008 to 2017 from 29 origin countries. The Panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag, using the estimator of <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ejthr-2023-0010_ref_020">Driscoll and Kraay (1998)</xref>, was employed to examine short- and long-run impacts. The results reveal that, in the short run, GDP <italic>per capita</italic>, the exchange rate and overall international departures positively impact the number of pilgrims. In the long run, international departures and GDP <italic>per capita</italic> cause positive impacts, while unemployment shows a negative impact. All effects are statistically significant. Besides shedding light on the relationship between economic determinants and religious phenomena, this paper is valuable to national and local policymakers, shrine managers and regional entrepreneurs. It is a tool for everyone who must be aware of the main determinants of the number of pilgrims, to plan joint measures that may generate more significant opportunities to attract pilgrims, crucial to supporting the local economy and in addition to being an important contribution to the economics of religion literature, indicating contemporary impacts on a religious phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in the accommodation realm and pandemic times: The resilient case of CleanBnB<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Crowdfunding campaigns have recently promoted a range of new business models in different contexts. This study investigates crowdfunding in the accommodation realm from a socio-cultural perspective and across its international dynamics. Drawing on complexity theory, the study explores the successful case of CleanBnb, the leading crowdfunded company in the Italian short-term rental market, and informs hospitality actors on the coping strategies implemented to challenge the Covid-19 pandemic. The study adopts a case study approach, combining primary data collected through an in-depth interview of the CEO and the analysis of secondary data from different company reports. The results highlight the importance of (1) business diversification, (2) grouping opportunities and (3) widening of service range as key factors in pandemic business survival for start-ups operating in the accommodation realm. The study finally discusses post-pandemic scenarios for both the traditional hotel industry and sharing economy operators by offering managerial insights.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sentiment analysis: An estimation of the trends in tourism after the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The novel coronavirus pandemic drastically impacted economies in 2020, including travel and tourism. The nationwide lockdown to curb infection has led people to use social media such as Twitter to express their opinions and share information on several issues. This paper focuses on sentiment analysis using Indian tourist Tweets during Covid-19 using Python and the maximum likelihood method to determine the parameters. The sentiment analysis yielded valuable insights into which sites will revive quickly; the analysis of the Tweets using sentiment analysis will help in predicting the revival of the tourism sector after the pandemic. The various algorithm scores will help in predicting the best ways to enhance the customer experience at various sites in the tourism sector. Further, the study will enable the tourism sector to design a revival strategy in the Covid-19 pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue